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Ashley R. Robbins Department of Teacher Education, Arkansas State University IMPLEMENTING EDUCATIONAL REFORMS THAT BENEFIT CHILDREN LIVING IN POVERTY.

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Presentation on theme: "Ashley R. Robbins Department of Teacher Education, Arkansas State University IMPLEMENTING EDUCATIONAL REFORMS THAT BENEFIT CHILDREN LIVING IN POVERTY."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Ashley R. Robbins Department of Teacher Education, Arkansas State University IMPLEMENTING EDUCATIONAL REFORMS THAT BENEFIT CHILDREN LIVING IN POVERTY

3 Speak up for those who cannot speak for themselves; ensure justice for those being crushed. Yes, speak up for the poor and helpless, and see that they get justice. –Proverbs 31:8-9

4  All children should receive a fair, appropriate education  Regardless of background or needs  Recent educational policies  No Child Left Behind  Common Core State Standards Initiative  Are they effective?  Call for appropriate policies and curricula  Must meet the needs of diverse learners INTRODUCTION

5 Presentation focus Educational policy and effects on children living in poverty FOCUS

6 Poverty is defined as “the state of living in a family with income below the federally defined poverty line” (Prince, Pepper, & Bracato, 2006). 2010: Approximately 46.2 million Americans living in poverty 1.3 million American children living in poverty EFFECTS OF POVERTY ON CHILDREN

7  Sickness  Poor Nutrition  Food insecurity  “Will there be enough food?”  Impoverished children affected:  50.5 percent of Hispanic children  36.1 percent of Non-Hispanic white children  34.8 percent of Non-Hispanic black children  Lead Poisoning EFFECTS OF POVERTY ON CHILDREN

8  Increased exposure to second-hand smoke  Increased exposure to indoor allergens  Mice  Mold  Cockroaches  Dust mites  Mental and emotional trauma  Greater incidence of:  Behavioral problems  Learning disabilities EFFECTS OF POVERTY ON CHILDREN

9  Effects of poverty extend into education  Children living in poverty described as “linguistically disadvantaged”  Poverty and reading achievement correlated  Possibly due to lack of enriching experiences  Results in lack of cultural/social capital  Needed for higher test scores EFFECTS OF POVERTY ON EDUCATION: LITERACY

10  Low SES background and vocabulary development  Verbal interactions  May be few  Few age-appropriate books available  Poor vocabulary makes learning to read difficult  Serious consequences  Poor literacy skills  Makes breaking poverty cycle difficult  Causes difficulties in other subject areas EFFECTS OF POVERTY ON EDUCATION: LITERACY

11  “Other variables affect low SES students’ learning and education, including home life, which has not been taken into account on a high-stakes test.” (Baker & Johnston, 2010)  Positive correlation between poverty and high-stakes test scores  Poverty typically equates with low scores  True for literacy scores as well  Disadvantaged Test-Takers  Tend to have less multicultural and academic exposure  Less at-home encouragement to pursue education  Decreased financial and academic support  Lack in preparatory early childhood educational experiences POVERTY AND LITERACY TESTING

12 No Child Left Behind (NCLB)  Improve achievement of low-achieving students in high-poverty schools  Improve schools  Improve learning  Performance standards  Provide educators and students with description of:  Knowledge to be learned  Skills to be performed  Both specified for:  Grade level (3 rd -8 th )  Content area Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI)  Created in response to continued problems in education  NCLB did not solve problems  States encouraged to create common standards  Promote:  Academic rigor  College and career readiness  Performance Standards  Designed so that students expand on the standards over a period of time  Generate deeper knowledge and understanding EDUCATIONAL POLICIES

13 No Child Left Behind (NCLB)  Assessments  Aligned to the performance standards  Students’ scores designed to serve as measures of teacher and school accountability Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI)  Curriculum Maps  Include assessments  Possibly authentic assessments  Possibly better suited to diverse learners EDUCATIONAL POLICIES, CONTINUED

14  NCLB not successful in meeting needs of impoverished children  CCSSI has potential  Also potential problems  Merit pay  Competitive grants  Room for growth  Still need for policies reflective of impoverished children’s needs EDUCATIONAL POLICIES, CONTINUED

15  Increased Funding for Expanding Preschool Availability  Specific Training for Pre-service Teachers  Assessments that Reflect the Educational Gains of Children Living in Poverty PROPOSALS FOR BENEFICIAL PRACTICES/INITIATIVES FOR CHILDREN LIVING IN POVERTY

16  High quality preschool programs beneficial for children from low SES backgrounds  Contribute to improvements in math and literacy  Reactive v. proactive education  Most funding for education centers on K-12 education  Seven times more money per capita devoted to K-12 education than to preschool education  Funding for programs needed  Resulting gains  Educational  Social  Emotional  Fiscal PRESCHOOL

17  “Little, if any instruction is provided to pre-service teachers regarding working with low-income students” (Bennett, 2008).  Most pre-service teachers  White  Middle-class  Female  Little or no exposure to low SES background  Training should include:  Exposure  Discussion/de-briefing  Creating specific lessons and materials TRAINING FOR PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS

18  Should show gains made by all children  Addresses issue of social/cultural capital  Should reflect the diverse population  CCSSI authentic assessments  Teacher-created assessments  Designed for current students  Daily, weekly, and yearly assessments  Stronger focus on the daily and weekly assessments  Help detect incremental gains made  Inform teachers of areas of student strength and weakness  Strong writing component/presence ASSESSMENTS

19  Poverty has pervasive effects on children  Including effects on education  Changes in educational policy must be made  Needs of diverse learners must be met  3 Suggestions for Improvement  Increased Funding for Expanding Preschool Availability  Specific Training for Pre-service Teachers  Assessments that Reflect the Educational Gains of Children Living in Poverty CONCLUSION

20  Baker, M., & Johnston, P. (2010). The impact of socioeconomic status on high stakes testing reexamined. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 37(3),  Bassok, D. (2010). Do black and Hispanic children benefit more from preschool? Understanding differences in preschool effects across racial groups. Child Development, 81(6),  Bennett, M. (2008). Understanding the students we teach: Poverty in the classroom. The Clearing House, 81(6),  Common Core Curriculum Maps. (2011). English language arts, second edition. Retrieved 10/31/11 from  Conley, D. (2011). Building on the common core. What Students Need to Learn, 68(6),  Cuthrell, K., Stapleton, J., & Ledford, C. (2010). Examining the culture of poverty: Promising practices. Preventing School Failure, 54(2), REFERENCES

21  Duncan, G., Ludwig, J., & Magnuson, K. (2007). Reducing poverty through preschool interventions. Future of Children,17(2),  Forte, E. (2010). Examining the assumptions underlying the NCLB federal accountability policy on school improvement. Educational Psychologist, 45(2),  National Commission on Excellence in Education (1983). A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from  Overturf, B. (October-November 2011). Kentucky leads the US in implementing common core standards. Reading Today, 29, REFERENCES

22  Prince, D., Pepper, K., & Brocato, K. (2006). The importance of making the well-being of children in poverty a priority. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(1),  Seith, D. & Kalof, C. ( July 2011). Who are America’s poor children? Examining health disparities by race and ethnicity. Retrieved October 31, 2011 from  Sinatra, R. (2008). Creating a culture of vocabulary acquisition for children living in poverty. Journal of Children and Poverty, 14(2),  Pictures taken from:  poverty-rate-and-what-you-can-do-to-fight-it/ poverty-rate-and-what-you-can-do-to-fight-it/  REFERENCES

23  United States Census Bureau (2011). Income, poverty, and health insurance in the United States: 2010-highlights. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from 010/highlights.html.  United States Department of Health and Human Services (2011). Annual update of the HHS poverty guidelines. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from  Wamba, N. (2010). Poverty and literacy: An introduction. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 26(2),  White House (2011). Fact sheet: The race to the top. Retrieved October 31, 2011 from office/fact-sheet-race-top. REFERENCES


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