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2 You must be the change you wish to see in the world.” Mohandas Gandhi.

3 School District Issues National and local, student and teacher changing demographics; Lack of minority teachers and increasing diversity; (recruitment ant retaining highly qualified teachers) Majority white teachers not trained to work with student diversity; Increase in ELL student population.

4 Introduction- U.S. Demographics- 1980-Present White population is expected to decrease from 80% in 1980 to 58% in 2025. Minority population is expected to increase from 20% in 1980 to 41% in 2025. 9 states are minority/majority populations. Teaching demographics has changed marginally. -2000, 85% were White; -2011/12, 84% were White; White female teachers are still the majority in U.S. public schools, (Banks, and McGee, 2012).

5 U.S. Demographics- 1980-Present

6 U.S. Student Demographics U. S. student demographics are rapidly changing. As of 2014, 50.3% of the nation’s k-12 population consisted of minority students. (National Center for Education Statistics, 2011)

7 School District Responses Diversity training- the What and Who; Curricular support- for example differentiated, and multicultural instruction; Increase in bilingual, dual language and foreign language programs; Continued emphasis on recruitment/retention programs; Full-day kindergarten and restructuring school calendars.


9 Recruitment Strategies- Tennessee (1993, 2005) Expanded recruitment efforts from regional to nationwide including recruitment from historically black colleges and universities, and attending job fairs; Offering qualified applicants all of their earned teaching experience and scholarships; Creating a Grow Your Own Program- to identify and encourage high school students to enter education programs; Establishing a committee of educators and community leaders to plan activities and strategies that assist in the recruitment of minorities; Identifying specific areas for retention include full-time mentoring, staff development and community orientation.

10 Why- US Immigration In 1965 the Immigration Reform Act abolished the ‘quota system” and literacy testing. As a result, increases in immigration came from Asia, Latin America, South America, the West Indies, Africa, Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean (Healy, 2012). 33% fewer European immigrants came between 1960-2010. Prior to 1960, most immigrants came from European countries and were assimilated into the White majority culture. From 2000-2010, half of the increase in population was Hispanic- 35.5 million to 50 million, Asian increased from 500,000 to 11 million and Latin America from 1 million to over 22 million.

11 Summary of Legislation Changes 1954- Brown versus the Board of Education legally ended the race segregation in an attempt to address the inequities in American Schools. 1964- Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibits employment discrimination. 1974- Lau vs. Nichols- Considered the most important legal case for bilingual education. San Francsco School district vs.1800 Chinese students. There is no equality of treatment merely by providing students with the same facilities, textbooks, teachers, and curriculum; for students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education. The same does not mean equal.

12 Legislative Changes 1981- Debra P. versus Turlington linked the minimum competency test with teaching and curriculum. 1991- Civil Rights Act instrumental in creating EEOC. 2002- Elementary and Secondary Education Act (NCLB)- expanded the federal’s role in education and required each state to create an accountability system to monitor achievement gaps within minority subgroups.

13 Minorities Entering the Teaching Profession Minorities are not entering the teaching profession because of: 1.Negative school experiences; 2.Cultural and community concerns; 3.Social and financial barriers; 4.Education competes against private sector financial incentives in specialized fields. Preferred majors by minority undergraduates: Education ranks third after science, engineering, and mathematics and business (Hussar and Bailey, 2013).

14 Gordon (2000) provides reasons why persons of color reject teaching; parental expectations; oppression of cultures of people of color; negative school background- unresponsive education system; lack of preparation of their former teachers for meeting specific needs of diverse cultural groups; diversity seen as a problem rather than an advantage; lack of inclusion of accurate historical/cultural information in the curriculum; high stress, low self-esteem due to prejudice; and little exposure to role models.

15 Barriers to diversity in teacher programs as outlined by Carballal, Kuhlman, Landis, Squires, Ferguson (2007): Attitude barriers that are cultural-based including the lack of encouragement to teach from family, community members and teachers; interest in teaching in schools is low in schools with a high percentage of color; lack of mentors and teacher role models; PPT professional exam and low grade point averages and ; teachers discouraging minority students from entering teaching.

16 Recruitment Pool

17 Minority Recruitment and the Interview Process Value-based instruments like the TPI used by administrators tend to hire those of similar beliefs and values. Commercial teacher selection instruments such as the TPI do not claim to measure effective teaching but instead identify teacher candidates who communicate the same professional values and dispositions as the “best” teachers. Correlation between TPI and the variables defined in teacher quality using a meta-analysis of 24 studies investigating the predictability validity of TPI scores. Teacher absenteeism and the administrator ratings correlated high with the TPI scores, (Metzger and Wu, 2008).

18 Minority Recruitment and the Interview Process However, the TPI scores did not necessarily identify the most effective teachers according to student gains and necessarily student achievement and outside evaluators. Rather an indicator of attendance and administrator evaluation. Finally, the majority of the interview teams are White and may not relate or communicate with those who are culturally different because they lack intercultural competency training (Kayes, 2006).

19 Teacher Diversity Requirements and Teacher Training Argarwal et al. (2010) concluded only 13 states have statewide standards and teacher program accreditation with a specific diversity requirements; only three states specified a diversity course in their standards. The Danielson Teacher Evaluation Framework (2013) indicates quality teaching includes 16 elements for communicating and teaching diverse students. The three areas that beginning teachers feel they need support, classroom management, the relationship between theory and practice and dealing with a diverse student population.

20 THE PROBLEM American public education is predominantly a White faculty who lack necessary intercultural training for a diverse student population. However, both White and minority teachers need intercultural skills to teach a multi-cultural student population. Ingersoll and May (2011) reported that minority teachers apply to minority schools because they desire to make a difference for minority students and they believe they would not fit in White Schools. Similarly, there is a lack of White teachers in minority schools because they do not believe they will fit into minority schools.

21 ISSUE School districts lack minority teachers and the predominately White teaching profession has not had intercultural training to adapt successfully to an increasing multi-cultural student population. Meanwhile, 21 st Century skills include understanding and effectively communicating with other cultures, (Illinois Learning Standards). Data from NCLB highlighted poor achievement scores among minority students (ERC, 2008). According to Dee, (2004) minority faculty had a direct, positive impact on minority student achievement scores. Gay (2010) believes that highly effective White teachers are culturally responsive to students’ diverse needs and has a positive impact on all student learning.

22 Understanding Cultural Differences Banks (2008) supports the most important aspect of successful White teachers is their ability to embrace cultural differences. Gacel-Avila (2005); Martin and Nakayama (2013); Tye and Tye (1992) teachers should be cultural competent. However, Gay (2002); Dee (2004); Hollins and Guzman (2005); Leeman and Ledoux (2003) suggests that teachers are not adequately prepared through pre-service or in- service training to respond to culturally diverse students.

23 “We need to think otherwise in order to act otherwise.” Giroux, 2011

24 Intercultural Competency-Defined Deardorff (2009) defines intercultural competency as a person’s ability to interact effectively and appropriately in cross-cultural situations based on intercultural attitudes, knowledge, comprehension and skills. Hammer (2012) defines intercultural competency as the capability to shift cultural perspective and appropriately adapt behavior to cultural differences and commonalities.

25 Developmental Model of Intercultural Communication The developmental model of intercultural communication believes relationships can develop through on-going interaction, and individuals progress from one developmental stage to another. Bennett’s (1986) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) outlines individuals can progress from ethnocentric behaviors- when an individual believes one’s own cultural is central to the universe and assumes one’s native culture reality is the whole world’s views (Bennett,1986) to ethnorelative behavior- that embraces cultural differences (Deardorff, 2009).

26 Intercultural Training Deardorff (2009) believes intercultural training begins with understanding one’s own cultural and developing self-awareness as it relates to beliefs, values and behaviors. Pettigrew (2008) identified three variables relevant to intercultural skill building: 1.New knowledge affects attitudes; 2.Anxiety reduction facilitates interactions; 3.Empathy with others affects understanding.

27 Transformative Learning Goes beyond general knowledge without questioning and is the process of experimental learning, critical self-reflection and rational discourse that challenges the learner’s basic assumptions of the world, (Brown, 2006). Analyses the required mechanisms for adults to identify, assess, and evaluate alternative and new sources of information and reframe their world views or belief systems. This is accomplished through mentoring, coaching, experiential and reflective learning.

28 A Global Landscape When my father and mother applied for a job… They competed with people in the city where they lived. When I applied for a job… I competed with people living in the country. When my children apply for a job… They compete against the world.

29 Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) and IDI. DMIS is comprised of three stages of ethnocentrism ( denial of difference, defense against difference and minimization of difference) and; three stages of ethnorelativism (acceptance of difference, adaptation of differences, and integration of differences) (Bennett, Hammer and Deardorff, 2009). Hammer et al. used the DMIS as the foundation of the Intercultural Developmental Inventory (IDI). IDI is a cross-cultural, valid, and reliable assessment of an individual’s or group’s core orientations towards cultural differences. The IDI is not tied to one individual cultural group but to individuals along the continuum.

30 IDI- Five Developmental Stages (Orientations) 1.Denial - individuals believe one’s own culture is the legitimate culture and finds cultural differences. 1.Polarization – individuals believe their own culture is superior and have an overly critical eye on other cultures, while having an uncritical eye towards one’s own culture. Reversal views different cultures as superior while viewing their own culture negatively. 1.Minimization is characterized by an overemphasis on cultural commonality and an under emphasis on cultural differences. The core assumption is that we are all the same and can understand each other each other once we get past superficial cultural differences. 1.Acceptance- individuals believe theirs is one of many cultures within the world and accepts other cultures. 1.Adaptation- individuals are capable of shifting cultural perspectives and changing behavior in culturally appropriate and authentic ways.

31 Significant Studies Using the IDI in Education Primary research has relied on student study abroad programs (SAP) including international schools an pre- service teachers. These studies have generally concluded have increased their intercultural competency if provided intentional intercultural pedagogy. Researchers who have studies teachers outside and within the U.S. have had limited findings with the majority of the teachers at the minimization stage.

32 The survey instrument is the Intercultural Developmental Inventory (IDI), which is used to measure intercultural competence. – The IDI has been found to be a reliable measure of intercultural development in initial and subsequent examinations. The IDI survey instrument has 50 questions with each question having a five point response scale. An example of an IDI question is as follows: “People are the same despite outward differences in appearance. “ IDI- INSTRUMENTATION- continued

33 IDI- INSTRUMENTATION Movement along the continuum begins with the more monocultural orientations of denial and polarization, through the transitional mindset of marginalization to the more intercultural mindsets of acceptance and adaptation (Hammer, 2011). IDI measures the individual and group cultural differences along a developmental continuum ranging in scores from 55-145 and has been revised to a computerized version. OrientationsDenial Defense/Reverse/ Polarization MinimizationAcceptance Adaptation/ Integration ScaleEthnocentrismTransitionalEthnorelativism Score55-69.970-84.9985-114.9115-129.9130-145

34 IDI- INSTRUMENTATION- continued The IDI profile identifies the developmental/actual orientation score and the perceived orientation scores. The perceived scores reflects where an individual believes they are along on the intercultural developmental continuum. The IDI meets standard scientific criteria for a valid psychometric instrument (Yuen, 2010).

35 One District’s Answer Palatine School District’ is a k-8 school district of 12,500 students 30 minutes northwest of Chicago. Baldridge Award Winner for Excellence- 1 of 15 school districts in the nation. Student demographics have changed considerably in the last ten years from predominately White student population to 44.0%, White, 34.2 % Hispanic, 3.3 % Black, and 15.6 % Asian (Fall 2013/2014 Housing Demographics). Meanwhile the teacher demographics for 2013/14 were: 89.5% White, 7.4 % Hispanic,.46 % Black, and 1.94 % Asian and.7 % unreported (Illinois School Report Card).

36 One District’s Answer Administered the IDI and provided intercultural training to their administrators and new teachers. Training program includes self-awareness of cultural understanding through experiential learning, such as a case studies; development of intercommunication skills and intercultural conflict.

37 One District’s Answer The teacher training program includes up to 36 hours of training, individual intercultural profile scores, individual intercultural plans, mentoring and 5 hours of service in the community. Palatine School District #15 has created six modules for new teachers in the 1 st year of their employment. Comments from the new teachers is they want more information and the District is developing summer programs.


39 Examples of training What is your story? What is your culture and how do you define it? Understanding transformative learning.- (the theory behind the training model)

40 Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie Novelist The Danger of a Single Story “The single story creates stereotypes, and the problem with stereotypes is not that they are untrue, but that they are incomplete. They make one story become the only story.”

41 What is meant by these different terms Diversity? Is the Who… Inclusion? Is the What…. Intercultural competency? Is the HOW

42 Intercultural competency The capability to shift cultural perspective and adapt—or bridge-- behavior to cultural commonality & difference. Deep cultural self-awareness; Deep understanding of the experiences of people from different cultural communities—in perceptions, values, beliefs, behavior and practices Behavioral shifting across various cultural differences


44 New Teacher Testimonials’ “This program should be mandatory for all teachers; This program changed my life; and the the way I think about myself and others, it has opened my eyes to appreciating others and not making assumptions.” Other teachers (mentors, bilingual and ESl teachers) have requested the training

45 Education is the fundamental key for social reform, (Fullan, 2001).

46 Questions For more information contact: Darlene von Behren 224-213-8331 or 630-470-9772 Email address: or


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