Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9-Policy Instruments and Cost Effectiveness Dr. Dan Bertrand LEEA 544."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 9-Policy Instruments and Cost Effectiveness Dr. Dan Bertrand LEEA 544
Lowi’s Techniques of Control Distributive- bestow’s gifts in the form of goods, services or priveleges. ◦ Subsidy-money for roads; contracts-privatization; non-regulatory licenses- hunting; distributive policies- F/R lunch Regulatory- formalized rules applied to large groups of people. ◦ Regularly licensing- meeting specific requirement to be able to legally practice; longer school year; Redistributive- Shifts resources (economic & power) of power from one social group to another. ◦ Most effective to introduce changes gradually and to avoid too many that effect the same people. ◦ Social Security, desegregation, privatization, ◦ Controversial and conflict usually involve large organizations.
McDonnell & Elmore’s Policy Instruments Mandates-rules that govern actions Inducements- a transfer of money with instruction on how it is to be used for production of goods or services. Capacity Building- transferring money for investment purposes in material, intellectual or human resources. System Changes- transfers official authority among individuals and groups.
Overlap of Lowi’s Categories School lunch program is distributive but are also regulatory due to the rules of lunch content. Free/Reduced lunch redistributes public money
Using Lowi’s Categories Lowi’s basic policy types provide a way to anticipate the political environment that develops around a policy.
Examples 1) Requiring teachers to submit lesson plans to their principal. 2) Using a large reserve fund to repair buildings. 3) Adopting a uniform dress code for students. 4) Reducing class size to 15 in K-3. 5) Implementing a pay to play policy for sports. 6) Applying for a grant to support dropout prevention. 7) Applying for federal funds for a preschool program. 8) Providing a day of release time each yr. for teachers to attend a technology workshop. 9)Moving to an intradistrict open enrollment plan. 10) Requiring more frequent evaluations of teachers whose students have low state test scores. P. 246
Strategies Distributive- little conflict, inform legislators of how the policy effects your district, suggest ways to amend it. Regulatory- competitive but pragmatic political arena, identify competitors and their positions, develop coalitions, talk to your organizations lobbyist. Redistributive- identify who may join you, form an ad hoc umbrella organization, requires long term persistence.
McDonnell & Elmore’s Policy Instruments Four alternative policy mechanisms that translate into substantive policy goals into concrete actions. ◦ Mandates, inducements, capacity building and system changing, horatory or persuasian. Used when new behavior is needed but current staff and organization are unresponsive to demands and changes ◦ Horatory or Persuasian- certain goals or actions are a high priority by government. Recycling campaigns NCLB
Cost Analysis Cost- anything you have to give up to obtain the benefit. Tangible Cost – can be quantified ◦ Higher test scores Intangible Cost- can’t be quantified ◦ Teacher burnout rate, low student morale Cost Analysis Steps ◦ Identify the true policy objective ◦ Determine how effective the alternatives will be measured.
Conclusion School leaders must reflect before acting. Use one of the three types of analysis ◦ Lowi’s Technique of Control ◦ McDonnell & Elmore’s Policy Instrument ◦ Analysis of Cost and Effectiveness