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Chapter 9-Policy Instruments and Cost Effectiveness

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1 Chapter 9-Policy Instruments and Cost Effectiveness
Dr. Dan Bertrand LEEA 544

2 Lowi’s Techniques of Control
Distributive- bestow’s gifts in the form of goods, services or priveleges. Subsidy-money for roads; contracts-privatization; non-regulatory licenses- hunting; distributive policies- F/R lunch Regulatory- formalized rules applied to large groups of people. Regularly licensing- meeting specific requirement to be able to legally practice; longer school year; Redistributive- Shifts resources (economic & power) of power from one social group to another. Most effective to introduce changes gradually and to avoid too many that effect the same people. Social Security, desegregation, privatization, Controversial and conflict usually involve large organizations.

3 McDonnell & Elmore’s Policy Instruments
Mandates-rules that govern actions Inducements- a transfer of money with instruction on how it is to be used for production of goods or services. Capacity Building- transferring money for investment purposes in material, intellectual or human resources. System Changes- transfers official authority among individuals and groups.

4 Overlap of Lowi’s Categories
School lunch program is distributive but are also regulatory due to the rules of lunch content. Free/Reduced lunch redistributes public money

5 Using Lowi’s Categories
Lowi’s basic policy types provide a way to anticipate the political environment that develops around a policy.

6 Examples 1) Requiring teachers to submit lesson plans to their principal. 2) Using a large reserve fund to repair buildings. 3) Adopting a uniform dress code for students. 4) Reducing class size to 15 in K-3. 5) Implementing a pay to play policy for sports. 6) Applying for a grant to support dropout prevention. 7) Applying for federal funds for a preschool program. 8) Providing a day of release time each yr. for teachers to attend a technology workshop. 9)Moving to an intradistrict open enrollment plan. 10) Requiring more frequent evaluations of teachers whose students have low state test scores. P. 246

7 Strategies Distributive- little conflict, inform legislators of how the policy effects your district, suggest ways to amend it. Regulatory- competitive but pragmatic political arena, identify competitors and their positions, develop coalitions, talk to your organizations lobbyist. Redistributive- identify who may join you, form an ad hoc umbrella organization, requires long term persistence.

8 McDonnell & Elmore’s Policy Instruments
Four alternative policy mechanisms that translate into substantive policy goals into concrete actions. Mandates, inducements, capacity building and system changing, horatory or persuasian. Used when new behavior is needed but current staff and organization are unresponsive to demands and changes Horatory or Persuasian- certain goals or actions are a high priority by government. Recycling campaigns NCLB

9 Table 9.1 –p. 250

10 Cost Analysis Cost- anything you have to give up to obtain the benefit. Tangible Cost – can be quantified Higher test scores Intangible Cost- can’t be quantified Teacher burnout rate, low student morale Cost Analysis Steps Identify the true policy objective Determine how effective the alternatives will be measured.

11 Conclusion School leaders must reflect before acting.
Use one of the three types of analysis Lowi’s Technique of Control McDonnell & Elmore’s Policy Instrument Analysis of Cost and Effectiveness

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