Presentation on theme: "● English Language Learners James Killingsworth David Springer Susan West."— Presentation transcript:
● English Language Learners James Killingsworth David Springer Susan West
● ELL Instruction Today ● Goals – Know the Law relating to ELL student – Understand the extent of diversity in ELL – Understand the necessity of ELL Programs – Be aware of instructional tools and methods for ELL – Be knowledgeable regarding ELL professional development
ELL Law For many years ELLs have been the focus for educational policies written at all levels of government. The latest of these is The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001(NCLB).
NCLB As defined by Francis, D., Rivera, M., Lease, N., Kieffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006), “the fundamental principles of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 focus on high standards of learning and instruction with the goal of increasing academic achievement—primarily reading and math —within all identified subgroups in the K-12 population.” One of these subgroups is the rapidly growing population of English Language Learners.
NCLB The purpose of the Title III portion of NCLB is to provide assistance for students who have limited English to become English proficient. States are held accountable for meeting three Annual Measurable Objectives (AMAOS), which is measured by state designed tests.
● Four Major Language Groups identified by the US Census ● Spanish includes Spanish, Spanish Creole, and Ladino. ● Other Indo-European languages include most languages of Europe and the Indic languages of India. These include the Germanic languages, such as German, Yiddish, and Dutch; the Scandinavian languages, such as Swedish and Norwegian; the Romance languages, such as French, Italian, and Portuguese; the Slavic languages, such as Russian, Polish, and Serbo-Croatian; the Indic languages, such as Hindi, Gujarati, Punjabi, and Urdu; Celtic languages; Greek; Baltic languages; and Iranian languages.
● Four Major Language Groups identified by the US Census ● Asian and Pacific Island languages include Chinese; Korean; Japanese; Vietnamese; Hmong; Khmer; Lao; Thai; Tagalog or Pilipino; the Dravidian languages of India, such as Telugu, Tamil, and Malayalam; and other languages of Asia and the Pacific, including the Philippine, Polynesian, and Micronesian languages. ● All Other languages include Uralic languages, such as Hungarian; the Semitic languages, such as Arabic and Hebrew; languages of Africa; native North American language; the American Indian and Alaska native languages; and indigenous languages of Central and South America
● U.S. Households where English is not the primary language Of the not using English at home, 16.3% said that they could not speak English very well and 8.1% reported that they could not speak English at all. The numbers of non English speakers is even greater as this group is usually under reported on census numbers because of social and legal fears. (U.S. Census Bureau, 2007)
● Languages in the US ● The are 337 languages being used in the U.S. today. ● There are 7 different recognized dialects of the Chinese language. ● There are 7 dialects of the Spanish language in Argentina alone. (Grimes, 2000)
● Overrepresentation of ELL students in Special Education
● ELL Students & Special Education ● As is the case with all racial and ethnic minorities, ELL students have been disproportionately higher numbers of students placed into special education programs. ● When looking at the total student population, 12% are in special education but when looking at only ELL students that number jumps to 22%. (Donovan and Cross, 2002)
● Cultural Reasons ● Behaviors seen as normal in other cultures may be seen as extreme in this culture. ● Educational norms vary by cultures. Ex. Some culture emphasize rote memorization instead of higher order thinking, this can be misinterpreted as a problem with comprehension. Asian children are taught that direct eye contact is a display of rudeness. This is often seen as a sign of autistic disorders.
● Developing Language Timelines ● Students typically need 4 to 7 years of instruction in order to reach English proficiency. (Macswan & Pray, 2002) ● Due to NCLB and standardized testing, most schools try to accomplish this in 1~2 years. ● This difference results in referrals because teacher do not see “enough” progress. A teacher frequent attempts to rush the learning process may lead to student stress and frustration. This causes a stagnation of learning possible referrals.
● Test Bias ● Test in the referral process may not be in the appropriate language. ● Tests may be culturally biased due to being normed with English speaking students. ● Interpreters often do not convey the precise language needed for accurate assessments, The large number of dialects within a given language may lead to bias due to misinterpretation.
● Flowchart to determine if a referral is appropriate. ● 1. Is the student experiencing difficulty as a result of untreated health issues? 2. Is the student receiving appropriate ESL services? 3. Has the curriculum proven effective for ELL students? 4. Have the identified concerns been documented by mainstream, content, and ELL teachers, and parents? 5. Have the concerns been addressed by analyzing teacher, student, and curriculum systematically? 6. Have interventions been appropriately utilized? 7. Does the difficulty persist? If the answer to number 7 is yes, a referral to special education is appropriate. (Dowling, 2008)
● ELL Technologies ● Traditional – This includes older traditional technologies such as TV’s, audiotapes, language masters and videotapes. ● Emerging – newer technologies such as computer/software and multimedia programs.
● Traditional Technologies ● Most schools already have equipment in place hence lower up front costs. ● Not as flexible as newer methods. ● Components are not easily replaced.
● Emerging Technologies ● Higher initial cost ● Flexible with modules for most languages ● Students are excited to use newer technologies. ● New advances occur practically every day.
English Emersion The instructor delivers all content material in simplified English in each subject area in an effort for students to learn the language and the academic material being presented. This method is sometimes referred to as sink or swim. (Maxwell, 2012)
English as a Second Language This method is much like emersion with the exception of the student may receive some assistance from someone speaking their native language. (Maxwell, 2012)
Transitional Bilingual Education This practice allows for instruction to be in the students’ native tongue, but the student is required to spend a certain amount of time each day learning English.
Two-way Bilingual Education This method is sometimes called dual-emersion or dual-language. In this practice, there are two teachers, usually in the same room, presenting material in two languages in an effort for students to become proficient in both languages. (Maxwell, 2012)
The best practices in literacy and language development in all content areas involves consistent implementation of research-based models such as SIOP (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol). The SIOP Model is an instructional framework for organizing classroom instruction in meaningful and effective ways. I t is a model of sheltered instruction for all content areas of k -12 classrooms where lesson are taught in English. All students experience academic achievement when implementing the 8 components of SIOP. (Dahlman 2005) SIOP
8 components involved with SIOP ● Preparation ● Building background ● Comprehensible Input ● Strategies ● Interactions ● Lesson Delivery ● Practice / Application ● Review and Assessment (Echevarria & Vogt, 2010).
Preparation The features under lesson preparation examine the lesson planning process, including the incorporation of language and content objectives linked to curriculum standards. In this way, students gain important experience with key grade-level content and skills as they progress toward fluency in the second language. Other features include the use of supplementary materials and meaningful activitie s.
Building Background Teachers should build backgrounds by making connections to prior experiences and teaching the most important vocabulary.
Strategies to build background ● KWL -Student charts what they KNOW, what they WANT to know, and what they LEARNED ● Using symbols in reading- ? (I need help), + (something new I learned), check mark (I understand this) ● Make text–to–self connections (prior knowledge) ● Make text-to-text connections
Strategies continued ● Teach vocabulary ● *provide definition and color code important words. ● *word walls ● *use words often in class ● *word webs ● *concept maps ● *draw a picture
Comprehensible Input Teachers should make assignments clear by using vocabulary students understand.
Strategies for comprehensive input ● Total Physical Response – hand gestures, facial expressions, whole body movement ● Synonyms / Antonyms ● Video / picture resources ● Read along audio files
Student Strategies Teach students specific strategies they can use to that increase comprehension. Questions in a can Venn Diagram Split page note taking-before reading, students write who, what, when and where, and why on left side of page and answer during or after on the right side during or after reading.
Interactions Student-to-teacher and student-to-student interactions can increase learning through the following: Sufficient wait time Group Consensus Find your partner
Lesson Delivery Make sure lesson delivery contains both content standard and language standard. Teachers should pace lessons to accommodate the learner and keep them engaged at least 90% of the time.
Practice / Application ELs need hands-on-materials, opportunities to practice, and apply concepts learned. Bingo Graphic Organizers Review games Power Points Interactive Activities
Review and Assessment A comprehensive and deliberate review of vocabulary, key content, area concepts, and language standards will enable EL students to demonstrate mastery. ● Table group discussions ● Simultaneous round table ● Check my work- teacher writes facts(correct and incorrect information) for students to check
Cooperative Learning Cooperative activities give students opportunities to discuss the content and to use the language of the school in a safe environment. Many English learners feel more comfortable and likely to speak in small cooperative groups made up of classmates. In these classrooms, teachers plan for students to work in small groups to help one another learn. (Calderon, Slavin & Sanchez 2011)
● ELL TEACHERS Improving professional Development
● PD Necessity ● If ELL educators are to provide effective instruction to the population while keeping pace with a growing list of demands, then support for these teachers and professional development must be a top priority. (Ardila- Rey, 2008) ● Additional challenges ● Playing catch-up
● Standards 1. Language – acquisition & development 2. Culture – as it affects ELLs 3. Planning – of content instruction 4. Assessment – of language proficiency 5. Professionalism – professional development, partnerships, & advocacy (TESOL, 2009)
● Academic Language Academic language 1. No context 2. Rarely used 3. Acquired in 5-7 years Conversational language 1. Context & verbal cues 2. Used often 3. Acquired in 1-2 years (Cummins, 1986)
● Immersion The greatest improvement is made by educators who combine content and language objectives in all lessons. (Reeves, 2007)
● Coaches Coaches offer support, feedback, and individualized professional learning that has been shown to improve instruction in schools. (Reeves, 2007)
References Ardila-Rey, A. (2008). Language, culture, policy, and standards in teacher preparation: Lessons from research and model practices addressing the needs of CDL children and their teachers. In M. E. Brisk (Ed.), Language, culture, and community in teacher education. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group Calderon, M., Slavin, R., & Sanchez, M. (2011, February). Effective Instruction for English Learners. futureofchildren.org. Retrieved July 2012, from http://futureofchildren.org Cummings, J. (1986). Empowering minority students: A framework for intervention. Harvard Education Review, 56(1), 18-36 Dahlman, H. (2005). These Students Don't Speak English-Now What?. Momentum -Washington, D.C., 36(4), 21-24. Donovan, M. S., and C. T. Cross. (2002)Minority students in special and gifted education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Dowling, E. (2008, December 23). English Language Learners and Special Education Issues. ESL Resource Center. Retrieved July 2012, from http://www.planesllessons.com
Echevarria, J., & Vogt, M. (2010). Using the SlOP Model to improve literacy for English learners. New England Reading Association Journal, 46(1), 8-15. Grimes, Barbara F. (Ed.). (2000). Ethnologue: Languages of the world, (14th ed.). Dallas, TX Maxwell, L. A. (2012, March 23). Momentum Builds for Dual-Language Learning. Education Week. Retrieved July 2012, from http://www.edweek.org Pray, L. C. & MacSwan, J. (2002). Different question, same answer: How long does it take for English learners to attain proficiency? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. Reeves, D. B. (2007). Leading to change: Coaching myths and realities. Educational Leadership, 5(2), 89-90 Teachers of English to Speakers of other Languages (TESOL). (2009). Standards for the recognition of initial TESOL programs in P-12 ESL teacher education. Alexandria, VA: Author. U.S. Census Bureau. Language Use in the United States: 2007. (2010) Washington DC: Government Printing Office. Donovan, M. S., and C. T. Cross. Minority students in special and gifted education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002.