Presentation on theme: "Module 1 TED 356 Curriculum in Sec. Ed.. Module 1 History of secondary education. Purpose of secondary education. School district (and teacher) accountability."— Presentation transcript:
Module 1 History of secondary education. Purpose of secondary education. School district (and teacher) accountability. Explain the background and the evolving purposes of secondary education.
Reading Read the following in the Duplass textbook: –Topic 1: “The Teaching Profession and Craft” –Topic 2: “Challenges for a New Teacher”
History of High Schools How new is the high school? When were the first public schools and HS developed? When was compulsory public education created? Why? When were racial barriers broken in public education? When was gender discrimination broken in public education? Discussion
High Schools Are a Relatively New Development The Boston Latin School, which is still operating, is the oldest high school in America (1635). Dedham, Massachusetts established the first public school (1643). Benjamin Franklin’s American Academy (1751) changed the nature of high school (to reflect the need for preparation in the trades). Lockport, NY claims to have established the first public high school (1848).
Compulsory School Laws When? –In 1642 by the Massachusetts Bay Colony. –Parents mandated to provide: An understanding of the principles of religion. Provide instruction in reading, writing, and a trade. Why? –Driven by the need to understand: Religious principles. Moral concepts. Information to be good citizens. Note: Attendance was not compulsory.
Compulsory School Laws After the American Revolution, new reasons for interest in an educated citizenry appeared: –Democratic ideals. –Religious tolerance. –Integration of immigrants into society.
Compulsory Attendance The Massachusetts School Attendance Act of 1852 specified that children between the ages of eight and fourteen had to attend school for twelve weeks per year. By 1918, every state in the union had laws on the books compelling education.
Horace Mann Who was Horace Mann (1796-1859)? –Head (1837) of the newly created board of education of Massachusetts. –The “father of American public education.” –Educational reformer and Abolitionist.
Horace Mann Reforms of Horace Mann: –Established a single state school system. –Urged separate classrooms for students at different levels of learning. –Discouraged learning by rote and flogging. –Worked for more and better equipped school houses, longer school years (until 16 years old), higher pay for teachers, and a wider curriculum. –Part of decision to adopt the Prussian education system in Massachusetts (1852).
Prussian System The Prussian education system was a system of mandatory education dating to the early 19th century. –Compulsory attendance. –National training for teachers. –National testing for all students (used to classify children for potential job training). –National curriculum set for each grade. –Mandatory kindergarten. Education was now viewed as a responsibility of the state (government).
Minorities While education was compulsory in the US since WWI, minorities were not welcome in many schools. –Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) ordered that racial segregation is constitutional. Schools could “be separate and equal.” –Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) ordered that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” State laws that establish separate public schools for races denied African American children equal educational opportunities. Paved way for integration and the Civil Rights Movement.
Women Women were not welcome in all school activities. –Title IX of the Education Amendments (1972) declared that “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” –Today in the US, most college students and even most graduate students in many disciplines are women.
Students with Disabilities In 1975, kids with disabilities broke the barrier with the Education of the Handicapped Act (P.L. 94-142). Misericordia University started one of the first college level programs for students with disabilities in 1979. Curry College started three years earlier, and thus was the first in the nation.
Students and Diversity In 2003, the Harvey Milk High School opened in NYC, the first high school specifically for GLBTQ. –Originally founded to be a safe space for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) young people.
Review: History of Secondary Ed. First public school (1635) First public high school (1848) Prussian education model in US (1852) by Horace Mann Early compulsory educ. started in MA (1642). Laws in all states (1918). Education welcomes: –Minorities: 1954 –Women: 1972 –Disabilities: 1975 –Diversity: 2003
Purpose of Secondary Education What is the purpose of high school? –To prepare kids for college? –To prepare kids for jobs? –To prepare kids for jobs that do not require college? –Or for what purpose? Discussion
If high school has a purpose, it is to prepare kids for what comes next. This raises the issue of futures. Should high schools focus on preparing all kids for college, which seems to be the trend? The report cites research done by the US Department of Labor which found that most jobs (60%) do not require college, so preparing 100% of the kids for 40% of the available jobs seems silly. Certainly, everyone wants the best job possible, but as a society, shouldn’t we prepare our next generation for the realities of our society? Ready for what? Preparing Students for College, Careers, and Life After High School, a special report of Education Week (June 12, 2007)
USDL Job Zones US Department of Labor categorizes jobs into five “zones” (levels): Zone 1 –Includes jobs like counter clerks that pay an average of $12,638 and require high school or less. –12.5% of all jobs in PA; 13.1% in the US.
USDL Job Zones Zone 2 –Includes jobs in the trades that pay an average of $24,461 and require high school. –35.8% of all jobs in PA; 34.4% in the US. Zone 3 –Includes jobs like sheet metal workers (sophisticated trades) that pay an average of $35,672 and require high school and some CTE (career and technical education). –30.9% of all jobs in PA; 31.5% in the US.
USDL Job Zones Zone 4 –Includes jobs like teachers that pay an average of $50,552 and require college. –13.6% of all jobs in PA; 14.1% in the US. Zone 5 –Includes jobs like psychologists that pay an average of $59,119 and require college and more. –7.2% of all jobs in PA; 6.8% in the US.
USDL Job Zones High school High school + CTE High school + College
USDL Job Zones High school High school + CTE High school + College
Review: Purpose of Secondary Ed. So what should be the purpose of secondary education? –Recheck your standards. Do they seem to be oriented toward college prep? Do they respect CTE (career and technical education)? Discussion
Have High Schools Changed Much? (Accountability) It has been claimed that current high schools, with their one-size-fits-all test- based curricula and spray ‘n pray delivery systems… –Do a great job preparing students to enter the world of the 1950s. –High schools have not changed much since WWII, and that, as a result, high schools have become obsolete.
Compulsory Public Schooling Was/Is Not Universally Supported There are many reasons that compulsory public schooling is not universally supported, one of which might be that public education, especially at the high school level, is very expensive -- and many people believe that we don’t get our money’s worth. In Pierce v. Society of Sisters, Catholics argued that the state could not compel their students to attend public schools -- and it is not universally supported now.
Schools “Under Fire” Gilbert K. Chesterton was not supportive of compulsory public education. He noted that the purpose was to “deprive the common people of their commonsense.” According to conservative Rush Limbaugh: “No public schools --- give everyone a fixed amount per child that can only be spent on education and then let the market dictate which schools win and which go under.” Then Now
NCLB and Accountability Public schools, especially high schools, are “under the gun.” NCLB’s testing requirements are the government’s tool to embarrass schools into doing better by calling the public’s attention to our failings.
NCLB and Accountability 22 states now require an exit exam for a high school diploma, including NY, NJ, and MD, but not (yet) PA. What might be the effect of an exit exam (whose scores are published) on the curriculum and instruction in a high school? As implemented, has NCLB undermined the ability of schools to prepare kids for anything but taking routine tests?
NCLB and Accountability Example According to Good Schools Pennsylvania (GSP), our local Dallas Area SD spends $8269 per student (the state average is $9352). Dallas probably spends lots more on secondary than it does on elementary.
NCLB and Accountability Example According to GSP: 44% of eleventh graders in DASD (2004-06) scored below proficiency on the PSSA reading test and 19.8% in math. DASD Web site: 63% of its eleventh graders were proficient in reading, 71% in math, and 99% in writing. Met all three of the AYP targets for 2005-06 (i.e., graduation rates 93.8%, academic performance, and test participation). Negative view More positive and realistic
What do you think? Is Dallas Area HS a good school? Would you want to teach there? Would you want to live in Dallas? –If so, would you support tax increases to improve the schools? –Would you want to have your kids attend there? Discussion
NCLB and Accountability District Closed Not all districts are like Dallas. Last summer the state, after trying since 2000 to turn it around, took steps to dissolve the Dusquene (PA) School District, thus displacing its 100 HS students and furloughing its teachers. Buried in NCLB is a call for exactly this type of action. What would you feel like if your district was zapped out of existence? Is this fair?
Accountability in PA In PA, school improvement is based on: –Chapter 4 standards found in the Pennsylvania School Code. –Federal requirements of No Child Left Behind (NCLB). –Pennsylvania Accountability System. Measured according to AYP (adequate yearly progress) targets.
PSSA In 1999, PA adopted academic standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Mathematics. –These standards identify what a student should know and be able to do at varying grade levels. –School districts possess the freedom to design curriculum and instruction to ensure that students meet or exceed the standards' expectations.
PSSA The annual Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) is a standards based criterion-referenced assessment used to: –Measure a student's attainment of the academic standards. –Determine the degree to which school programs enable students to attain proficiency of the standards. Reading and math: grades 3 - 8 and grade 11. Writing: grades 5, 8, and 11.
PSSA PA school districts are judged almost solely based on PSSA results. –Is it true that rich districts do better than poor? –Do the state’s tests really measure what is important? –If Dallas improved its scores by teaching to the test: Would it become a better district? Would its graduates be better prepared for life? Would it get more support? Shouldn’t we instead focus on a “growth model” that measures starting (levels at entry) and ending points (levels at exit)?
PSSA and Teachers With this increased accountability, teachers are “on the line” in terms of employment if their students do not “make the grade” in the PSSA.
Graduation Rates Using a freshman to graduation tracking system (which many districts do not use because it makes them look ineffective), our nation’s schools should have graduated 2.87 million high school grads this June; however, 1.23 million high school freshmen did not make it until graduation. Is that good enough?
Graduation Rates PA’s graduation rate was 78.2%; the nation’s was 69.9%. Texas and Florida were among the lowest. Dallas, Texas, which supposedly was part of President Bush’s much-touted “miracle” had a 44% graduate rate. Detroit had the lowest graduation rate: 24.9%.
Graduation Rates Does the fact that Detroit (and Cleveland, Baltimore, Philly, etc) is a very high poverty area suggest anything? Can schools really provide success in communities characterized by chaos and failure? If we really wanted to help the schools, wouldn’t we try to curb poverty? Discussion
Review: Accountability Public school effectiveness and efficiency is under public scrutiny. NCLB makes schools accountable. PSSA results impact school funding and teacher employment.
Review: MODULE 1 History of secondary education. –Secondary education is relatively new. Purpose of secondary education. –Conflicting purposes: college prep vs. career prep. School district (and teacher) accountability. –NCLB holds schools and teachers responsible for student learning.