Presentation on theme: "SLPs and Common Core Standards: Creating Linkage for Student Success"— Presentation transcript:
1SLPs and Common Core Standards: Creating Linkage for Student Success Beth NishidaDirector of Special EducationHacienda La Puente USD
2Outline of Today’s Topics Linking CCSS to the Work of School-Based SLPsLinking to a National PerspectiveLinking to AssessmentLinking IEPs, Goals and Service Delivery via CCSS to the Roles and Responsibilities of SLPs
3Linking CCSS to the Work of School-Based SLPs Foundation of CCSSHistorical PerspectiveCurrent Educational Environment and ReformsBig Shifts in Instructional ApproachesPlans for Students with DisabilitiesUniversal Design for Learning (UDL)English Language Arts (ELA) and MathListening and Speaking Standards
4Education Reform Movements: Foundation for CCSS 1983 – A Nation At RiskWave One Reform – Top Down InitiativesWave Two Reform – Bottom Up InitiativesWave Three Reform – Including Special Populations; Standards Based reformsLegislative RequirementsIDEA 1997NCLB 2001IDEA 2004Common Core State Standards
5CCSSRecognizing the value and need for consistent learning goals across states, in 2009 the state school chiefs and governors that comprise CCSSO and the NGA Center coordinated a state-led effort to develop the Common Core State Standards. Designed through collaboration among teachers, school chiefs, administrators, and other experts, the standards provide a clear and consistent framework for educators.
6CCSS The standards are: Research- and evidence-based Clear, understandable, and consistentAligned with college and career expectationsBased on rigorous content and application of knowledge through higher-order thinking skillsBuilt upon the strengths and lessons of current state standardsInformed by other top performing countries in order to prepare all students for success in our global economy and society
7Begin with the End in Mind: Educational Environment in 2014 Schools are still experiencing tight budgets, even as the economy recoversExpectations and accountability continue to increaseProspects of reauthorization for ESEA/NCLB and IDEA are forestalledValue-Added ExpectationsCommon Core State Standards move forward
8Schools: The Context of Our Services Accountability continuesIDEA and ESEANeed for 21st Century Skills for our learnersDeveloping a Global CitizenryReduced resources to address enormous (and growing) demandsLitigationAnd……. For SLPs and Audiologists…..
9Speech and Hearing Professionals: The Context of Our Profession Demands for our services increasing, even as we face widespread shortagesSLPs have a key and important role and opportunity to guide the response to the challenges presented to our schoolsExpertise in language, medical issues, autism, social skills development and organizational behavior that is NEEDED by our schoolsWe are at a critical crossroad in terms of how we define our contribution
10Despite it All: We Need to Keep Focused on the Kids!
12Common Core: Mission Statement http://www.corestandards.org The Common Core State Standards provide a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn, so teachers and parents know what they need to do to help them. The standards are designed to be robust and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that our young people need for success in college and careers. With American students fully prepared for the future, our communities will be best positioned to compete successfully in the global economy
13Common Core Standards Meet Speech-Language Services National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers launched Common Core Standards.Forty-five states, the District of Columbia, four territories and the DOD schools have adopted these standards for implementation.A national movement, but not a federal program.Refines and updates standards
14Education’s Focus: The Common Core State Standards (3:22 min.)
15What skills have been identified as critical to success in college and work in the 21st century?
16Communication Collaboration Critical Thinking Creativity Source: Partnership for 21st Century Skills
17CommunicationCommunicating is the process of transferring a thought from one mind to others and, in return, receiving thoughts back. Communicating allows minds to tune to each other, thinking together. Here are some of the basic abilities required for communicating:Analyzing the situation means thinking about the subject, purpose, sender, receiver, medium, and context of a message.Choosing a medium involves deciding the most appropriate way to deliver a message, ranging from a face-to-face chat to a 400-page report.Evaluating messages means deciding whether they are correct, complete, reliable, authoritative, and up-to-date.Following conventions means communicating using the expected norms for the medium chosen.Listening actively requires carefully paying attention, taking notes, asking questions, and otherwise engaging in the ideas being communicated.From Thoughtful Learning
18CommunicatingReading is decoding written words and images in order to understand what their originator is trying to communicate.Speaking involves using spoken words, tone of voice, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and visual aids in order to convey ideas.Turn taking means effectively switching from receiving ideas to providing ideas, back and forth between those in the communication situation.Using technology requires understanding the abilities and limitations of any technological communication, from phone calls to s to instant messages.Writing involves encoding messages into words, sentences, and paragraphs for the purpose of communicating to a person who is removed by distance, time, or both.From Thoughtful Learning
19CollaborationCollaborating is working together with others to achieve a common goal. In this age of social media and crowd sourcing, collaboration is more important than ever. Here are some of the basic abilities needed to collaborate.Allocating resources and responsibilities ensures that all members of a team can work optimally.Brainstorming ideas in a group involves rapidly suggesting and writing down ideas without pausing to critique them.Decision-making requires sorting through the many options provided to the group and arriving at a single option to move forward.Delegating means assigning duties to members of the group and expecting them to fulfill their parts of the task.From Thoughtful Learning
20CollaborationEvaluating the products, processes, and members of the group provides a clear sense of what is working well and what improvements could be made.Goal setting requires the group to analyze the situation, decide what outcome is desired, and clearly state an achievable objective.Leading a group means creating an environment in which all members can contribute according to their abilities.Managing time involves matching up a list of tasks to a schedule and tracking the progress toward goals.Resolving conflicts occurs from using one of the following strategies: asserting, cooperating, compromising, competing, or deferring.Team building means cooperatively working over time to achieve a common goal.From Thoughtful Learning
21Critical ThinkingCritical thinking is focused, careful analysis of something to better understand it. When people speak of “left brain” activity, they are usually referring to critical thinking. Here are some of the main critical-thinking abilities:From Thoughtful Learning
22Critical ThinkingAnalyzing is breaking something down into its parts, examining each part, and noting how the parts fit together.Arguing is using a series of statements connected logically together, backed by evidence, to reach a conclusion.Classifying is identifying the types or groups of something, showing how each category is distinct from the others.From Thoughtful Learning
23Critical ThinkingComparing and contrasting is pointing out the similarities and differences between two or more subjects.Defining is explaining the meaning of a term using denotation, connotation, example, etymology, synonyms, and antonyms.Describing is explaining the traits of something, such as size, shape, weight, color, use, origin, value, condition, location, and so on.Evaluating is deciding on the worth of something by comparing it against an accepted standard of value.Tracking cause and effect is determining why something is happening and what results from it.From Thoughtful Learning
24CreativityCreative thinking is expansive, open-ended invention and discovery of possibilities. When people speak of “right brain” activity, they most often mean creative thinking. Here are some of the more common creative thinking abilities:Brainstorming ideas involves asking a question and rapidly listing all answers, even those that are far-fetched, impractical, or impossible.Creating something requires forming it by combining materials, perhaps according to a plan or perhaps based on the impulse of the moment.Designing something means finding the conjunction between form and function and shaping materials for a specific purpose.Entertaining others involves telling stories, making jokes, singing songs, playing games, acting out parts, and making conversation.From Thoughtful Learning
25CreativityImagining ideas involves reaching into the unknown and impossible, perhaps idly or with great focus, as Einstein did with his thought experiments.Improvising a solution involves using something in a novel way to solve a problem.Innovating is creating something that hasn’t existed before, whether an object, a procedure, or an idea.Overturning something means flipping it to get a new perspective, perhaps by redefining givens, reversing cause and effect, or looking at something in a brand new way.Problem solving requires using many of the creative abilities listed here to figure out possible solutions and putting one or more of them into action.Questioning actively reaches into what is unknown to make it known, seeking information or a new way to do something.From Thoughtful Learning
26What components are included in the standards for English Language Arts?
27English language arts includes these components: Reading Literature (9 standards)Reading Informational Text (10 standards)Foundation – phonics and word recognition (2-4 standards grades K-5 only)Writing (7-10 standards)Language-grammar and vocabulary (5-6 standards)Speaking and Listening (6 standards)G
28Shifts in English Language Arts Staircase of complexityLiterary + informational textsLiteracy included in Social Studies and Science3 types of writing K-12Informative/ExplanatoryNarrativePersuasiveEmphasis on academic vocabulary
29Key Shifts in English Language Arts Regular practice with complex texts and their academic languageReading, writing, and speaking grounded in evidence from texts, both literary and informationalBuilding knowledge through content-rich nonfiction
31Focus-narrow and deepen the scope Coherence connecting across grade levelsFluency-speed and accuracyDeep understandingApplication of conceptsDual Intensity -Practice and understand
32Two Sets of Standards in Math Mathematical Practice StandardsMath Domain Standards by grade level
33Mathematical Practice Standards Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.Reason abstractly and quantitatively.Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.Model with mathematicsUse appropriate tools strategically.Be precise.Look for and make use of structureLook for and express regularity in repeating reasoning.
35Students Who Meet the Common Core State Standards Demonstrate independenceBuild strong content knowledgeRespond to varying demands of audience, task, purpose, and disciplineComprehend as well as critiqueValue evidenceUse technology and digital media strategically and capablyUnderstand other perspectives and culturesSource: Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects, p. 7. Available atFrom: The Special Edge, Summer 2012, 25 (3), p. 1
37The Common Core Essential Elements emphasize: Learning that builds over time.Application of knowledge and skills.Active participation and interaction in learning activities.Collaboration and communication.Ongoing comprehensive instruction in reading, writing, speaking, listening and language.From: Penelope Hatch, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Center for Literacy & Disability Studies UNC, Chapel Hill
38NCSC’s Commitment to Communicative Competence Communication at some level is possible and identifiable for all students regardless of functional “level,” and is the starting point for developing communicative competence. Communication competence is defined as the use of a communication system that allows students to gain and demonstrate knowledge. Many people with severe speech or language problems rely on alternative forms of communication, including augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems, to use with existing speech or replace difficult to understand speech.NCSC Parent Materials September 2013.
39The Foundational Principles of the NCSC Alternate Assessment
41BLOOM’S TAXONOMY Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating RememberingUnderstandingApplyingAnalyzingEvaluatingCreatingCan the student recall or remember the info.?defineduplicatelistmemorizerecallrepeat reproducestateCan the student explain ideas or concepts?classifydescribediscussexplainidentifylocaterecognizereportselecttranslateparaphraseCan the student use the info. in a new way?choose demonstrate dramatize employillustrate interpret operateschedulesketchsolveusewrite.Can the student distinguish between the different parts?appraise compare contrastcriticize differentiate discriminate distinguish examine experiment questiontestCan the student justify a stand or decision?appraisearguedefendjudgesupportvalueevaluateCan the student create new product or point of view?assemble, constructcreatedesigndevelopformulatewrite
42CCSS – Depth of Knowledge Focuses on complexity of content standards in order to successfully complete an assessment or task. The outcome (product) is the focus of the depth of understanding.The Depth of Knowledge is NOT determined by the verb (Bloom’s Taxonomy), but by the context in which the verb is used and the depth of thinking required.
43CCSS – Depth of Knowledge An example:DOK 1- Describe three characteristics of metamorphic rocks. (Requires simple recall)DOK 2- Describe the difference between metamorphic and igneous rocks. (Requires cognitive processing to determine the differences in the two rock types)DOK 3- Describe a model that you might use to represent the relationships that exist within the rock cycle. (Requires deep understanding of rock cycle and a determination of how best to represent it)
44CCSS – Depth of Knowledge It’s about what follows the verb, i.e., what comes after the verb is more important than the verb itself. Analyze this sentence to decide if the commas have been used correctly” does not meet the criteria for high cognitive processing. The student who has been taught the rule for using commas is merely using the rule.
45COMMON CORE "HABITS OF MIND" English Language Arts Capacities:They demonstrate independence.They build strong content knowledge.They respond to the varying demands of audience, task, purpose, and disciplineThey comprehend as well as critique.They value evidence.They use technology and digital media strategically and capably.They come to understand other perspectives and cultures.
46COMMON CORE "HABITS OF MIND" Mathematical Practices:Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.Reason abstractly and quantitatively.Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.Model with mathematics.Use appropriate tools strategically.Attend to precision.Look for and make use of structure.Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
47What is Universal Design? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDvKnY0g6e4
48What is Universal Design? Is our learning environment welcoming?UDL is the proactive design of curriculum and instruction to ensure they are educationally accessible regardless of learning style, physical or sensory abilities.Just as physical barriers exist in our physical environment, curricular barriers exist in our instructional environment.
49How is Universal Design Defined? The term UDL means a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that:Provides flexibility in the ways information is presented (recognition), in the ways students respond or demonstrate knowledge and skills (action and expression), and in the ways students are engaged (engagement); and
50How is Universal Design Defined? The term UDL means a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that:…reduces barriers in instruction, provides appropriate accommodations, supports, and challenges, and maintains high achievement expectations for all students, including students with disabilities and students who are English Language Learners. (Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008)
52Universal Design for Learning (UDL) The Common Core State Standards are grounded in UDL.How does that affect the instruction we provide for students with significant cognitive disabilities?How are UDL and Assistive Technology related?From: Penelope Hatch, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Center for Literacy & Disability Studies UNC, Chapel Hill
53UDLUniversal design for learning is a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that:(a) provides flexibility in the ways information is presented, in the ways students respond or demonstrate knowledge and skills, and in the ways students are engaged; and(b) reduces barriers in instruction, provides appropriate accommodations, supports, and challenges, and maintains high achievement expectations for all students, including students with disabilities and students who are limited English proficient. (Higher Education Opportunity Act)From: Penelope Hatch, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Center for Literacy & Disability Studies UNC, Chapel Hill
54Principles of UDL Provide multiple, flexible means of: PRESENTATION (REPRESENTATION)EXPRESSIONENGAGEMENTFrom: Penelope Hatch, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Center for Literacy & Disability Studies UNC, Chapel Hill
55Limited UDL for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities Tendency toward:Structure & teacher-directed instructionTechnology for access not learningSingular views ofPresentationRepetition without varietyExpression80% on 4 of 5 daysEngagement & ParticipationExtrinsic rewards & motivatorsFrom: Penelope Hatch, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Center for Literacy & Disability Studies UNC, Chapel Hill
56Focus on conceptual/cognitive development rather than specific skills. Common Core Essential Elements and UDL for students with Significant Cognitive DisabilitiesFocus on conceptual/cognitive development rather than specific skills.Increased emphasis on multiple & flexible means of presentation, engagement and expressionFrom: Penelope Hatch, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Center for Literacy & Disability Studies UNC, Chapel Hill
57Common Core State Standards for Speaking and Listening Speaking and Listening: The Key Role of Evidence
58Think about/Talk about Activity Look up the CCSS for Listening and Speaking. How do you think the SLP will be involved in Speaking and Listening Standards? What kind of issues might arise?
60“The common Core State Standards are here, and school-based SLPs are in a prime position to help students.”Ehren, Blosser, Roth, Paul, and NelsonASHA Leader, April 3, 2012(from Moreau, 2012)COMMON CORE STANDARDS
61Common Core State Standards: Fewer, Clearer, Higher Recommendation of Rising Above the Gathering Storm (2005) that U.S. students must be able to compete in a global economy, so they need global standards.Standards address what students are expected to know and be able to do.Designed to be robust and relevant and to reflect the knowledge and skills that all young people will need for success in college and careers.International Center for Leadership in Education (February 2011)
62Common Core State Standards: Fewer, Clearer, Higher “The goal of the Common Core State Standards is to focus on the knowledge and skills needed by all students so they can be successful in college and careers. This goal applies for all students. Students who are receiving special education services are no exception. They too are expected to be challenges to excel within the general education curriculum based on the Common Core State Standards.”International Center for Leadership in Education (February 2011)
63Speech-Language Impairment 22 Other Health Impairment 10 Percentage Distribution of Year Olds Served Under IDEA by Primary Disability TypeDisabilityPercentLearning Disability39Speech-Language Impairment22Other Health Impairment10Intellectual Disability8Emotional Disturbance7Developmental Delay5Autism4Multiple Disabilities2Hearing Impairments1Orthopedic ImpairmentsThe largest category of students in special education is students with learning disabilities, which means they have average or above average intelligence according to federal definition. This group accounts for 39% of classified students. The second largest group is students who are speech impaired. Also included are students who are heading of visually impaired, orthopedically impaired, other health impaired, emotionally disturbed or developmentally delayed. These categories encompass almost all students in special education. Most of these students by definition do not have a significant cognitive disability; many fit within the normal range on the intelligence scale.International Center for Leadership in Education (February 2011), p
64Common Core Standards Meet Speech-Language Services Include Listening and Speaking standardsSpiral connection throughout the grade levelsFewer standards that make it clear what students need to knowGlobal connectionConsideration for English Learners and Students with DisabilitiesSchools and states are preparing for this change, and SLPs need to be a part of this change!
66Educational Approaches for Students with Cognitive Disabilities Developmental Model – Early 1970sFunctional Skills Approach – Late 1970sReauthorization of IDEA – 1997No Child Left Behind Act of 2001Common Core State Standards – 2010From: Penelope Hatch, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Center for Literacy & Disability Studies UNC, Chapel Hill
67Five Shifts that will happen in every classroom with CCSS Lead High Level, Text-Based DiscussionFocus on Process, Not Just ContentCreate Assignments for Real Audiences with Real PurposeTeach Argument, Not PersuasionIncrease Text Complexity (Davis, p. 1)
68Therefore, intervention should focus on… vocabulary and completed sentencesworking with students on close readingnotice and understand functions of text structurei.e. headings, bullets, bold typeutilize story maps and character analysis charts(ASCD/Varlas, 2012)
69Instruction should focus on… teaching the text and spend time with the textteaching strategies, but not in place of spending time with the texthaving students reread the text when they strugglehaving students summarize what they have read to check for understandinghaving students ask questions about the textbuilding “habits of mind” with short, complex texts(ASCD/Varlas, 2012)
70To support students in mastering the CCSS, SLPs should focus on… provide oral language development interventionssupport interrelationships between reading, writing, speaking, listening, and languagecollaborate with teachers, families and administratorsenable RTI initiatives(Moreau, 2012)
71To support students in mastering the CCSS, SLPs should focus on… intervention for skill development focused on increasing syntax from simple to complexi.e. word order, cohesive ties, verb tense, morphology, sentence combining, multi-clausal sentences in academic disciplinesintervention to develop communication competence,intervention that includes advance text structure and discourse(Moreau, 2012)
72Math Discourse Talk Moves Revoicing-Clarifying “So you are saying…Did I get that right?”Repeating“Who will repeat or rephrase what he said?”Reasoning“Do you agree or disagree withwhat was said, and why?”Adding On“What can you add to the idea she is building?”Wait Time“Take your time”Adapted from Classroom Discussions: Using Math Talk to Help Students Learn by Suzanne Chapin, Catherine O’Connor, and Nancy Anderson. Math Solutions Publications 2009
73Premises for Teaching Math Conceptual understandingMake sense and persevere in problem solvingMultiple access points to math problems – use these avenues of access to increase conversation or use increased conversation as methods to travel the avenues of accessEngage in math practices to access CCSSWrap arms around the problemREASON abstractly and quantitativelyMistakes are GOOD! Kids make mistakes because they don’t have a conceptual understandingAndrea Holmes, SMUDS, 12/13
74Procedural Fluency Skills to carry out procedures FlexibilityAccuratelyEfficientlyAppropriatelyKids need to make sense of numbersContext changes every thingHelp them to wrap their arms around the problemHolmes, SMUSD
75Positive Influences of Math Discourse Talk can reveal understanding and misunderstandingTalk can support thinking and learningTalk supports deeper understandingTalk supports language development
767-step process for utilizing the CCSS in the development of an IEP (Rudebusch, 2012) Consider the content standardsExamine dataDetermine the student’s present level of performanceDevelop measurable goalsAssess progressIdentify special instructionDetermine the most appropriate assessment options
77To design and unpack the standards…(Power-deFur and Flynn, 2012) Review the Content Standards for the student’s gradeDetermine where the student is functioning in relation to the standardsReview the student’s IEPReview the classroom materialsCollaborate with teachersDesign and implement intervention
78Common Core State Standards and the SLP Georgia Organization of School-Based SLPs (GO- SSLP)ASHA
79Think about/Talk about Activity Examine the verbs that describe the learning students need to demonstrate. How will this impact the SLP and the students in general and special education? Do you believe CCSS will lead to increased identification? How can we prevent that?
80Linking To Assessment California Department of Education California Assessment
81Assessment ConsortiaPartnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC)Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC)California is a memberNational Center and State Collaborative (NCSC)Building an AA-AASCalifornia is a partnerDynamic Learning Maps (DLM)Essential Elements (EE)
82Smarter Balanced California Assessment System Statewide Testing in CaliforniaSmarter Balanced Usability, Accessibility, and Accommodation GuideFrequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
83SBAC Usability – universal tools Accessibility – designated supports Available for all studentsAccessibility – designated supportsAvailable when indicated by an adult or teamAccommodationsAvailable when need is documented by an IEP or 504 team
84Smarter Balanced: Designated Supports Scores will count for federal accountabilityDesignated Supports reported in the TIDE – Testing Information Distribution Engine.Individual Student Assessment Accessibility Profile (ISAAP) – may be developed to guide process
85Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Academic Achievement StandardsAlternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) are assessments used to evaluate the performance of students with the most significant cognitive disabilities. AA-AAS are meant to assess the grade-level content with less depth, breadth, and complexity than the regular assessment, and with a different definition of how well and how much students know and do in the content to be considered proficient. States must define alternate achievement standards using a documented and validated standard-setting process reflecting an appropriate high expectation that will yield increased achievement.
86Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Academic Achievement StandardsThe AA-AAS is intended to be used with students with significant cognitive disabilities as determined by each state's eligibility criteria. National data on who participates in AA-AAS show that participating students are those with the most severe intellectual disabilities and multiple disabilities−children who represent fewer than 1 percent of all students, or less than 10 percent of all students who have disabilities. The figure of 1 percent is the regulatory cap on the percent of students whose scores on AA-AAS can be treated as proficient for purposes of school accountability. More students can participate in the AA-AAS than 1 percent, but the cap on how the scores are used in accountability is meant to avoid inappropriate inclusion of many students in a lower achievement expectation than evidence suggests is warranted.
87Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Academic Achievement StandardsThe achievement of these students on grade-level content is very different from their general education classroom peers, but the evidence of their work is compelling. These students are able to learn academic content with reduced complexity, breadth, and depth clearly linked to the same grade-level content as their peers. The federally produced publication [Learning Opportunities for Your Child Through Alternate Assessments] provides specific examples of what AA-AAS can look like. Researchers and practitioners are working side-by-side to capture the nature of the linkages to the grade-level content in both instruction and in assessment.
88Who are the students that participate in alternate academic achievement standards? Students who will participate in alternate academic achievement standards are:within one or more of the existing categories of disability under the IDEA [Individuals with Disabilities Education Act] (e.g., autism, multiple disabilities, traumatic brain injury, etc.);students whose cognitive impairments may prevent them from attaining grade-level achievement standards, even with the very best instruction(U.S. Department of Education, Alternate Achievement Standards for Students with the Most Significant Cognitive Disabilities Non-Regulatory Guidance, August 2005, p. 23). The determination regarding which set of standards a student’s instruction is based on is an Individualize Education Plan (IEP) team decision. The determination is not based on a categorical disability label but on the level of academic functioning of a student.
89New Statewide Assessment System Practice Tests and Sample ItemsPractice Tests The Smarter Balanced Practice Tests are now available for grades three through eight and grade eleven in English-language arts and mathematics. The Practice Tests provide a preview of the Smarter Balanced assessments, but do not reflect the full range of content that students may encounter on the actual assessments.Sample Items and Performance Tasks The samples on the Smarter Balanced Web site illustrate the rigor and complexity of the English-language arts/literacy and mathematics items and performance tasks students will encounter on the Smarter Balanced assessments.Go to the Smarter Balanced Website and play with the practice test
90Linking IEPs, Goals and Service Delivery Via CSS to the Roles and Responsibilities of SLPs
91Roles and Responsibilities of the School-Based Speech-Language Pathologist Approved by the ASHA BOD May 2010
92School-Based SLP Roles and Responsibilities: Critical Roles — SLPs have integral roles in education and are essential members of school faculties.Working Across All Levels — SLPs provide appropriate speech-language services in Pre-K, elementary, middle, junior high, and high schools with no school level underserved. (Note: In some states infants and toddlers would be included in school services.)Serving a Range of Disorders — As delineated in the ASHA Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology and federal regulations, SLPs work with students exhibiting the full range of communication disorders, including those involving language, articulation (speech sound disorders), fluency, voice/resonance, and swallowing. Myriad etiologies may be involved.
93School-Based SLP Roles and Responsibilities: Critical Roles — SLPs have integral roles in education and are essential members of school faculties.Ensuring Educational Relevance — The litmus test for roles assumed by SLPs with students with disabilities is whether the disorder has an impact on the education of students. Therefore, SLPs address personal, social/emotional, academic, and vocational needs that have an impact on attainment of educational goals.
94School-Based SLP Roles and Responsibilities: Critical Roles — SLPs have integral roles in education and are essential members of school faculties.Providing Unique Contributions to Curriculum — SLPs provide a distinct set of roles based on their focused expertise in language. They offer assistance in addressing the linguistic and metalinguistic foundations of curriculum learning for students with disabilities, as well as other learners who are at risk for school failure, or those who struggle in school settings.Highlighting Language/Literacy — Current research supports the interrelationships across the language processes of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. SLPs contribute significantly to the literacy achievement of students with communication disorders, as well as other learners who are at risk for school failure, or those who struggle in school settings.
95School-Based SLP Roles and Responsibilities: Critical Roles — SLPs have integral roles in education and are essential members of school faculties.Providing Culturally Competent Services — With the ever-increasing diversity in the schools, SLPs make important contributions to ensure that all students receive quality, culturally competent services. SLPs have the expertise to distinguish a language disorder from “something else.” That “something else” might include cultural and linguistic differences, socioeconomic factors, lack of adequate prior instruction, and the process of acquiring the dialect of English used in the schools. This expertise leads to more accurate and appropriate identification of student needs. SLPs can also address the impact of language differences and second language acquisition on student learning and provide assistance to teachers in promoting educational growth.
96School-Based SLP Roles and Responsibilities: Range of Responsibilities — SLPs help students meet the performance standards of a particular school district and state.Prevention — SLPs are integrally involved in the efforts of schools to prevent academic failure in whatever form those initiatives may take; for example, in Response to Intervention (RTI). SLPs use evidence-based practice (EBP) in prevention approaches.Assessment — SLPs conduct assessments in collaboration with others that help to identify students with communication disorders as well as to inform instruction and intervention, consistent with EBP.
97Fusing Skills and Standards SOURCE: “The Special EDge,” California Department of Education, Special Education DivisionThe California Department of Education has developed steps to aid teachers in writing grade-level, standards-based goals for individualized education programs. Excerpts from a hypothetical IEP written for a 4th grade student who has trouble with reading comprehension and written language skills show how the steps can be applied.1. USE PRESENT LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE Tests show that concentrating on reading comprehension and writing strategies, with an emphasis on organization and focus, would do the most to accelerate this hypothetical student to grade level. The regular curriculum will address all other areas of weakness2. CHOOSE THE STANDARD The teacher identified this grade-level standard: “Identify structural patterns found in informational text (e.g. compare and contrast, cause and effect, sequential or chronological order, proposition and support) to strengthen comprehension.”3. “UNPACK” THE STANDARD The teacher breaks the standard into its component parts. For example, some parts of this standard include: identify compare-and-contrast patterns, identify cause-and-effect patterns, identify the author’s proposition.4. ANALYZE THE SUBSKILLS One subskill the teacher has chosen to focus on is “list the statements that support the author’s proposition.”5. DEVELOP THE GOAL By the end of the school year, when given grade-level passages, the student will support the author’s proposition with a minimum of six correct statements from each text passage on regularly scheduled, curriculum-based reading- comprehension tests.6. WRITE THE SHORT-TERM OBJECTIVES AND BENCHMARKS By the middle of the school year, the student will identify the author’s proposition from the text correctly in four out of five attempts, as measured by classroom discussion, daily reading journal entries, and work samples.7. MONITOR THE GOAL At regular reporting periods, monitor and report progress on goals and short-term objectives and benchmarks.
99Action Plan for ChangeIdentify 1, 2 or 3 “ah ha”s from this presentation.What action you will take now that you know this?Identify 1, 2 or 3 concepts that solidified or reinforced what you are doing.What action you will take because of it?Identify what do you still want to know?What action will you take to discover the answer?
100“Change is powerful and motivating “Change is powerful and motivating. Each professional must watch for meaningful changes in the discipline, evaluate those changes, and adapt with them, when appropriate.”Apel, K. Developing Evidence-Based Practices and Research Collaborations in school settings. LSHSS, July 2001, p. 196
101“Change is a double-edged sword “Change is a double-edged sword. Its relentless pace these days runs us off our feet. Yet when things are unsettled, we can find new ways to move ahead and to create breakthroughs not possible in stagnant societies.” Michael Fullan (2001)
102“Man’s mind, once stretched by a new idea, never regains its original dimensions.” Oliver Wendell Holmes