Presentation on theme: "SLPs and Common Core Standards: Creating Linkage for Student Success Beth Nishida Director of Special Education Hacienda La Puente USD."— Presentation transcript:
SLPs and Common Core Standards: Creating Linkage for Student Success Beth Nishida Director of Special Education Hacienda La Puente USD
Outline of Today’s Topics Linking CCSS to the Work of School-Based SLPs Linking to a National Perspective Linking to Assessment Linking IEPs, Goals and Service Delivery via CCSS to the Roles and Responsibilities of SLPs
Linking CCSS to the Work of School-Based SLPs Foundation of CCSS – Historical Perspective – Current Educational Environment and Reforms Big Shifts in Instructional Approaches Plans for Students with Disabilities Universal Design for Learning (UDL) English Language Arts (ELA) and Math Listening and Speaking Standards
Education Reform Movements: Foundation for CCSS 1983 – A Nation At Risk Wave One Reform – Top Down Initiatives Wave Two Reform – Bottom Up Initiatives Wave Three Reform – Including Special Populations; Standards Based reforms Legislative Requirements – IDEA 1997 – NCLB 2001 – IDEA 2004 Common Core State Standards
CCSS Recognizing the value and need for consistent learning goals across states, in 2009 the state school chiefs and governors that comprise CCSSO and the NGA Center coordinated a state-led effort to develop the Common Core State Standards. Designed through collaboration among teachers, school chiefs, administrators, and other experts, the standards provide a clear and consistent framework for educators.
CCSS The standards are: Research- and evidence-based Clear, understandable, and consistent Aligned with college and career expectations Based on rigorous content and application of knowledge through higher-order thinking skills Built upon the strengths and lessons of current state standards Informed by other top performing countries in order to prepare all students for success in our global economy and society
Begin with the End in Mind: Educational Environment in 2014 Schools are still experiencing tight budgets, even as the economy recovers Expectations and accountability continue to increase Prospects of reauthorization for ESEA/NCLB and IDEA are forestalled Value-Added Expectations Common Core State Standards move forward
Schools: The Context of Our Services Accountability continues IDEA and ESEA Need for 21 st Century Skills for our learners Developing a Global Citizenry Reduced resources to address enormous (and growing) demands Litigation And……. For SLPs and Audiologists…..
Speech and Hearing Professionals: The Context of Our Profession Demands for our services increasing, even as we face widespread shortages SLPs have a key and important role and opportunity to guide the response to the challenges presented to our schools Expertise in language, medical issues, autism, social skills development and organizational behavior that is NEEDED by our schools We are at a critical crossroad in terms of how we define our contribution
Despite it All: We Need to Keep Focused on the Kids!
Twenty-First Century Learners
Common Core: Mission Statement The Common Core State Standards provide a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn, so teachers and parents know what they need to do to help them. The standards are designed to be robust and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that our young people need for success in college and careers. With American students fully prepared for the future, our communities will be best positioned to compete successfully in the global economy
Common Core Standards Meet Speech-Language Services National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers launched Common Core Standards. Forty-five states, the District of Columbia, four territories and the DOD schools have adopted these standards for implementation. A national movement, but not a federal program. Refines and updates standards
Education’s Focus: The Common Core State Standards R0 (3:22 min.) R0
What skills have been identified as critical to success in college and work in the 21 st century?
Communication Collaboration Critical Thinking Creativity Source: Partnership for 21 st Century Skills
Communication Communicating is the process of transferring a thought from one mind to others and, in return, receiving thoughts back. Communicating allows minds to tune to each other, thinking together. Here are some of the basic abilities required for communicating: Analyzing the situation means thinking about the subject, purpose, sender, receiver, medium, and context of a message. Choosing a medium involves deciding the most appropriate way to deliver a message, ranging from a face-to-face chat to a 400-page report. Evaluating messages means deciding whether they are correct, complete, reliable, authoritative, and up-to-date. Following conventions means communicating using the expected norms for the medium chosen. Listening actively requires carefully paying attention, taking notes, asking questions, and otherwise engaging in the ideas being communicated. – From Thoughtful Learning
Communicating Reading is decoding written words and images in order to understand what their originator is trying to communicate. Speaking involves using spoken words, tone of voice, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and visual aids in order to convey ideas. Turn taking means effectively switching from receiving ideas to providing ideas, back and forth between those in the communication situation. Using technology requires understanding the abilities and limitations of any technological communication, from phone calls to s to instant messages. Writing involves encoding messages into words, sentences, and paragraphs for the purpose of communicating to a person who is removed by distance, time, or both. – From Thoughtful Learning
Collaboration Collaborating is working together with others to achieve a common goal. In this age of social media and crowd sourcing, collaboration is more important than ever. Here are some of the basic abilities needed to collaborate. Allocating resources and responsibilities ensures that all members of a team can work optimally. Brainstorming ideas in a group involves rapidly suggesting and writing down ideas without pausing to critique them. Decision-making requires sorting through the many options provided to the group and arriving at a single option to move forward. Delegating means assigning duties to members of the group and expecting them to fulfill their parts of the task. From Thoughtful Learning
Collaboration Evaluating the products, processes, and members of the group provides a clear sense of what is working well and what improvements could be made. Goal setting requires the group to analyze the situation, decide what outcome is desired, and clearly state an achievable objective. Leading a group means creating an environment in which all members can contribute according to their abilities. Managing time involves matching up a list of tasks to a schedule and tracking the progress toward goals. Resolving conflicts occurs from using one of the following strategies: asserting, cooperating, compromising, competing, or deferring. Team building means cooperatively working over time to achieve a common goal. – From Thoughtful Learning
Critical Thinking Critical thinking is focused, careful analysis of something to better understand it. When people speak of “left brain” activity, they are usually referring to critical thinking. Here are some of the main critical-thinking abilities: – From Thoughtful Learning
Critical Thinking Analyzing is breaking something down into its parts, examining each part, and noting how the parts fit together. Arguing is using a series of statements connected logically together, backed by evidence, to reach a conclusion. Classifying is identifying the types or groups of something, showing how each category is distinct from the others. – From Thoughtful Learning
Critical Thinking Comparing and contrasting is pointing out the similarities and differences between two or more subjects. Defining is explaining the meaning of a term using denotation, connotation, example, etymology, synonyms, and antonyms. Describing is explaining the traits of something, such as size, shape, weight, color, use, origin, value, condition, location, and so on. Evaluating is deciding on the worth of something by comparing it against an accepted standard of value. Tracking cause and effect is determining why something is happening and what results from it. From Thoughtful Learning
Creativity Creative thinking is expansive, open-ended invention and discovery of possibilities. When people speak of “right brain” activity, they most often mean creative thinking. Here are some of the more common creative thinking abilities: Brainstorming ideas involves asking a question and rapidly listing all answers, even those that are far-fetched, impractical, or impossible. Creating something requires forming it by combining materials, perhaps according to a plan or perhaps based on the impulse of the moment. Designing something means finding the conjunction between form and function and shaping materials for a specific purpose. Entertaining others involves telling stories, making jokes, singing songs, playing games, acting out parts, and making conversation. From Thoughtful Learning
Creativity Imagining ideas involves reaching into the unknown and impossible, perhaps idly or with great focus, as Einstein did with his thought experiments. Improvising a solution involves using something in a novel way to solve a problem. Innovating is creating something that hasn’t existed before, whether an object, a procedure, or an idea. Overturning something means flipping it to get a new perspective, perhaps by redefining givens, reversing cause and effect, or looking at something in a brand new way. Problem solving requires using many of the creative abilities listed here to figure out possible solutions and putting one or more of them into action. Questioning actively reaches into what is unknown to make it known, seeking information or a new way to do something. – From Thoughtful Learning
What components are included in the standards for English Language Arts?
English language arts includes these components: Reading Literature (9 standards) Reading Informational Text (10 standards) Foundation – phonics and word recognition (2-4 standards grades K-5 only) Writing (7-10 standards) Language-grammar and vocabulary (5-6 standards) Speaking and Listening (6 standards)
Shifts in English Language Arts Staircase of complexity Literary + informational texts Literacy included in Social Studies and Science 3 types of writing K-12 – Informative/Explanatory – Narrative – Persuasive Emphasis on academic vocabulary
Key Shifts in English Language Arts Regular practice with complex texts and their academic language Reading, writing, and speaking grounded in evidence from texts, both literary and informational Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction
Are there shifts in Common Core Math?
Focus-narrow and deepen the scope Coherence connecting across grade levels Fluency-speed and accuracy Deep understanding Application of concepts Dual Intensity -Practice and understand
Two Sets of Standards in Math Mathematical Practice Standards Math Domain Standards by grade level
Mathematical Practice Standards Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Model with mathematics Use appropriate tools strategically. Be precise. Look for and make use of structure Look for and express regularity in repeating reasoning.
Mathematical Domain Standards
Students Who Meet the Common Core State Standards Demonstrate independence Build strong content knowledge Respond to varying demands of audience, task, purpose, and discipline Comprehend as well as critique Value evidence Use technology and digital media strategically and capably Understand other perspectives and cultures Source: Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects, p. 7. Available at standards/english-language-arts-standardswww.corestandards.org/the- standards/english-language-arts-standards From: The Special Edge, Summer 2012, 25 (3), p. 1
The Common Core Essential Elements emphasize: Learning that builds over time. Application of knowledge and skills. Active participation and interaction in learning activities. Collaboration and communication. Ongoing comprehensive instruction in reading, writing, speaking, listening and language. From: Penelope Hatch, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Center for Literacy & Disability Studies UNC, Chapel Hill
NCSC’s Commitment to Communicative Competence Communication at some level is possible and identifiable for all students regardless of functional “level,” and is the starting point for developing communicative competence. Communication competence is defined as the use of a communication system that allows students to gain and demonstrate knowledge. Many people with severe speech or language problems rely on alternative forms of communication, including augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems, to use with existing speech or replace difficult to understand speech. NCSC Parent Materials September Competence pdf
The Foundational Principles of the NCSC Alternate Assessment
BLOOM’S TAXONOMY Remembering UnderstandingApplyingAnalyzingEvaluatingCreating Can the student recall or remember the info.? define duplicate list memorize recall repeat reproduce state Can the student explain ideas or concepts? classify describe discuss explain identify locate recognize report select translate paraphrase Can the student use the info. in a new way? choose demonstrate dramatize employ illustrate interpret operate schedule sketch solve use write. Can the student distinguish between the different parts? appraise compare contrast criticize differentiate discriminate distinguish examine experiment question test Can the student justify a stand or decision? appraise argue defend judge select support value evaluate Can the student create new product or point of view? assemble, construct create design develop formulate write
CCSS – Depth of Knowledge Focuses on complexity of content standards in order to successfully complete an assessment or task. The outcome (product) is the focus of the depth of understanding. The Depth of Knowledge is NOT determined by the verb (Bloom’s Taxonomy), but by the context in which the verb is used and the depth of thinking required.
CCSS – Depth of Knowledge An example: DOK 1- Describe three characteristics of metamorphic rocks. (Requires simple recall) DOK 2- Describe the difference between metamorphic and igneous rocks. (Requires cognitive processing to determine the differences in the two rock types) DOK 3- Describe a model that you might use to represent the relationships that exist within the rock cycle. (Requires deep understanding of rock cycle and a determination of how best to represent it)
CCSS – Depth of Knowledge It’s about what follows the verb, i.e., what comes after the verb is more important than the verb itself. Analyze this sentence to decide if the commas have been used correctly” does not meet the criteria for high cognitive processing. The student who has been taught the rule for using commas is merely using the rule.
COMMON CORE "HABITS OF MIND" English Language Arts Capacities: They demonstrate independence. They build strong content knowledge. They respond to the varying demands of audience, task, purpose, and discipline They comprehend as well as critique. They value evidence. They use technology and digital media strategically and capably. They come to understand other perspectives and cultures. Mind.aspx
COMMON CORE "HABITS OF MIND" Mathematical Practices: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Model with mathematics. Use appropriate tools strategically. Attend to precision. Look for and make use of structure. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Mind.aspx
What is Universal Design?
What is Universal Design? Is our learning environment welcoming? UDL is the proactive design of curriculum and instruction to ensure they are educationally accessible regardless of learning style, physical or sensory abilities. Just as physical barriers exist in our physical environment, curricular barriers exist in our instructional environment.
How is Universal Design Defined? The term UDL means a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that: Provides flexibility in the ways information is presented (recognition), in the ways students respond or demonstrate knowledge and skills (action and expression), and in the ways students are engaged (engagement); and
How is Universal Design Defined? The term UDL means a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that: …reduces barriers in instruction, provides appropriate accommodations, supports, and challenges, and maintains high achievement expectations for all students, including students with disabilities and students who are English Language Learners. (Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008)
Universal Design for Learning (UDL) The Common Core State Standards are grounded in UDL. How does that affect the instruction we provide for students with significant cognitive disabilities? How are UDL and Assistive Technology related? From: Penelope Hatch, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Center for Literacy & Disability Studies UNC, Chapel Hill
UDL Universal design for learning is a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that: – (a) provides flexibility in the ways information is presented, in the ways students respond or demonstrate knowledge and skills, and in the ways students are engaged; and – (b) reduces barriers in instruction, provides appropriate accommodations, supports, and challenges, and maintains high achievement expectations for all students, including students with disabilities and students who are limited English proficient. (Higher Education Opportunity Act) From: Penelope Hatch, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Center for Literacy & Disability Studies UNC, Chapel Hill
Principles of UDL Provide multiple, flexible means of: – PRESENTATION (REPRESENTATION) – EXPRESSION – ENGAGEMENT From: Penelope Hatch, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Center for Literacy & Disability Studies UNC, Chapel Hill
Limited UDL for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities Tendency toward: – Structure & teacher-directed instruction – Technology for access not learning Singular views of – Presentation Repetition without variety – Expression 80% on 4 of 5 days Engagement & Participation – Extrinsic rewards & motivators From: Penelope Hatch, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Center for Literacy & Disability Studies UNC, Chapel Hill
Common Core Essential Elements and UDL for students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities Focus on conceptual/cognitive development rather than specific skills. Increased emphasis on multiple & flexible means of presentation, engagement and expression From: Penelope Hatch, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Center for Literacy & Disability Studies UNC, Chapel Hill
Common Core State Standards for Speaking and Listening Speaking and Listening: The Key Role of Evidence dbo dbo
Think about/Talk about Activity Look up the CCSS for Listening and Speaking. How do you think the SLP will be involved in Speaking and Listening Standards? What kind of issues might arise?
Linking to a National Perspective
COMMON CORE STANDARDS “The common Core State Standards are here, and school-based SLPs are in a prime position to help students.” Ehren, Blosser, Roth, Paul, and Nelson ASHA Leader, April 3, 2012 (from Moreau, 2012)
Common Core State Standards: Fewer, Clearer, Higher Recommendation of Rising Above the Gathering Storm (2005) that U.S. students must be able to compete in a global economy, so they need global standards. Standards address what students are expected to know and be able to do. Designed to be robust and relevant and to reflect the knowledge and skills that all young people will need for success in college and careers. International Center for Leadership in Education (February 2011)
Common Core State Standards: Fewer, Clearer, Higher “The goal of the Common Core State Standards is to focus on the knowledge and skills needed by all students so they can be successful in college and careers. This goal applies for all students. Students who are receiving special education services are no exception. They too are expected to be challenges to excel within the general education curriculum based on the Common Core State Standards.” International Center for Leadership in Education (February 2011)
Percentage Distribution of Year Olds Served Under IDEA by Primary Disability Type DisabilityPercent Learning Disability39 Speech-Language Impairment22 Other Health Impairment10 Intellectual Disability8 Emotional Disturbance7 Developmental Delay5 Autism4 Multiple Disabilities2 Hearing Impairments1 Orthopedic Impairments1 The largest category of students in special education is students with learning disabilities, which means they have average or above average intelligence according to federal definition. This group accounts for 39% of classified students. The second largest group is students who are speech impaired. Also included are students who are heading of visually impaired, orthopedically impaired, other health impaired, emotionally disturbed or developmentally delayed. These categories encompass almost all students in special education. Most of these students by definition do not have a significant cognitive disability; many fit within the normal range on the intelligence scale. International Center for Leadership in Education (February 2011), p
Common Core Standards Meet Speech-Language Services Include Listening and Speaking standards Spiral connection throughout the grade levels Fewer standards that make it clear what students need to know Global connection Consideration for English Learners and Students with Disabilities Schools and states are preparing for this change, and SLPs need to be a part of this change!
Growth Mindset Introduction (1.16) zg zg
Educational Approaches for Students with Cognitive Disabilities Developmental Model – Early 1970s Functional Skills Approach – Late 1970s Reauthorization of IDEA – 1997 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 Common Core State Standards – 2010 From: Penelope Hatch, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Center for Literacy & Disability Studies UNC, Chapel Hill
Five Shifts that will happen in every classroom with CCSS Lead High Level, Text-Based Discussion Focus on Process, Not Just Content Create Assignments for Real Audiences with Real Purpose Teach Argument, Not Persuasion Increase Text Complexity (Davis, p. 1)
Therefore, intervention should focus on… vocabulary and completed sentences working with students on close reading notice and understand functions of text structure – i.e. headings, bullets, bold type utilize story maps and character analysis charts (ASCD/Varlas, 2012)
Instruction should focus on… teaching the text and spend time with the text teaching strategies, but not in place of spending time with the text having students reread the text when they struggle having students summarize what they have read to check for understanding having students ask questions about the text building “habits of mind” with short, complex texts (ASCD/Varlas, 2012)
To support students in mastering the CCSS, SLPs should focus on… provide oral language development interventions support interrelationships between reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language collaborate with teachers, families and administrators enable RTI initiatives (Moreau, 2012)
To support students in mastering the CCSS, SLPs should focus on… intervention for skill development focused on increasing syntax from simple to complex – i.e. word order, cohesive ties, verb tense, morphology, sentence combining, multi-clausal sentences in academic disciplines intervention to develop communication competence, intervention that includes advance text structure and discourse (Moreau, 2012)
Math Discourse Talk Moves Revoicing-Clarifying – “So you are saying…Did I get that right?” Repeating – “Who will repeat or rephrase what he said?” Reasoning – “Do you agree or disagree with – what was said, and why?” Adding On – “What can you add to the idea she is building?” Wait Time – “Take your time” Adapted from Classroom Discussions: Using Math Talk to Help Students Learn by Suzanne Chapin, Catherine O’Connor, and Nancy Anderson. Math Solutions Publications 2009
Premises for Teaching Math Conceptual understanding Make sense and persevere in problem solving Multiple access points to math problems – use these avenues of access to increase conversation or use increased conversation as methods to travel the avenues of access Engage in math practices to access CCSS Wrap arms around the problem REASON abstractly and quantitatively Mistakes are GOOD! Kids make mistakes because they don’t have a conceptual understanding Andrea Holmes, SMUDS, 12/13
Procedural Fluency Skills to carry out procedures Flexibility Accurately Efficiently Appropriately Kids need to make sense of numbers Context changes every thing Help them to wrap their arms around the problem Holmes, SMUSD
Positive Influences of Math Discourse Talk can reveal understanding and misunderstanding Talk can support thinking and learning Talk supports deeper understanding Talk supports language development
7-step process for utilizing the CCSS in the development of an IEP (Rudebusch, 2012) Consider the content standards Examine data Determine the student’s present level of performance Develop measurable goals Assess progress Identify special instruction Determine the most appropriate assessment options
To design and unpack the standards…(Power-deFur and Flynn, 2012) Review the Content Standards for the student’s grade Determine where the student is functioning in relation to the standards Review the student’s IEP Review the classroom materials Collaborate with teachers Design and implement intervention
Common Core State Standards and the SLP Georgia Organization of School-Based SLPs (GO- SSLP) n=1&subarticlenbr=21 n=1&subarticlenbr=21 ASHA Core-State-Standards/ Core-State-Standards/
Think about/Talk about Activity Examine the verbs that describe the learning students need to demonstrate. How will this impact the SLP and the students in general and special education? Do you believe CCSS will lead to increased identification? How can we prevent that?
Linking To Assessment California Department of Education California Assessment
Assessment Consortia Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) – California is a member National Center and State Collaborative (NCSC) – Building an AA-AAS – California is a partner Dynamic Learning Maps (DLM) – Essential Elements (EE) – wodescr.pdf wodescr.pdf
Smarter Balanced California Assessment System – – Statewide Testing in California Smarter Balanced Usability, Accessibility, and Accommodation Guide – content/uploads/2013/09/SmarterBalanced_Guidelines_ pdf content/uploads/2013/09/SmarterBalanced_Guidelines_ pdf Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) – content/uploads/2013/12/SmarterBalanced_Guidelines_F AQ.pdf content/uploads/2013/12/SmarterBalanced_Guidelines_F AQ.pdf
SBAC Usability – universal tools – Available for all students Accessibility – designated supports – Available when indicated by an adult or team Accommodations – Available when need is documented by an IEP or 504 team
Smarter Balanced: Designated Supports Scores will count for federal accountability Designated Supports reported in the TIDE – Testing Information Distribution Engine. Individual Student Assessment Accessibility Profile (ISAAP) – may be developed to guide process
Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Academic Achievement Standards Alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) are assessments used to evaluate the performance of students with the most significant cognitive disabilities. AA-AAS are meant to assess the grade-level content with less depth, breadth, and complexity than the regular assessment, and with a different definition of how well and how much students know and do in the content to be considered proficient. States must define alternate achievement standards using a documented and validated standard-setting process reflecting an appropriate high expectation that will yield increased achievement.
Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Academic Achievement Standards The AA-AAS is intended to be used with students with significant cognitive disabilities as determined by each state's eligibility criteria. National data on who participates in AA-AAS show that participating students are those with the most severe intellectual disabilities and multiple disabilities−children who represent fewer than 1 percent of all students, or less than 10 percent of all students who have disabilities. The figure of 1 percent is the regulatory cap on the percent of students whose scores on AA-AAS can be treated as proficient for purposes of school accountability. More students can participate in the AA-AAS than 1 percent, but the cap on how the scores are used in accountability is meant to avoid inappropriate inclusion of many students in a lower achievement expectation than evidence suggests is warranted.
Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Academic Achievement Standards The achievement of these students on grade-level content is very different from their general education classroom peers, but the evidence of their work is compelling. These students are able to learn academic content with reduced complexity, breadth, and depth clearly linked to the same grade-level content as their peers. The federally produced publication [Learning Opportunities for Your Child Through Alternate Assessments] provides specific examples of what AA-AAS can look like. Researchers and practitioners are working side-by-side to capture the nature of the linkages to the grade-level content in both instruction and in assessment.
Who are the students that participate in alternate academic achievement standards? Students who will participate in alternate academic achievement standards are: 1.within one or more of the existing categories of disability under the IDEA [Individuals with Disabilities Education Act] (e.g., autism, multiple disabilities, traumatic brain injury, etc.); 2.students whose cognitive impairments may prevent them from attaining grade-level achievement standards, even with the very best instruction (U.S. Department of Education, Alternate Achievement Standards for Students with the Most Significant Cognitive Disabilities Non-Regulatory Guidance, August 2005, p. 23). The determination regarding which set of standards a student’s instruction is based on is an Individualize Education Plan (IEP) team decision. The determination is not based on a categorical disability label but on the level of academic functioning of a student.
New Statewide Assessment System Practice Tests and Sample Items Practice Tests The Smarter Balanced Practice Tests are now available for grades three through eight and grade eleven in English- language arts and mathematics. The Practice Tests provide a preview of the Smarter Balanced assessments, but do not reflect the full range of content that students may encounter on the actual assessments. Practice Tests Sample Items and Performance Tasks The samples on the Smarter Balanced Web site illustrate the rigor and complexity of the English-language arts/literacy and mathematics items and performance tasks students will encounter on the Smarter Balanced assessments. Sample Items and Performance Tasks Go to the Smarter Balanced Website and play with the practice test
Linking IEPs, Goals and Service Delivery Via CSS to the Roles and Responsibilities of SLPs
Roles and Responsibilities of the School-Based Speech-Language Pathologist Approved by the ASHA BOD May html html
School-Based SLP Roles and Responsibilities: Critical Roles — SLPs have integral roles in education and are essential members of school faculties. Working Across All Levels — SLPs provide appropriate speech-language services in Pre-K, elementary, middle, junior high, and high schools with no school level underserved. (Note: In some states infants and toddlers would be included in school services.) Serving a Range of Disorders — As delineated in the ASHA Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology and federal regulations, SLPs work with students exhibiting the full range of communication disorders, including those involving language, articulation (speech sound disorders), fluency, voice/resonance, and swallowing. Myriad etiologies may be involved.
School-Based SLP Roles and Responsibilities: Critical Roles — SLPs have integral roles in education and are essential members of school faculties. Ensuring Educational Relevance — The litmus test for roles assumed by SLPs with students with disabilities is whether the disorder has an impact on the education of students. Therefore, SLPs address personal, social/emotional, academic, and vocational needs that have an impact on attainment of educational goals.
School-Based SLP Roles and Responsibilities: Critical Roles — SLPs have integral roles in education and are essential members of school faculties. Providing Unique Contributions to Curriculum — SLPs provide a distinct set of roles based on their focused expertise in language. They offer assistance in addressing the linguistic and metalinguistic foundations of curriculum learning for students with disabilities, as well as other learners who are at risk for school failure, or those who struggle in school settings. Highlighting Language/Literacy — Current research supports the interrelationships across the language processes of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. SLPs contribute significantly to the literacy achievement of students with communication disorders, as well as other learners who are at risk for school failure, or those who struggle in school settings.
School-Based SLP Roles and Responsibilities: Critical Roles — SLPs have integral roles in education and are essential members of school faculties. Providing Culturally Competent Services — With the ever- increasing diversity in the schools, SLPs make important contributions to ensure that all students receive quality, culturally competent services. SLPs have the expertise to distinguish a language disorder from “something else.” That “something else” might include cultural and linguistic differences, socioeconomic factors, lack of adequate prior instruction, and the process of acquiring the dialect of English used in the schools. This expertise leads to more accurate and appropriate identification of student needs. SLPs can also address the impact of language differences and second language acquisition on student learning and provide assistance to teachers in promoting educational growth.
School-Based SLP Roles and Responsibilities: Range of Responsibilities — SLPs help students meet the performance standards of a particular school district and state. Prevention — SLPs are integrally involved in the efforts of schools to prevent academic failure in whatever form those initiatives may take; for example, in Response to Intervention (RTI). SLPs use evidence-based practice (EBP) in prevention approaches. Assessment — SLPs conduct assessments in collaboration with others that help to identify students with communication disorders as well as to inform instruction and intervention, consistent with EBP.
Fusing Skills and Standards SOURCE: “The Special EDge,” California Department of Education, Special Education Division The California Department of Education has developed steps to aid teachers in writing grade-level, standards-based goals for individualized education programs. Excerpts from a hypothetical IEP written for a 4th grade student who has trouble with reading comprehension and written language skills show how the steps can be applied. 1. USE PRESENT LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE Tests show that concentrating on reading comprehension and writing strategies, with an emphasis on organization and focus, would do the most to accelerate this hypothetical student to grade level. The regular curriculum will address all other areas of weakness 2. CHOOSE THE STANDARD The teacher identified this grade-level standard: “Identify structural patterns found in informational text (e.g. compare and contrast, cause and effect, sequential or chronological order, proposition and support) to strengthen comprehension.” 3. “UNPACK” THE STANDARD The teacher breaks the standard into its component parts. For example, some parts of this standard include: identify compare-and-contrast patterns, identify cause-and-effect patterns, identify the author’s proposition. 4. ANALYZE THE SUBSKILLS One subskill the teacher has chosen to focus on is “list the statements that support the author’s proposition.” 5. DEVELOP THE GOAL By the end of the school year, when given grade-level passages, the student will support the author’s proposition with a minimum of six correct statements from each text passage on regularly scheduled, curriculum-based reading- comprehension tests. 6. WRITE THE SHORT-TERM OBJECTIVES AND BENCHMARKS By the middle of the school year, the student will identify the author’s proposition from the text correctly in four out of five attempts, as measured by classroom discussion, daily reading journal entries, and work samples. 7. MONITOR THE GOAL At regular reporting periods, monitor and report progress on goals and short-term objectives and benchmarks.
Planning for Implementation
Action Plan for Change 1.Identify 1, 2 or 3 “ah ha”s from this presentation. 2.What action you will take now that you know this? 3.Identify 1, 2 or 3 concepts that solidified or reinforced what you are doing. 4.What action you will take because of it? 5.Identify what do you still want to know? 6.What action will you take to discover the answer?
“Change is powerful and motivating. Each professional must watch for meaningful changes in the discipline, evaluate those changes, and adapt with them, when appropriate.” Apel, K. Developing Evidence-Based Practices and Research Collaborations in school settings. LSHSS, July 2001, p. 196
“Change is a double-edged sword. Its relentless pace these days runs us off our feet. Yet when things are unsettled, we can find new ways to move ahead and to create breakthroughs not possible in stagnant societies.” Michael Fullan (2001)
“Man’s mind, once stretched by a new idea, never regains its original dimensions.” Oliver Wendell Holmes