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Educational Psychology by Anita Woolfolk

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1 Educational Psychology by Anita Woolfolk
Chapter 1

2 Teaching after No Child Left Behind
January 2002, NCLB Teaching will never be the same—no judgment! Reauthorization of ESEA, 1965 Age of Accountability Each state’s HOUSSE (high objective uniform state standard of evaluation) Age of Testing All students in grades 3-8, plus one high school exam. Others to be added after 2002. Age of making Adequate Yearly Progress Age of being a “highly qualified teacher” More to come on NCLB……………………. Accountability came to play in 2002: ESEA = first influx of federal regulation into American education, sputink, thought we were behind in sciences, major emphasis in our political system on education of future scientist by 1965 bill passed Elementary and Secondary Education Act = light fires under school systems to improve math science and engineering instruction and curriculum; provided money to school divisions by flow through monies, federal money to states, distribute as you see fit. Federal aspect can’t make you do anything, but can withhold money they gave you that you have grown to need if you don’t do what they asked you to do! Education not in the national constitution; anything not mentioned is the job of the states. Now NCLB, schools do it to keep their money HOUSSE = SOLs, test mastery of content learned and have to pass at acceptable rates, feds didn’t give the test, states made their own SOL and tests VA already had their SOLs Some states made easy SOLs and tests as they could so would have high % of pass rates When hate NCLB; you hate the state’s tests Fed govt graded the states on their standards: VA got a B+ Only 3 states were A’s, 11B’s, 20 C’s, 50% got D or a F and revise 12 months of growth on a normal learning curve = adequate yearly progress, can’t leave a child behind! “highly qualified” college degree with major as the subject

3 Do Teachers Make a Difference?
1966—Coleman Report—wealth and social status were noted as major factors determining learning in schools. Effective Schools Research—refuted the Coleman Report. More to come on Effective Schools Research….. Good teaching does make a difference in student learning: Three Studies on Teacher Effectiveness Effective Teacher-Student relationships affect student learning. (Harme/Pianta-2001) K-8 study. Conclusions: the association between the quality of early teacher-child relationships and later school performance is both strong and persistent. Coleman = selected children CANNOT learn, ESR = refuted the report = most school divisions there are “sister schools” similar demographics, why does some sister schools outscore others if coleman report is correct? Nothing to do with wealth and social status, must be something else, teachers and principals and community

4 Do Teachers Make a Difference?
Teacher Preparation and Quality—Linda Darling-Hammond (2000) found that the quality of teachers (fully certified and majored in their teaching field) was related to teacher performance. Tennessee math study of 5th graders: students with best teachers three years in a row (3,4,5)-83rd percentile in one district; 96th in another. Students with the least effective teachers scored 29th percentile and 44th percentile. All students benefit from good teachers, but particularly low achieving students. Effects were cumulative and residual.

5 What is good teaching? What are the qualities and characteristics of good teachers?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7., 8., 9., 10, 11., 12., 13., 14., 15., 16., 17…..

6 Woolfolk’s take on “good teaching”
Expert Knowledge; they know content General teaching strategies (effective classroom management, effective teaching, and evaluation) Curriculum: the “what” of teaching Subject-specific knowledge for teaching Characteristics and cultural backgrounds of students. The settings in which students learn—pairs, small groups, teams, classes, schools, and community The goals and purposes of teaching Self-knowledge (biases, strengths, blind spots)

7 Educational Psychology
Goals of educational psychology are to understand and to improve the teaching and learning process Educational psychologists develop knowledge and methods. Use knowledge and methods of psychology and other related disciplines to study learning and teaching in everyday situations. Goal is to make better teachers based on research

8 Concerns of Beginning Teachers
Learning to teach is a gradual process. The concerns and problems of teachers change as they progress. Beginning years often focused on maintaining discipline, motivating students, evaluating students’ work, and dealing with parents. More experienced teachers might focus on professional growth and effectiveness with a wide range of students.

9 There is so much to learn…
…and so little time!

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