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Strategies for Empowering New Students to Think Critically in the Humanities GENERATION NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND LaTricea Adams, Ed.S. Tennessee State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Strategies for Empowering New Students to Think Critically in the Humanities GENERATION NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND LaTricea Adams, Ed.S. Tennessee State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Strategies for Empowering New Students to Think Critically in the Humanities GENERATION NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND LaTricea Adams, Ed.S. Tennessee State University Doctoral Candidate Cesar Chavez Public Charter Schools Assessment & Data Specialist

2 How can we build the cognitive stamina of students who came through the wave of No Child Left Behind? ESSENTIAL QUESTION

3  Self-evaluate on the current level of critical thinking of students as evident by current pedagogy (pre- and post survey).  Build the framework for facilitating close reading and Socratic questioning (Socratic Seminar) and incorporating authentic intellectual performance tasks into instructional time. SESSION OUTCOMES

4 Mini-Segment DescriptionTime Allotted NCLB…The Saga of “Education Reform” 5 minutes Self-Assessment5 minutes Intellectual Standards5 Minutes Close Reading10 minutes Authentic Intellectual Performance Task10 minutes Socratic Seminar10 minutes Next Steps to Moving Pedagogical Practice (Post Self- Assessment) 5 minutes AGENDA

5 No Child Left Behind… The Saga of “Education Reform” TRANSITION

6  In August of 1981, the National Commission on Excellence in Education was chartered under the authority of 20 U.S.C. 1233a.  Their goal was to review & synthesize the data on the quality of learning & teaching in the nation's schools, colleges, and universities, both public and private.  The National Commission on Excellence published a report:  A Nation at Risk, which found that the American school system was falling behind compared to education institutions around the world.  The notion of equal education for all regardless of race or class or economic status had not been met. NCLB…THE SAGA OF “EDUCATION REFORM”

7 1994 Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA) 1994-2000 The Rise of Assessments, Data & Accountability 2001 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) 2010 NCLB Reform/ESEA Flexibility NCLB…THE SAGA OF “EDUCATION REFORM”

8  In 2013, we graduated our first cohort of American students who went K-12 under NCLB… What are some deficits in your students’ critical thinking abilities? How do you think No Child Left Behind affected your students’ level of critical thinking? DISCUSSION






14 DISCUSSION How does allowing students to do the heavy “intellectual lifting” look? What are some common instructional practices for establishing this type of learning environment?




18 Paraphrasing the Text Sentence by SentenceExplicating the Thesis of a ParagraphAnalyzing the logic of what we’re readingAssessing the logic of what we’re readingSpeaking in the Voice of an Author CLOSE READING


20 EXCERPT FROM INVISIBLE MAN BY RALPH ELLISON “I am an invisible man. No, I am not a spook like those who haunted Edgar Allan Poe; nor am l one of your Hollywood-movie ectoplasms. I am a man of substance, of flesh and bone, fiber and liquids – and I might even be said to possess a mind. I am invisible, understand, simply because people refuse to see me. Like the bodiless heads you see sometimes in circus sideshows, it is as though I have been surrounded by mirrors of hard, distorting glass. When they approach me they see only my surroundings, themselves, or figments of their imagination – indeed, everything and anything except me.” CLOSE READING PARAPHRASING

21 CLOSE READING EXPLICATING S State the main point of the paragraph in 1-2 sentences. E Elaborate on what you have paraphrased. E Exemplify meaning by tying it to concrete situations in the real world. I Illustrate with metaphors, analogies, pictures, or diagrams of the basic thesis to connect it to other meanings you already understand.

22 1.What is the key question the author is trying to answer? 2.What is the author’s fundamental purpose? 3.What is the author’s point of view with respect to the issue? 4.What assumptions is the author making in his/her reasoning? 5.What are the implications of the author’s reasoning? 6.What information does the author use in reasoning through this issue? 7.What are the most fundamental inferences or conclusions in the text? 8.What are the author’s most basic concepts? CLOSE READING ANALYZING THE LOGIC OF WHAT WE ARE READING


24 CLOSE READING SPEAKING IN THE VOICE OF THE AUTHOR AUTHENTIC INTELLECTUAL PERFORMANCE TASK EXAMPLES OF MARGINALIZED GROUPS IN SOCIETY Below are examples of groups that have been unseen and unheard in different ways throughout history or, in the words of Ralph Ellison, “constantly bumped against by those of poor vision.” 1. Women 2. Native Americans 3. People with Disabilities 4. Workers/Laborers 5. Immigrants 6. Religious Minorities

25 TRANSITION DISCUSSION What are some concerns with facilitating a classroom around Socratic Questioning? How can these concerns be addressed (organization of the process)?

26 SOCRATIC SEMINAR  What puzzles me is…  I’d like to talk with people about…  I’m confused about…  Don’t you think this is similar to…  Do you agree that the big ideas seem to be…  I have questions about…  Another point of view is…  I think it means…  Do you think…  What does it mean when the author says…  Do you agree that…

27 CREATE YOUR OWN… Close Reading Activity (be explicit about the type of thinking/expectations for each level and how to incorporate time for students to “Think about their Thinking”) Socratic Seminar framework Authentic Intellectual Performance Task

28 TRANSITION Next Steps to Moving Pedagogical Practice (Post Self-Assessment)





33 Brookhart, S. (2010). How to Assess Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Your Classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. 17-39. Education Week (2011). No Child Left Behind. Retrieved from King, F., Goodson, L., Rohani, L. (1997). Higher Order Thinking Skills: Definition, Teaching Strategies, andAssessments. Educational Service Programs. 1. Newmann, F., Bryk, A., Nagaoka, J. (2001). Authentic Intellectual Work and Standardized Tests: Conflict orCoexistence. Consortium on Chicago School Research. 10-11. Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers. (2011). PARCC model content frameworks: English language arts/literacy grades 3–11. Retrieved from pdf Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2008). How to read a paragraph: The art of close reading. Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking Press. Paul, R. & Elder, L. (2007). The Art of Socratic Questioning. Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking Press. Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. REFERENCES

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