Learning Objectives are S.M.A.R.T.: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant/Results-oriented, Time-bound.
Learning Objectives should be Specific. They should state exactly what is to be accomplished by students.
A Non-example This is a Learning Objective that is not Specific. Students will take notes from a PowerPoint lecture about the stock market crash of 1929.
An Example This is a Learning Objective that is Specific. By the end of the lesson, students will create a graphic organizer showing causes and effects of the stock market crash of 1929.
Learning Objectives should be Measurable. They must define acceptable levels of learning.
A Non-example This is a Learning Objective that is not Measurable. Students will discover diversity in a meadow by coming face to face with it.
An Example This is a Learning Objective that is Measurable. After a working field trip, students will describe at least 12 plant species and 12 animal species found in the meadow.
Learning Objectives should be Attainable. They should be challenging but realistic giving students a chance for success.
A Non-example This is a Learning Objective that is not Attainable. During the lesson, students will be put into groups.
An Example This is a Learning Objective that is Attainable. During the lesson, students will collaborate in groups of three to solve geometry problems.
Learning Objectives should be Relevant/Result-oriented. The focus is on content that is interesting and necessary.
A Non-example This is a Learning Objective that is not Relevant/Results-oriented. Students will get a lesson on using Internet sources.
An Example This is a Learning Objective that is Relevant/Results-oriented. During class, students will use the Internet to locate five reliable sources of information about Picasso.
Learning Objectives should be Time-bound. They should have a specific ending point for assessment.
A Non-example This is a Learning Objective that is not Time-bound. Students will evaluate the impact of human activity on specific watersheds.
An Example This is a Learning Objective that is Time-bound. At the end of the experiment, students will evaluate the impact of human activity on specific watersheds.
SMART Learning Objectives use Bloom’s Taxonomy. Both the original version or the newer version are useful.
Bloom’s words are the verbs in well-constructed Learning Objectives. Spending time to select the right word is critical.
Understanding the levels of Bloom’s words is critical to using them in Learning Objectives.
An example of Bloom’s Taxonomy words in a Learning Objective. At the end of the lesson, students will compare urban and agrarian occupations in Texas using a variety of sources.
Another example of Bloom’s Taxonomy words in a Learning Objective. At the end of the unit, students will design a display that presents the causes, events, and consequences of the French Revolution.
Some Bloom words are weasel words. Beware of these words that don’t meet the specific and measurable requirements.
Examples of Weasel Words imaginecomprehend understandknow appreciatesee exploreexposed to learnfamiliar with realizesense of discover not specific not measurable not specific not measurable
Examples of Useful Bloom Words listsort Identifycategorize predictdesign describegenerate concludejustify solveconstruct analyze measurable specific measurable specific
At the end of the lesson, students will explain two causes of the Civil War. time-bound specific results-oriented attainable measurable relevant
By the end of the lesson, students will provide a one page critique of one day in a Vietnam War soldier’s diary. specific measurable attainable relevant time-bound
After observing an experiment, students will hypothesize the atomic reason for the chemical reaction. specificmeasurable attainable results-oriented time-bound
After observing various objects, students will draw a triangle, a square, a rectangle, and a circle. specificmeasurable attainable relevant time-bound
Teachers plan lessons using Learning Objectives. Learning activities are based on the Learning Objectives.
You can study more to become proficient at creating Learning Objectives. A book by Anne Reeves can help.
http://ww2.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching/RevisedBlooms1.html http://edorigami.wikispaces.com/Bloom's+Digital+Taxonomy http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/bloom.html http://at.ccconline.org/faculty/wiki/Teaching_Resources_-_Other_Resources_- _Blooms_Taxonomy http://larryferlazzo.edublogs.org/2009/05/25/the-best-resources-for-helping- teachers-use-blooms-taxonomy-in-the-classroom/ If you want more information about Bloom’s Taxonomy and the new version of Bloom’s Taxonomy, see the following:
References Anderson, L. & Krathwohl, D. A. (2001) Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives New York: Longman Bloom, Benjamin, Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: the classification of educational goals; Handbook I: Cognitive Domain New York, Longmans, Green Marzano, Robert J., (2007), The Art and Science of Teaching A Comprehensive Framework For Effective Instruction, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, Virginia Ohio Department of Education (ODE) (2011). Ohio Resident Educator Teacher Program The Journey to Excellence SMART Goals. PDF Retrieved October, 2012, from http://education.ohio.gov/GD/Templates/Pages/ODE/ODEDetail.aspx?page=3&TopicRelationID=1 260&ContentID=129823&Content=130135 Posner, George J. and Rudnitsky, Alan N. (2006), Course Design A Guide to Curriculum Development for Teachers, Pearson Education Inc., Boston, Massachusetts. Reeves, Anne R. (2011), Where Great Teaching Begins Planning for Student Thinking and Learning, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, Virginia