2Assessment - historical perspective Standardized assessment is a relatively recent phenomenon in the history of public educationSparked - by the space race in the midst of the “Cold War” w/ Russia“A Nation at Risk”
3“A Nation at Risk”Presented data that American public education was deficientThis assertion was further reinforced by the public disappointment in loosing the “space race”Began the age of “accountability”
4Accountability Standardized Assessments State Standards - Course of StudyTeacher EvaluationAdministrator EvaluationSACS
5Role of AssessmentEffective teachers assess students often with relation to learning goals and modify instructional practice according to those assessments
6Components of Instr. Integrating Instruction & Assessment Large-Scale Accountability TestingResearch on Learning, Motivation, Instr.Recent TrendsAssessment & Grading DecisionsAssessment StandardsClassroom Assessment
7Integrating Instruction & Assessment Realities of teaching: fast paced, hectic, complexInstructional decision making: before instruction, during instruction, after instructionAssessment, in the classroom context is gathering, interpretation, and use of information to aid teacher decision making
8ExamplesWhat are some examples of integrating assessment in the instruction process? And into instruction decision making?
9Instructional Decision Making Teacher decisions may be classed according to when they are made. (Before, During, or after instruction)Pre-instructional decisions help set learning goals and select appropriate teaching activities.During instruction teachers make decisions regarding material presentation, student attention, and lesson plan adjustment.After instruction student learning is assessed and future plans are formulated.
11Reasearch on Learning, Motivation, & Instruction Cognitive Theories: meaningful, self-regulated, active constructionThinking SkillsMotivation: Feedback
12Assessment & Grading Decision Making Teacher Beliefs and Values:Philosophypulling for student successaccommodating individual differencesenhancing student engagementmotivationpromoting student understanding
13Assessment & Grading Decision Making External factors:Large-scale, mandated high stakes testsSchool and district grading policiesParents
14Assessment & Grading Decision Making Teacher beliefs & values combine w/ external factors to link to Decision making
15Assessment & Grading Decision Making Matching assessments to learning objectivesUsing many different types of assessmentImportance of constructed-response assessments and homework
16Assessment Standards Choosing appropriate assessment methods Developing appropriate assessment methodsAdministering, scoring and interpreting resultsUsing results to make decisions about students or instructionDeveloping proper grading proceduresCommunicating results to parents and other lay audiencesRecognizing unethical or inappropriate assessment methods
17Classroom AssessmentThe collection, evaluation, and use of information to help teachers make better decisions.It is much more than testing.There are 4 essential components to classroom assessment:a. Purpose – Why am I doing this assessment?b. Measurement – How will I gather the information?c. Evaluation – How will I interpret the results?d. Use – How will I use the results (Diagnosis, Grading, Instruction)
19Accommodations Many assessments can be given with accommodations Such as: reading portions of the test to the student, using large print, allowing extra timeSome states identify “allowable accommodations” available to all students
20AccommodationsSome states designate “specific accommodations” for students with disabilities or specific conditions
21Accountability Workbook A plan submitted by each state specifying how they would address the various issues detailed in the NCLB legislation
22Additional IndicatorNCLB requires that each state include an additional academic indicator, over and above the test score requirement, that each school and each school system must also meetMany states use attendance rate as the additional indicator for elementary (usually 95%) and graduation rate for high schools
23Alternative Assessment Some students are not capable of participation in the regular state assessment programTo insure that these students are included in the required assessment program, states have designed alternative assessments for them to take
24Alternative Assessment States are limited to counting no more than 2 percent of the students taking alternative assessments as proficient, in the accountability model
25Annual CalculationsStates are required to administer assessments annually and calculate student performance each year to determine if a school or school system has accomplished Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)Many states have a procedure for averaging up to three years of data in the AYP calculation, but the assessments must be given annually
26Annual Measurable Objectives or Annual Performance Targets reflect the percentage of students in each subgroup that must score in the proficient range at a school or in a school system for the group to accomplish Adequate Yearly ProgressAMO’s were established the first year that the state administered assessments in connection with NCLB
27Annual Measurable Objectives or Annual Performance Targets Baseline performance was established for that year as well as a progressive proficiency requirement for each state leading to 100% proficiency rate for the school yearSome states have opted to increase the proficiency requirement annually in equal intervals until the 100% standard is met
28Annual Measurable Objectives or Annual Performance Targets Regardless of how the state opts to increase the scale, all states must end up with the 100% proficiency requirement by 2014.
29Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Adequate Yearly Progress is the determination of whether or not a school or school system has met its annual accountability goalsAYP is based on the percent of students scoring proficient on the state assessments as well as the school or system’s performance on the “other academic indicator”.
30Criterion Referenced Test (CRT) A CRT assessment is similar in design to an assessment that a teacher would make for classroom useAt the state level, learning objectives are identified that the state wants to see accomplished, then contracts with a test developer to design the assessment to cover those objectives
31Criterion Referenced Test (CRT) Scores for a CRT assessment are usually reported as the percent correct or as proficient/non-proficient
32Confidence IntervalA confidence interval is a statistical procedure that is useful in determining if a specific score is statistically different from an established goal or targetIt allows for anticipated fluctuation in scores that might be accounted for by chance errors, motivation, or other confounding events during a test
33Confidence IntervalOnce the confidence interval has been calculated for a group of scores, it can be added to any single score to determine if the score is significantly different from the target. If not, the score is assumed to have met the target expectation
34Curriculum AlignmentIt is an attempt to insure that all objectives that will be assessed are being included in the instructional program
35Curriculum AlignmentCurriculum alignment can be very simple in format, or can become sophisticated to the level that pacing guides are established to insure that all teachers are covering the same material and spending equal amounts of time on each learning objective
36Full Academic YearThe idea is that students should not be counted in the accountability program for a school or state unless they have benefited from the instructional program for the entire academic year
37Full Academic YearExample = a student would be included in the AYP calculations if they were enrolled as of October 1 of the school year and continuously enrolled in that school until at least the first day of the testing window.
38IrregularityAn assessment irregularity is when something unusual takes place during the assessment programRarely is a testing irregularity serious enough to require a modification in the scoring or a nullification of a scoreImportant to record all irregularities
39Included Grade LevelsNCLB requires that CRT assessments be given in reading/language and mathematics annually in grades 3-8 and at least once during high school.Many states are meeting the high school requirement by administering a high stakes graduation exam that must be passed before graduation
40Included Grade LevelsThe reading/language portion and the math portion of the exam is doubling as the NCLB assessment requirement for the calculation of AYP.
41N Value (group size)Each state has established a minimum group size for inclusion in the AYP calculation. Any school or school system with fewer than the established number of students in that specific group will have that group excluded from accountability calculations
42N Value (group size)The “n” values vary significantly from state to state which is confusing for local school administratorsMany “n” values are in the range of 40 to 45Alabama = 40; Tennessee = 45
43Normal Curve Equivalent (NCE) An NCE is a testing statistic usually associated with a norm referenced testIt is based on a 100 point scale, similar to a percentile, but unlike a percentile is considered an equal interval score.The distance between any two scores on the scale is viewed as identical. The midpoint of the NCE scale is 50.
44Norm Referenced Test (NRT) A norm referenced test is designed to compare the performance of students taking the test to a national norm groupThe test is normed using groups of randomly selected students from across the country exhibiting a variety of ability levels
45Norm Referenced Test (NRT) Norm referenced tests are constructed by testing companies and are very difficult to align a curriculum to because the objectives being assessed come from a national pool and are not shared with local systems in detail.
46Participation RateIt is the intent of NCLB that all students in appropriate grade levels participate in the state assessment programThe federal standard has been set at a 95 % participation levelAny school or school system that fails to assess at least 95% of the enrolled students will not make AYP based on participation
47PercentileA percentile score is associated with a norm referenced assessmentThe interpretation of a percentile score is based upon a comparison to the group on which the test was normedA percentile score of 68 indicates that an individual scored at or above 68 percent of the individuals in the norm group
48Proficient (Percent Proficient) For NCLB, the percent proficient on any given assessment is the percent of students, either all, or identified subgroups, that scored at or above the minimum score to be considered proficient in the subject
49Proficient (Percent Proficient) Many states identify student performance as either below proficient, proficient, or advanced.In these cases, both proficient and advanced scores are considered successful performance on the assessment
50Safe HarborA school or school system that has been identified for school improvement can make AYP even if the percent proficient is not high enough to meet the current state requirement
51Safe HarborIf the school or system successfully reduces the number of non-proficient scores by at least 10% and meets all additional indicators, the school or system is judged to have met AYP under the safe harbor provision
52SanctionsSanctions are penalties that are imposed on schools or school systems for ongoing failure to meet AYPThe progression of sanctions may be different for schools that receive Title I funds than that of non-Title I schools
53SanctionsAll schools will experience some form of progressive sanctions if they fail to meet AYP under NCLB
54School ImprovementAny school or school system that fails to meet the accountability goals over a specified period of time will be identified for school improvementSchool improvement is based on failing to meet the standard in the same content area for two consecutive years
55School ImprovementIf a school continues to fail to meet the proficiency standard, classifications such as school improvement-2 and school improvement-3 are appliedThe amount of sanctions that are applied are related to the number of years the school has been in school improvement
56Security BreachA security breach is a term associated with some inappropriate action that takes place during the assessment programTeachers can create a security breach by inappropriately administering a test or having students practice skills using actual items from the test
57Security BreachThe penalties for a security breach are serious and can result in the loss of an individual’s teaching credentialsSecurity breeches can also cause groups of student scores to be invalidated by state scoring services
58SubgroupsData at the school and system level in NCLB must be analyzed by specific subgroupsSubgroups that are required to be analyzed in NCLB include Special Education, Limited English Proficient, Poverty (free and reduced lunch) and five ethnic classifications
59SubgroupsOne additional group consisting of “all students” is also identifiedTo make AYP, a school or school system must meet the proficiency standard for each subgroup
60Subjects IncludedNCLB has identified reading/language and math as the two subject areas to be included in AYP calculationsSome states also include a writing assessment as a part of the language calculation