Definitions No Child Left Behind (NCLB): Is designed to assist school raise the standards for education and to ensure accountability for the performance of students. In addition, it is used to bridge the gap between poor education and low socioeconomic groups. Florida A-Plus Program: Accountability system that helped to design the NCLB. Sunshine State Standards: Implemented in 1996; it provided classroom expectations for students in Florida.
Definitions Title One: This is apart of NCLB that supports programs in schools and school districts to improve the learning of children of low-income families. Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): NCLB uses this to explain that the student is meeting the state reading and math goals. The school district’s report card will show if the goals are met.
Definitions High Qualified Teacher (HQT): NCLB uses this for a teacher to prove that he or she knows the subjects they are teaching, has a college degree, and is state-certified. HQT are used in core subjects. School District Report Cards: This gives parents report cards so they can see the schools in their district success or not. Reading First: Is a program that provides more that a billion dollars a year to help children learn to read. This is apart of NCLB; it ensure that children will read on grade level by the third grade.
Definitions Schools in Need of Improvement: This is referred to schools receiving Title One funding that does not meet the state reading and math AYP for @ least 2 years. If the school receives this, then the students have the choice to transfer to another public school, including a public charter school. Supplemental Educational Services (SES): This service has been implemented to give students tutoring and extra help with schoolwork in subject such as math and reading. The service is free and most likely takes place outside regular school hours.
No Child Left Behind NCLB was designed to: Create higher educational standards Produce greater accountability for student performance Close the achievement gap between different racial and socioeconomic groups
NCLB Provisions 1.Establishment of an accountability system 2.Creating higher standards for teachers 3.Testing students annually 4.Encouraging parental involvement 5.Teaching curriculum that had been proven effective through scientifically-based research 6.Allowing students to transfer out of schools who did not display adequate yearly progress (AYP)
NCLB Penalties Development or revision of improvement plan Student transfers Establishment of additional services Implementing new curriculum Removing staff Extending length of school day or school year
Problems with NCLB Underfunded mandate Lack of consideration for learning disabled (LD) students Disregard for subjects other than reading and mathematics
Underfunded Mandate Lawsuits National Education Association (NEA) Filed lawsuit on April 20, 2005 State of Connecticut Filed lawsuit on August 22, 2005 Both lawsuits alleged the federal government was failing to adequately fund NCLB
Underfunded Mandate Lawsuits Section 9527(a) of the No Child Left Behind Act: Nothing in the Act shall be construed to… mandate a State or any subdivision thereof to spend any funds or incur any costs not paid for under this Act.
Court Rulings Both the NEA and Connecticut lawsuits were dismissed from court on the basis that Section 9527(a) does not prohibit the government from imposing underfunded mandates NEA and Connecticut are appealing the decision
Disregard for LD Students State of Utah State senate passed a bill authorizing public schools to ignore testing mandates for LD students State of Texas Commissioner of education granted public schools the right to exclude LD students from NCLB mandates
Determining AYP NCLB divides students into five main subgroups: Whites Minorities Children from poor families Handicapped students Students with low English proficiency
Determining AYP Schools fail to demonstrate adequate yearly progress when at least one subgroup fails to display growth and continued improvement in their test results Learning disabled students as well as those with low English proficiency continuously lack to demonstrate growth and improvement on assessment tests
AYP Misconceptions Measuring student progress-comparison of students varies year-year Failing AYP means school not progressing AYP reading & math target proficiency- national/state discrepancies
NCLB Testing Mandates NCLB requires learning disabled students to take standardized tests at their grade level Most students with severe learning disabilities are unable to perform at grade level
How do you currently feel about standardized testing?
NCLB Exemptions When NCLB was first established, only 1% of learning disabled students could be exempt The exemption rate was later increased to 3% by Education Secretary Margaret Spellings NCLB expects 97% of learning disabled students to learn, function, and perform at the exact same level as their non-disabled peers
Demoralizing Effects Forcing learning disabled students to preform at such a high ability level causes them to doubt their intelligence, develop a sense of inferiority, and become discouraged and frustrated Third grade learning disabled student: The only thing I have learned this school year is that I am not smart.
Testing Solutions Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) Administer FCAT based on ability level Allow LD students to take alternative assessments such as the Alternative Assessment Test
Neglected Subjects Because NCLB focuses on reading and math, other subjects are often neglected or ignored NCLB has drastically cut classroom time and funding for subjects such as: Science Arts Education Physical Education
Neglected Subjects – Science National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) report: 82% of twelfth graders in 2000 were unable display science proficiency on a national NAEP test NCLB requires states to begin administering science assessment tests in 2007 Science scores will not be used when determining AYP Percentage of 12 th graders proficient in science
Point of View on Science Education U.S. Commission on National Security in the 21st Century: More Americans will have to understand and work competently with science and math on a daily basis…the inadequacies of our systems of research and education pose a greater threat to U.S. national security over the next quarter century than any potential conventional war that we might imagine.
Neglected Subjects – Arts Education Arts education includes: Creative Writing Performing Arts Visual Arts NCLB lists arts education as a core academic subject NCLB does not require schools to assess student performance in any areas of arts education
Arts Education Continued A study conducted by the Center for Education Policy revealed that NCLB has reduced arts education by 22% This has lead to the development of many arts advocacy groups and campaigns: Arts Education Partnership Music Education Coalition National Arts Education Public Awareness Campaign Commission on No Child Left Behind http://www.aspeninstitute.org/site/c.huLWJeMRKpH/b.9380 15/k.40DA/Commission_on_No_Child_Left_Behind.htm http://www.aspeninstitute.org/site/c.huLWJeMRKpH/b.9380 15/k.40DA/Commission_on_No_Child_Left_Behind.htm
Points of View on Arts Education Brenda Welburn – Executive Director of the National Association of State Boards of Education: These subjects should be considered as fundamental to a child’s education as the three “R’s.” Mollie Theel – Minnesota art teacher in an interview with the National Education Association (NEA): I understand about math and reading. I just want fair time and respect. Art is not fluff. We teach kids to see in new ways. We touch the senses. A lot of what I do is applied math – proportion and ratio, scale and measuring.
Neglected Subjects – P.E. National Parent Teacher Association (NPTA) study: 40% of elementary schools nationwide have eliminated or shortened recess in response to NCLB NPTA in partnership with the Cartoon Network have created a program called Rescuing Recess
Rescuing Recess Campaign NPTA press release: The goal of the campaign is to recognize unstructured break time as an essential element of the school day and to connect educators, parents, and kids as advocates to bring back or keep recess.
Points of View on P.E. Anna Weselak – NPTA President: Children who are physically active do better in the classroom. The research tells us that even if it means a reduction in class time, providing more time for physical activity can lead to increased test scores. Beverley Ann Griffin – Mother of a third grade girl in an interview with the Boston Herald: Success-driven adults are forgetting we have children in schools. They are not business executives. They are not 7- year-old CEOs. They are children and they need to have a break in the middle of the day.
How Did We Get Here? Be it enacted by the senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled. That there shall be established, at the city of Washington, a Department of Education, for the purpose of collecting such statistics and facts as shall show the condition and progress of education in several States and Territories, and of diffusing such information respecting the organization and management of schools and school systems, and methods of teaching, as shall aid the people in the United States in the establishment and maintenance of efficient school systems, and otherwise promote the cause of education throughout the country. (bill introduced by Representative James Garfield (R-OH) in support of DOE-currently referred to as USOE), 1867)
Does anyone know how we currently get that information?
NAEP Tests Elementary & Secondary Education Act (ESEA) passed by L.Johnson, 1965 National student assessment Responsible party, US Commissioner of Education (1962-1965), F.Keppel “The nation could find out about school buildings or discover how many years children stay in school; it had no satisfactory way of assessing whether the time spent in school was effective.”
NCLB Positives Stats from 2002-05 4th grade reading proficiency increased by 16 %. 50% of Florida students are reading “at or above” their particular grade level. 5th grade math proficiency increased by 9% Black-white achievement gap in reading & hispanic- white achievement gap in reading narrowed by 6% Since 2002 graduation percentages have risen from 52% to 65%. (most recent info according to FL report card)
Sunshine State Standards They were approved in 1996 to provide expectations for Florida students. They contain more challenging material than previous state standards, which focused on minimum competencies. Chosen to provide flexibility for schools in designing a curriculum based on the local needs. As Florida moves toward greater accountability for student achievement, the Standards have been further defined.
Sunshine State Standards In the subjects of: language arts, math, science, and social studies the Standards have been expanded to include Grade Level Expectations (GLE). These GLE will eventually become the basis for state assessments in grades 3- 10 in language arts and math, but will eventually include science and social studies.
Sunshine State Standards What are they? They are broad statements that describe what a child should know and be able to do at every grade level. They cover 7 subject areas: Social studies Science Language arts Health/physical education The arts Foreign language Mathematics
Sunshine State Standards The standards are divided into smaller units called “benchmarks,” which outline the specific content, knowledge, and skills that students are expected to learn in school. Each student’s performance on FCAT Reading, Writing, Mathematics, and Science tests indicates his or her progress in reaching these benchmarks.
Play part of “A Florida Promise” Chapter about measuring up.
Florida A-Plus Program It is a school accountability system that helped formed the NCLB act. Each public school is assigned a grade based on student performance on the FCAT. If a school receives 2 “F” in a 4-year period, its students are offered vouchers to attend a local private/parochial school – in the past, changed as of Jan. 2006.
Florida A-Plus Program Schools are graded based on: Overall performance of their students on the FCAT. The percentage of eligible students who take the test. Whether or not students have made annual learning gains in reading and math, with particular attention to the reading scores of the lowest 25% of students in the school.
Florida A-Plus Program Main Points: All public schools get letter grades on an A to F scale. Students in failing schools can transfer to another school or work with Assistance Plus school staff to improve their school. The A+ Plan ends social promotion. The A+ Plan raises standards for teachers.
Statistics on the Florida A-Plus Program 75% of all 3 rd graders are reading at or above grade level, compared to 57% in 2001. 4 th graders are performing above the national average in reading and math. The number of high school students taking AP courses has increased 125% since 1999. 68% of Florida schools received ‘A’ or ‘B’ grades compared to the 21% before Florida A-Plus was put into action.
Title One Funding Title 1 is apart of the “Elementary & Secondary Education Act of 1965”. It was a way of eliminating any difference in education from the different levels of economic status. The foundation of Title 1 was to help children who lived in poverty receive the same education as other children. The ultimate goal was such that all students are educated equally. In 1994 the mission changed to assisting all disadvantage students met the state standards.
Title One Funding The way the $ is allocated is based on a formula; the ratio is the number of students who live in poverty and receive free or reduced lunch. According to http://www.psesd.org/lt/titleone, http://www.psesd.org/lt/titleone The ratio has to equal 40% of the students. This funding affects grades K through high school.
Title One Funding Title 1 is flexible, such that, it can also be used to improve teachers’ development, the curriculum, classroom aides, and doing other activities that assist in improving student performance in the class 2/3 of the 11 million dollars are used for students in K- 6th grade. About 260,000 preschool children are being served under the Title 1 guidelines. 1 million children with disabilities receive Title One. It also provides aides for students who are not fluent in English; approximately 2 million students use this aide.
Nationwide Concerns Some urban schools graduating less than 50% of target grads 28% of grad class entering 2-4 yr colleges need remedial English & math According to transcripts 53% of entries enroll for at least 1 remedial math or English
U.S. Conference of Mayors 2004, committed to aligning academic from elementary-postsecondary levels ’04 commitment to comparable academic curriculum for all schools within district standards to college
USCM Solutions Create programs w/ elementary, middle & high school working in conjunction w/ postsecondary school curriculum Encouragement of programs such as GEAR UP http://www.ed.gov/programs/gearup/index.html & Project Grad http://www.projectgrad.org/site/pp.asp?c=fuLTJe MUKrH&b=365959 offering financial assistance http://www.ed.gov/programs/gearup/index.html http://www.projectgrad.org/site/pp.asp?c=fuLTJe MUKrH&b=365959 Joint ventures & partnerships w/ postsecondary education http://studentservices.fgcu.edu/supportservices/ http://studentservices.fgcu.edu/supportservices/
USCM Solutions Classes @ school w/ job opp exp while in school Teacher recruitment w/ housing incentives http://www.floridahousing.org/Home/ Creating or authorizing charter schools http://www.bonitaspringscharter.org/ http://www.bonitaspringscharter.org/ http://www.capecoralcharter.org/ http://www.capecoralcharter.org/ http://www.capecharterschools.org/ http://www.capecharterschools.org/ http://www.gatewaycharterhigh.org/ http://www.gatewaycharterhigh.org/ http://www.gatewaycharterschool.org/ http://www.gatewaycharterschool.org/ http://www.leecharteracademy.com/ http://www.leecharteracademy.com/ http://www.goodwilllifeacademy.org/ http://www.goodwilllifeacademy.org/ http://www.lifeskillscenters.com/ http://www.lifeskillscenters.com/ http://www.nesihq.org/richard-milburn-academy.htm http://www.nesihq.org/richard-milburn-academy.htm http://www.sixmilecharter.org/ http://www.sixmilecharter.org/ http://tis-bocagrande.org/theIslandPost.asp http://tis-bocagrande.org/theIslandPost.asp
USCM Solutions Sponsoring policies & practices that encourage & are involved in tutoring, mentoring, school volunteering. http://www.lee.k12.fl.us/schools/dpl/ambassador s.htm http://www.lee.k12.fl.us/schools/dpl/ambassador s.htm Supporting school bond & tax levies http://www.lee-county.com/minutes/2001/09-25- 01.htm http://www.lee-county.com/minutes/2001/09-25- 01.htm Encouraging parent involvement http://www.lee.k12.fl.us/schools/dpl/Parents.html http://www.lee.k12.fl.us/schools/dpl/Parents.html Facilitating business partnerships w/ schools
USCM Solutions Alternatives for at risk & in & out of school youth http://www.fsu.edu/~flserve/whoweare.html http://www.fsu.edu/~flserve/whoweare.html http://www.fsu.edu/~flserve/projects/0506projects.pdf http://www.fsu.edu/~flserve/projects/0506projects.pdf Edu opps for recent released juv offenders & ending foster care students http://www.lee.k12.fl.us/sch_im_plans/price_halfway_sc h_improvement_plan.htm http://www.lee.k12.fl.us/sch_im_plans/price_halfway_sc h_improvement_plan.htm http://www.dcf.state.fl.us/fostercare/help.shtml http://www.dcf.state.fl.us/fostercare/help.shtml Construct & modernize schools for joint use as community learning centers http://www.lee.k12.fl.us/dept/ace/dun.htm http://www.lee.k12.fl.us/dept/ace/dun.htm
USCM Solutions Recreation & athletic Options for students Recognition prog’s for educators http://www.fldoe.org/STAR/ http://www.fldoe.org/STAR/ Lobbying Participate in school board member vote & superintendent vote Overseeing of school budget process Summer & school year job availability for work exp
NCLB Supporters Claim FL 4th in nation for disadvantage student funding Federal education spending higher under current administration than previous ones, by 49% NCLB has received "an enormous amount of money" at a time "when you're just not seeing these kinds of increases in other domestic spending areas” (Heritage Foundation expert, Krista Kafer quoted)
Solutions What can FGCU students do? Contact firstname.lastname@example.org and get involved in SHS, or find out more about SSS.email@example.com Vote Volunteer-fulfills SL requirement Substitute teach-great pay, retirement benefits, work when you want! www.leeschools.net/dept/ps/online_application/sub_rew.htmwww.leeschools.net/dept/ps/online_application/sub_rew.htm Tell your friends w/ kids to visit hotlinks & implement USCM suggestions, tell education majors to log onto the hotlinks for ideas or if looking for SL hours. Visit DCF site to find out how you can help a child in need. Become a lobbyist http://www.lee- county.com/onlinedocuments/lobbyist.htmhttp://www.lee- county.com/onlinedocuments/lobbyist.htm Attend a school board meeting http://www.lee.k12.fl.us/community/board/ads/welcome.htm http://www.lee.k12.fl.us/community/board/ads/welcome.htm
After this presentation…How do you now feel about standardized testing? What would you suggest as more effective means? Questions For You…