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School Effectiveness, Accountability and Improvement

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1 School Effectiveness, Accountability and Improvement
Hoy & Miskel (2008), Educational Administration: Theory, Research and Practice Chapter 8: School Effectiveness, Accountability and Improvement Intro: We’re trying to take a different approach to our presentation than many have taken: instead of marching through all the research-based details that Hoy & Miskel cover, we are trying to focus on the three big ideas in this chapter—school effectiveness, accountability and school improvement— and we have created a more interactive format to engage all of us in reflection and dialogue on these issues. I feel that some of the most powerful moments in this class this semester have been when we have engaged in lovely discussion on important issues; it is our hope that our presentation generates this kind of discussion tonight. We have tried to follow the advice of “Presentation Zen” and created a “minimalist” slideshow, accompanied by an interactive worksheet. We are not providing a printout of the slideshow per se. We will give you—at the conclusion of our presentation—a set of concise but thorough chapter notes, so that you will have quick access to the main ideas and relevant research of this chapter. We ask that you all please close your laptops and give this presentation your full attention, and that you participate in the writing and discussion activities we present. Thank you for your cooperation. YOU’LL WANT TO HAVE A PIECE OF LINED PAPER, ALONG WITH OUR HANDOUT. (CHERYL minutes) Presented by Cheryl DiGrazia and Ted Altenberg November 18, 2009 SJSU EdAd

2 Question: What does “school effectiveness” mean to you; what defines an effective school? Present question to class Take 1-2 to think/write individually Take 2-3 to share out in small groups Take 2-3 minutes to share out whole class (someone takes notes) (TED minutes)

3 Effectiveness means… School Effectiveness = Achieving desired outcomes, in terms of student learning and achievement, and many other factors. “What are this school’s goals for student achievement?” Different stakeholders—teachers, administrators, students, parents, and community members—have very different priorities, and therefore different criteria for defining and measuring school effectiveness. “Effectiveness” also defined differently at different times: 1970’s – social /emotional growth and equity for all students 1980’s – efficiency, academic achievement and employment skills 1990’s – continued academic with accountability 2000’s - Increasing level of accountability and sanctions for failing to meet expectations (NCLB) (CHERYL minutes)

4 “For school administrators… the goal of creating effective schools is continually to become effective rather than to be effective.” (page 293, based on Zammuto, 1982) (TED - 1/2 minute)

5 What leads to outcomes Inputs Transformational Processes Performance
(chapter 7) Transformational Processes (chapters 2-6) Performance Outcomes (CHERYL minutes ) Inputs = Physical, non-physical, monetary and other inputs to the educational system Monetary (what $$$ can buy): Personnel (teachers, admin, classified) Books, curriculum materials, etc. Libraries, technology, facilities Non-Monetary : Local, state, federal policies & practices Organizational structures Family support & involvement Student abilities, motivation, etc. Social, cultural context (1 minute) Transformational Processes: Teaching and Learning (chapter 2) School Structures (chapter 3) Individuals (chapter 4) Culture & Climate (chapter 5) Power & Politics (chapter 6) (1 minutes)

6 Which of these factors do you feel have the greatest impact on a school’s effectiveness? Why?
Present question to class Take 1-2 to think/write individually Take 1-2 to share out in small groups Quick survey: How many chose: Inputs Teaching & Learning School Structures (chapter 3) Individuals (chapter 4) Culture & Climate (chapter 5) Power & Politics (chapter 6) (2 minutes) Take 2-3 minutes to share out whole class (someone takes notes) (TED minutes)

7 Accountability means…
Prompt: What do YOU think “accountability” means? Accountability = Using student achievement data to assess a school’s effectiveness at reaching outcome targets, and then imposing consequences for schools that do not reach the target. “Is this school effective; is it achieving its goals?” (CHERYL minutes)

8 Accountability Historical Background
A Nation at Risk 1990s NCLB We will present the detailed info Students take notes on interactive handout (TED - 1 minute) A Nation at Risk (1983): Seminal report that launched an explosion of school reform efforts comparable to the early ’60s post-Sputnik push to improve education. Increased expectations for student achievement, teacher training… Overall impact limited; efforts criticized for being too fragmented… (CHERYL - 1 minute) 1990s: More systematic approaches to school reform, added two important new elements: Comprehensive and simultaneous change of several school elements Integrated clear outcomes with reform efforts, adding important “new vocabulary:” Accountability Academic achievement, performance standards Assessment, high-stakes tests (TED - 2 minute) NCLB (2001): Codified federal requirements that every state establish accountability system A “3-pronged” system, including: Content Standards Annual Student Assessments Sanctions for continued poor performance (4 minutes)

9 Questions: Who should be held accountable for providing effective education; why or why not; if so, how? Individual teachers Principals Individual schools School districts Present question to class Take 1-2 to think/write individually Choose 1-3 ideas you wrote that you feel are most important; write your ideas on the appropriate chart papers (3-4 minutes) Review what people wrote, discuss… (5 min) (CHERYL minutes)

10 “No Child Left Breathing” or “No Teacher Left Standing” or “No Creativity Left in the Curriculum”
(TED - (3 minutes) Documented impacts of NCLB: Narrowing the curriculum Obsessing over testing Using time inflexibly Standardizing practices to offer one-size fits all education Teaching low-level cognitive skills with boring “drill and kill” practices Excluding some students from testing Increasing dropout rates Growing consensus and chorus of voices calling for major reforms to NCLB, calling for: Broadening the goals for schooling (beyond “proficiency” in English and math) Addressing equity and adequacy (in financing, assessment & accountability, ) Creating continuous improvement Supporting experimentation in public school practices, choice, governance, and technology But NCLB is not going away… How do we try to do our best to meet these multiple and sometimes contradictory goals that—as educational leaders for equity and excellence—we share: Increasing academic achievement for all students—just as NCLB rhetoric says Reaching and teaching the whole child: Teaching the arts and humanities; Supporting the social, emotional, moral and spiritual (ala Edmundo Norte) growth, development and health of every child; Preparing students for success in the workplace, as well as post-secondary education: effective career-technical education (CTE) Supporting children’s development as citizens of their local communities, the nation and the world (e.g. non-violent communication, conflict resolution, collaborative work and decision making, acceptance of diversity and difference [fighting the “isms”], environmental stewardship…)

11 Discussion questions If you could make any 3 changes at all to your site, in order to improve its effectiveness, what would they be? If you could rewrite NCLB, to fix its problems but keep its stated goal of making sure all kids reach high academic standards, what would you do? What are the most important things that an effective accountability system should include? Choose one of these two questions. All those doing question 1, to this corner; all those doing question 2, to that corner. (1 minute) Within your “question group,” break into smaller groups of 1-4; discuss, brainstorm, write down responses. (3-5 minutes) Reconvene, share out whole class (3-6 minutes) (CHERYL minutes)

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