2 14 Education Module 42: Sociological Perspectives on Education Module 43: Schools as Formal Organizations
3 A Look AheadDo public schools offer everyone a way up the socioeconomic ladder, or do they reinforce divisions among social classes?What is the “hidden curriculum” in U.S. schools?What have sociologists learned about the latest trends in education?
4 Sociological Perspectives on Education Module 42Sociological Perspectives on EducationEducation is social institution that formally socializes members of societyProportion of people age 25 or over with a high school diploma increased from 41% in 1960 to more than 86% in 2008Proportion with a college degree rose from 8% in 1960 to 29% in 2008
5 Functionalist View Transmitting Culture Module 42Functionalist ViewTransmitting CultureExposing young people to existing beliefs, norms, and values of their cultureInternet offers new and potentially revolutionary way to transmit culturePromoting Social and Political IntegrationCommon identity and social integration fostered by education contributes to societal stability and consensus
6 Functionalist View Maintaining Social Control Module 42Functionalist ViewMaintaining Social ControlSchools teach students punctuality, discipline, scheduling, responsible work habits, and how to negotiate a bureaucratic organizationServing as an Agent of ChangeSchools serve as a meeting ground where people can share distinctive beliefs and traditions
7 Conflict View Education is instrument of elite domination Module 42Conflict ViewEducation is instrument of elite dominationSchools socialize students into values dictated by the powerful and stifle individualism and creativity to promote relatively insignificant change
8 Module 42Conflict ViewThe Hidden Curriculum: Standards of behavior deemed proper by society are taught subtly in schoolsCredentialism: Increase in the lowest level of education needed to enter a field
9 Conflict View Bestowal of Status Module 42Conflict ViewBestowal of StatusSchools tend to preserve social class inequalities in each new generationTracking: Practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of test scores and other criteriaCorrespondence principle: Promotes values expected of individuals in each social class; perpetuate social class divisions
10 Feminist Views In 20th century, sexism found in: Module 42Feminist ViewsIn 20th century, sexism found in:Stereotypes in textbooksPressure to study traditional women’s subjectsUnequal funding for athleticsEmployment biasWomen have made strides in continuing education
11 Module 42Interactionist ViewLabeling approach suggests that if people are treated in particular ways, they may fulfill expectationsTeacher-expectancy effect: Impact of teacher expectations and their large role on student performance
16 Table 42-1: Sociological Perspectives on Education Module 42Table 42-1: Sociological Perspectives on Education16
17 Sociology on Campus Google University Module 42Sociology on CampusGoogle UniversityDo you prefer to do your reading online or in a magazine, newspaper, or book?Have you participated in any social or political causes or volunteered your time while on campus? Did you use the Internet to organize or disseminate information about your activities?
18 Bureaucratization of Schools Module 43Bureaucratization of SchoolsWeber: characteristics of bureaucracy:Division of laborHierarchy of authorityWritten rules and regulationsImpersonalityEmployment based on technical qualifications
19 Teachers: Employees and Instructors Module 43Teachers: Employees and InstructorsTeachers undergo many stressesBetween a quarter and a third of new teachers quit within their first 3 yearsFewer students choose teaching as career due to perceived low incomeIn 2009, 4.1% first-year college students were interested in elementary education and 4.4% in high school education
20 Student Subcultures In colleges: Collegiate subculture Module 43Student SubculturesIn colleges:Collegiate subcultureAcademic subcultureVocational subcultureNonconformist subcultureEach student is exposed to competing subcultures and must determine which seems most in line with his or her feelings and interests
21 Homeschooling About 1.5 million schooled at home Module 43HomeschoolingAbout 1.5 million schooled at homeSome theorists cite lack of social involvement as problemGood alternative for children with ADHD and learning disabilitiesHomeschooled children score higher on standardized tests
22 Research Today Violence in the Schools Module 43Research TodayViolence in the SchoolsHas a shooting or other violent episode ever occurred at your school. Do you feel safer at school than at home?What steps have administrators at your school taken to prevent violence? Have they been effective, or should other steps be taken?
23 Figure 43-1: Average Salary for Teachers Module 43Figure 43-1: Average Salary for Teachers
24 Module 43Figure 43-2: College Campuses by Race and Ethnicity: Then, Now, and in the Future
25 No Child Left Behind Program Module 43No Child Left Behind ProgramUnderstanding the IssueToo many U.S. public schools failing to educate studentsIn 2001, No Child Left Behind (NCLB) enacted by CongressSupporters charged act not enforced stringently enoughOpponents felt legislation went too far
26 No Child Left Behind Program Module 43No Child Left Behind ProgramUnderstanding the IssueSchools in U.S. locally run and financed with some federal and state aidNational educational standards established in 1990sNCLB built on national standards and set penalties for failure to meet standardsEvery student to be proficient in reading and mathematics by 2014Debate about how best to offer high-quality schooling to all children
27 No Child Left Behind Program Module 43No Child Left Behind ProgramApplying SociologyObjectives of common curricular promotes social integrationTesting is controversialValidity: the degree to which a scale or measure truly reflects the phenomenon under studyReliability: extent to which a measure provides consistent results
28 No Child Left Behind Program Module 43No Child Left Behind ProgramInitiating PolicyEducational reformers have yet to find solution that fits all schools in all statesIndependent commission advocated maintaining 2014 goals even though only small portion of nation’s schools would reach objectives (1997)