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Slide 1 Richard T. Schaefer 1 st Edition Slide 1 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. chapter fourteen Sociology in Modules Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 Richard T. Schaefer 1 st Edition Slide 1 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. chapter fourteen Sociology in Modules Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 Richard T. Schaefer 1 st Edition Slide 1 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. chapter fourteen Sociology in Modules Education

2 Slide 2 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Module 42: Sociological Perspectives on EducationModule 42: Sociological Perspectives on Education Module 43: Schools as Formal Organizations Education 14

3 Slide 3 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. █ Do public schools offer everyone a way up the socioeconomic ladder, or do they reinforce divisions among social classes? A Look Ahead █ What is the “hidden curriculum” in U.S. schools? █ What have sociologists learned about the latest trends in education?

4 Slide 4 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sociological Perspectives on Education █ Education is social institution that formally socializes members of society –Proportion of people age 25 or over with a high school diploma increased from 41% in 1960 to more than 86% in 2008 –Proportion with a college degree rose from 8% in 1960 to 29% in 2008 Module 42

5 Slide 5 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Functionalist View █ Transmitting Culture –Exposing young people to existing beliefs, norms, and values of their culture –Internet offers new and potentially revolutionary way to transmit culture █ Promoting Social and Political Integration –Common identity and social integration fostered by education contributes to societal stability and consensus Module 42

6 Slide 6 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Functionalist View █ Maintaining Social Control –Schools teach students punctuality, discipline, scheduling, responsible work habits, and how to negotiate a bureaucratic organization █ Serving as an Agent of Change Schools serve as a meeting ground where people can share distinctive beliefs and traditions Module 42

7 Slide 7 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Conflict View █ Education is instrument of elite domination –Schools socialize students into values dictated by the powerful and stifle individualism and creativity to promote relatively insignificant change Module 42

8 Slide 8 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Conflict View █ The Hidden Curriculum: Standards of behavior deemed proper by society are taught subtly in schools Credentialism: Increase in the lowest level of education needed to enter a field Module 42

9 Slide 9 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Conflict View █ Bestowal of Status –Schools tend to preserve social class inequalities in each new generation –Tracking: Practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of test scores and other criteria –Correspondence principle: Promotes values expected of individuals in each social class; perpetuate social class divisions Module 42

10 Slide 10 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Feminist Views █ In 20 th century, sexism found in: Stereotypes in textbooks Pressure to study traditional women’s subjects Unequal funding for athletics Employment bias –Women have made strides in continuing education Module 42

11 Slide 11 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Interactionist View █ Labeling approach suggests that if people are treated in particular ways, they may fulfill expectations Teacher-expectancy effect: Impact of teacher expectations and their large role on student performance Module 42

12 Slide 12 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 42-1: Higher Education Completion Rates (BA/BS), Selected Countries Module 42

13 Slide 13 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 42-2: Annual Median Earnings by Educational Level Module 43

14 Slide 14 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 42-3: Foreign Students by Major Countries of Origin and Destination Module 42

15 Slide 15 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 42-4: Tuition Costs, 1976 – 2007 Module 42

16 Slide 16 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Table 42-1: Sociological Perspectives on Education Module 42

17 Slide 17 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sociology on Campus █ Google University –Do you prefer to do your reading online or in a magazine, newspaper, or book? –Have you participated in any social or political causes or volunteered your time while on campus? Did you use the Internet to organize or disseminate information about your activities? Module 42

18 Slide 18 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Bureaucratization of Schools █ Weber: characteristics of bureaucracy: –Division of labor –Hierarchy of authority –Written rules and regulations –Impersonality –Employment based on technical qualifications Module 43

19 Slide 19 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Teachers: Employees and Instructors █ Teachers undergo many stresses –Between a quarter and a third of new teachers quit within their first 3 years █ Fewer students choose teaching as career due to perceived low income –In 2009, 4.1% first-year college students were interested in elementary education and 4.4% in high school education Module 43

20 Slide 20 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Student Subcultures █ In colleges: –Collegiate subculture –Academic subculture –Vocational subculture –Nonconformist subculture Each student is exposed to competing subcultures and must determine which seems most in line with his or her feelings and interests Module 43

21 Slide 21 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Homeschooling █ About 1.5 million schooled at home –Some theorists cite lack of social involvement as problem –Good alternative for children with ADHD and learning disabilities –Homeschooled children score higher on standardized tests Module 43

22 Slide 22 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Research Today █ Violence in the Schools –Has a shooting or other violent episode ever occurred at your school. Do you feel safer at school than at home? –What steps have administrators at your school taken to prevent violence? Have they been effective, or should other steps be taken? Module 43

23 Slide 23 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 43-1: Average Salary for Teachers Module 43

24 Slide 24 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 43-2: College Campuses by Race and Ethnicity: Then, Now, and in the Future Module 43

25 Slide 25 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No Child Left Behind Program █ Understanding the Issue –Too many U.S. public schools failing to educate students –In 2001, No Child Left Behind (NCLB) enacted by Congress Supporters charged act not enforced stringently enough Opponents felt legislation went too far Module 43

26 Slide 26 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No Child Left Behind Program █ Understanding the Issue –Schools in U.S. locally run and financed with some federal and state aid National educational standards established in 1990s –NCLB built on national standards and set penalties for failure to meet standards Every student to be proficient in reading and mathematics by 2014 Debate about how best to offer high-quality schooling to all children Module 43

27 Slide 27 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No Child Left Behind Program █ Applying Sociology –Objectives of common curricular promotes social integration –Testing is controversial Validity: the degree to which a scale or measure truly reflects the phenomenon under study Reliability: extent to which a measure provides consistent results Module 43

28 Slide 28 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No Child Left Behind Program █ Initiating Policy –Educational reformers have yet to find solution that fits all schools in all states –Independent commission advocated maintaining 2014 goals even though only small portion of nation’s schools would reach objectives (1997) Module 43


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