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Standards-Based Education By: Chris Garland, Julie Gay and Kim Tooley.

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Presentation on theme: "Standards-Based Education By: Chris Garland, Julie Gay and Kim Tooley."— Presentation transcript:

1 Standards-Based Education By: Chris Garland, Julie Gay and Kim Tooley

2 Prominence in United States -Standards-Based Education became prominent in the late 1980s and 1990s -this reform movement calls for clear, measurable standards for all students -a standards-based system measures each student against a concrete standard instead of against each other -all states, except Iowa, have developed a set of educational standards for students

3 Philosophical Base -Standards-based education began in the 1980s and early 1990s as Outcome Based Education -education reform model that has a student centered philosophy that focuses on measuring student “outcomes” -also known as mastery education or performance-based education

4 Core Goals of SBE programs -the creation of curriculum frameworks which outline specific knowledge or skills which students must acquire -an emphasis on criterion-referenced assessments which are aligned to the frameworks -the imposition of some high-stakes tests, such as graduation examinations requiring a high standard of performance to receive a diploma

5 Intention The vision of the standards-education movement is that every student will receive a meaningful high school diploma that serves essentially as a public guarantee that they can read, write, and do basic mathematics. - NO student then regardless of poverty, race, gender, cultural or ethnic background, disabilities, or family situation will be exempt from learning the required material, although it is acknowledged that individual students may learn in different ways and at different ways -Ultimately the vision is the backbone of NCLB

6 Initial Action In 1994 Congress passed the Goals 2000: Educate America Act -this was the beginning of the Standards-Based Education push in the US -this act enacted the education goals into law and provided resources for the development of standards and assessments -suggestions for implementing standards-based education reform were as followed Conduct ongoing research on standards-based education reform Establish a national organization to communicate SBE efforts across the nation Address systemic inequities

7 Standards-Based Ed. Programs -measures its success based on student learning (the achievement of standards) rather than compliance with rules and regulations -aligns policies, initiatives, curriculum, instruction, and assessments with clearly defined academic standards -criterion-references tests based on these standards rather than norm-based rankings (comparing students) -a requirement that attention be paid to narrowing academic gaps between groups such as races, income or gender -consistently communicates and uses standards to focus on ways to ensure success for all students -uses assessment to inform instruction on a continually and consistent basis

8 Components 2 Standards-based education has assessment as a key part of the movement -the first part is to set new, higher standards to be expected of EVERY student -a criterion is set up for what EVERY student is expected to know and a score is set compared to those benchmarks -thus curriculum must be aligned with the new standards -students must then be assessed based on what is expected of EVERY student -gauges individual student progress

9 Components 3 It is fully expected that every child will become proficient in all areas of academic skills by the end of a specified period -typically within 10 years in the United States, but sometimes longer, after the passing of an education reform bill by a state government -such as in the US with the No Child Left Behind legislation that further requires that all schools must demonstrate improvements among all students, even if all students in the school are all already above the proficient level

10 Differences Between Standards-Based and Norm-References Systems NORM REFERENCED -Believe some students are naturally smarter than others -Content subject matter varies with different groups of students -Assessments compare what students know to what other students know -No objective criteria to distribute resources so students who need the most often get the least -Professional development tend to be one time workshops STANDARDS-BASED -Believe virtually all students can “get smart” through effort -Subject matter is the same for all groups of students -Assessments compare what students know to standards and benchmarks -Resources are distributed as needed for all to meet standards so students who need more get more -Professional development focuses on improving instruction so all students meet standards

11 Advantages Students are compared to standards Humans, not computers evaluate the value of responses on assessments A criterion-based test is worth teaching to Only a standards based test is aligned with standards- based education reform Ensures that all students will graduate with the skills they need to succeed in the 21 st century Students will no longer be cheated by passing them on to the next grade with obtaining the knowledge that is needed at each grade level No longer will schools produce graduates that cannot read their own diplomas

12 Lingering Impacts NCLB End of Course Exams Common Assessments Backwards Design MAP test in Missouri Assessment Driven Instruction Assessment for Learning

13 Standards-Based Education When all students pass all standards, as is the central belief of standards-based education reform, all students will achieve the same test score, eliminating the mysterious achievement gap which has previously been shown to occur between all groups on tests

14 Three Critical Components Standards –based reporting and formative assessment Ensuring effective teaching in every classroom Enhancing the academic background knowledge of students who do not have advantaged backgrounds

15 Robert Marzano – Classroom Assessment and Grading Marzano, along with a few others are leading the nation in the standards based movement and grading. Marzano believes that every child can learn and be proficient with a system that measure specific performance based off of specific criteria

16 Marzano –Consequences of Performance Based System Students do not have to figure out the rules from teacher to teacher. To catch up or move ahead at an accelerated pace, students do not have to spend a specific amount of time in class. Rather, they must demonstrate competence in important content. There are fewer dropouts and more students completing graduation.

17 Marzano Research shows that good teaching begins with clear learning goals. Goals are the reason classroom activities are designed. Without clear goals, classroom activities are without direction. Researchers Joseph Krajcik, Katherine McNeill, and Brian Reiser (2007) explain that good teaching begins with clear learning goals from which teachers select appropriate instructional activities and assessments that help determine students’ progress on the learning goals. Marzano, R. (2009). Designing & teaching learning goals & objectives (p. 4). Bloomington, IN: Marzano Research Laboratory.

18 Guskey’s Research “To make a real difference for students, learning standards and performance assessments must become an integral part of the instructional process at the classroom level.”

19 Guskey Two fundamental questions: 1. What do I want students to learn? 2. What evidence would I accept to verify their learning?

20 Guskey Ensures that assessments become an integral part of the instructional process. Quizzes and tests should be learning tools Not simply evaluation devices that mark the end of learning They are tools that start and continue the learning process

21 Guskey and Marzano With proper assessments that are scored from a rubric or specific set of criteria, prescriptive and corrective instruction occurs increasing student learning and closing achievement gaps.

22 Stiggins and Chappuis – Assessment of and for Learning Orientation for thinking: The key gap: between those who meet and don’t meet standards All students must meet standards for our society to evolve productively. Assessment, as previously conceived and conducted, has sustained the gap. Nevertheless, assessment can become the most powerful narrower…..

23 Stiggins and Chappuis – Assessment of and for Learning Clear learning targets Formative and summative assessment, along with student self assessment prescriptive and corrective teaching The students emotional reaction to results will determine what that student does in response.

24 Guskey, Marzano, Stiggins, and Chappuis All believe that standards based learning, formative and summative assessments, student self evaluation, and prescriptive and corrective teaching will close learning gaps moving students to higher achievement.

25 Stiggins and Chappuis – Assessment of and for Learning Essential Actions: Balance assessments Refine standards Assure assessment quality Turn learners into assessors Rethink feedback strategies Build on learner success Assure assessment literacy

26 Stiggins and Chappuis – Assessment of and for Learning Essential Question: How do you close the achievement gap without quality classroom assessment effectively used to support learning?

27 Discussion Prompts Many districts and schools are facing the implications of NCLB. Discuss with your group some of the challenges your school or district is facing and how state standards factor into the results of NCLB. Reflect on your district since you have been there. Discuss with your group how the trends in education/standards- based reform have changed the culture of instruction within your district or building. When looking at district, school or classroom data, discuss how the standards based movement has helped shape the framework for Professional Learning communities and ensuring the success of the individual child.


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