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Literary Review: Achievement Gaps – Race as an Issue Benjamin Walker, MA Essentials of Economics BUSN502 Drexel University.

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Presentation on theme: "Literary Review: Achievement Gaps – Race as an Issue Benjamin Walker, MA Essentials of Economics BUSN502 Drexel University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Literary Review: Achievement Gaps – Race as an Issue Benjamin Walker, MA Essentials of Economics BUSN502 Drexel University

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3  "The achievement gap is a persistent, pervasive and significant disparity in educational achievement and attainment among groups of students as determined by a standardized measure. When analyzed according to race and ethnicity, achievement disparities negatively impact educational outcomes for poor children and children of color on a consistent basis“ (Public Schools of North Carolina).  “Predicated on race and class divisions, the achievement gap is part of a larger legacy that intertwines individual and family resources with school quality, social capital, and educational opportunity. While some researchers have blamed schools for disparities in educational outcomes, others have focused on the failure of families to adequately prepare youth for the educational challenges that lie ahead” (Williams Institute, 2006). Public Schools of North Carolina. (2010). Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps. Retrieved from The Williams Institute. (2006). The Academic Achievement Gap. Retrieved from: Achievement%20Gap.pdf

4 What is the cause of this so called achievement gap??? Give Well. (2010). Discussion of the U.S. Achievement Gap. Retrieved from states/education/achievement-gap Low Income Families Poverty Lack of Educational Resources in the Home Unstable Family Structure

5 Singham, M. (2003). The Achievement Gap: Myths and Reality. Phi Delta Kappan, 84(8), 586. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database. Factors should be weighed before a judgment call can be made! 1.biased standardized tests 2.tests that do not match the learning styles of all students 3.less money spent on educating minority students 4.socioeconomic differences 5.lack of motivation 6.negative peer pressure 7.lack of family support for education 8.teacher biases 9.and many other possibilities VS Facts

6 Singham, M. (2003). The Achievement Gap: Myths and Reality. Phi Delta Kappan, 84(8), 586. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database. Myth debunked in 1990 Pittsburgh school district between blacks, whites, and other minority students. Mathematic scores showed a tremendous decrease in the achievement gap due to a reformed curriculum and a focus on improving the educational achievement of all students.

7 The National Assessment of Educational Progress. (2007). Achievement Gaps. Retrieved from Closing the Gap

8 The Prescription For Closing the Gap

9 Darling-Hammond, L. (September 2007). Race Ethnicity and Education.Vol. 10, No. 3. doi: / NCLB Crumbles NCLB Crumbles … “The intention of the Act was good, but due to the cumbersome laws that were made applicable to all school districts, the laws failed to address the unequal educational resources as compared to wealthy schools and poor schools” (Darling-Hammond, 2007). “Under the NCLB law, it forces schools to improve the quality of their test scores, but ignores the resources needed to meet the requirement” (Darling-Hammond, 2007).

10 Luther Burbank Middle School, San Francisco, CA. 1.text books shared by students in class 2.photo copies of text made for students to do their homework without clear instructions 3.overcrowded classrooms of 30 or more students 4. non-emergency credentialed teachers 5. teachers employed less than one year 6.poor quality in building maintenance and facilities Wealthy Schools Per Student - $30,000 vs. Poor Schools Per Student - $3,000 More investment is needed to close the gap in the poorer schools. Darling-Hammond, L. (September 2007). Race Ethnicity and Education.Vol. 10, No. 3. doi: /

11 “If the United States had closed the racial achievement gap and black and Latino student performance had caught up with that of white students by 1998, GDP in 2008 would have been between $310 billion and $525 billion higher, or roughly 2 to 4 percent of GDP. The magnitude of this effect will rise in the years ahead as blacks and Latinos become a larger proportion of the population” (McKinsey & Company). McKinsey & Company.(2010). The Economic Impact of the Achievement Gap in Americas Schools. Retrieved from Education/Knowledge_Highlights/Economic_impact.aspx “By underutilizing such a large proportion of the country’s human potential, the US economy is less rich in skills than it could be” (McKinsey & Company).

12 Haycock, K. (2001) Closing the Educational Gap. Retrieved from: pdf "To increase the achievement levels of minority and low-income students, we need to focus on what really matters; high standards, a challenging curriculum, and good teachers" (Haycock, 2001). Close the GAP!!!! Four Concepts 1.Standards need to be set and met 2.All students must have challenging curriculum 3. Students need extra help 4.Teachers matter a lot Edtrust

13 What does CA have to say? Superintendent Jack O'Connell Direct the P-16 Council to develop a comprehensive plan to close the gap Convene a statewide focus on closing the gap Work with leaders in higher education to prepare new teachers for the classroom to meet needs of California’s diverse student population

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15 What are your………

16 References Darling-Hammond, L. (September 2007). Race Ethnicity and Education.Vol. 10, No. 3. doi: / Editorial Projects in Education, Research Center. (2004). Achievement Gaps. Retrieved from Give Well. (2010). Discussion of the U.S. Achievement Gap. Retrieved from Haycock, K. (2001) Closing the Educational Gap. Retrieved from: pdf McKinsey & Company.(2010). The Economic Impact of the Achievement Gap in Americas Schools. Retrieved from Education/Knowledge_Highlights/Economic_impact.aspx Public Schools of North Carolina. (2010). Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps. Retrieved from Singham, M. (2003). The Achievement Gap: Myths and Reality. Phi Delta Kappan, 84(8), 586. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database. The Educational Research Service (ERS). (2001).What can Schools do To Reduce the Achievement Gap?.Retrieved from:

17 The National Assessment of Educational Progress. (2007). Achievement Gaps. Retrieved from The Williams Institute. (2006). The Academic Achievement Gap. Retrieved from: 0Achievement%20Gap.pdf


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