Presentation on theme: "School Psychology A Changing Role for Changing Needs"— Presentation transcript:
1 School Psychology A Changing Role for Changing Needs Moira McKenna, PhD Kim Hosford, MSOR-RTI Conference, Bend, OregonMay 23-24, 2014
2 Learning Targets & Outcomes Current Context of EducationHistorical Perspective on School PsychologyAccountability in Education – The Bigger PictureCurrent Practice/Expectations: NASP Practice ModelImplications for System DevelopmentIdentify and grow the capacity of what a school psychologist can do to impact your systemSelf assessment as a school psychologist, areas where you may want professional developmentIf you’re a teacher or an administrator, areas where you could ask your psych for support
3 Historical perspective Traditional role of psychometrician considered essential, with the earliest studies of practitioners – 1914Primary Role, “Sorter”Eventual expansion of role included interventions, remedial instruction, and counseling – 1930Secondary role, “repairer”Fagan and Wise (2000). School Psychology: Past, Present, and Future (2nd Ed). Bethesda, Maryland: National Association of School Psychologists
4 Brief History of School Psychology “Overall, the practice of school psychology is shifting from one of primarily special education evaluation and placement to one of analyzing the system for its overall effectiveness. School psychologists play a key role in shaping the system so that it provides quality education, implemented with fidelity, that demonstrates adequate growth over time in the entire student population.”Reschly, D. J. (2008). School Psychology Paradigm Shift and Beyond. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 3-15). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
5 Accountability through Legislation No Child Left Behind (NCLB) ~ 2001Prior to and following NCLB, Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)Individuals with Disabilities Education and Improvement Act ~ 2004Common Core State Standards ~ 2009Oregon Senate Bill 290 ~ 2011Strengthens expectations for educator evaluations and professional growthESEA Flex ~ 2012ESEA Reauthorization Bill, Strengthening America’s Schools Act of 2013 (S ), approved reauthorization Bill ~ June 2013No immediate timeline to reach Senate Floor for a voteESEA Reauthorization Bill, Student Success Act (H.R. 5), July 2013Passed by House of Representatives2012 – “Do nothing” Congress – 14 month lag in legislation for reauthorization of ESEA. Response to impending 100% expectations through NCLB prompted waivers..11 States were initially provided waivers with an ESEA flex plan; 2013 has allowed for rolling admissions. (http://www.ascd.org/publications/newsletters/policy_priorities/vol18/num01/The_Never-Ending_Story_of_ESEA_Reauthorization.aspx)Reauthorization legislation (http://www.nea.org/home/NoChildLeftBehindAct.html)
6 Contextualizing School Psychology Practice Ecological Systems Theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1977)Breadth of practice engages in systems-level prevention and systems-program developmentSolve “Big Problems” that affect systemsReview of school-wide assessment data to define academic and behavior supportsDepth of practice within assessment and interventionApproach to intervention and problem analysisAssessment, Intervention, Collaboration, ConsultationSchool Psychologists as evaluators, teachers as instructorsBurns, M.K. (2013). Contextualizing school psychology practice: Introducing featured research commentaries. School Psychology Review, 42,Most psychs involved in Tier 3; SPED eval, delivering intensive individual interventions, 1:1 counseling
7 The Current Context“Increasingly, there is consensus that schools must find solutions to address the relatively poor outcomes for students of color, those from backgrounds of poverty, children and youth with mental health concerns, and non-native speakers of English”School Psychology: A Blueprint for Training and Practice IIINational Association of School Psychologists ~ 2006Jo Robinson – getting to 100% through the bottom 20%.
8 National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) Practice Model ~ What we have been doing is not the only thing we’re capable of doing ~Improve Academic Engagement and AchievementFacilitate Effective InstructionSupport Positive Behavior and Socially Successful StudentsSupport Diverse LearnersCreate Safe, Positive School ClimatesStrengthen Family-School PartnershipsImprove Assessment and AccountabilityNASP practice model organized by 6 principles that link to broader organizational principles for effective schools.
10 NASP Practice Model 10 Domains of Practice Practices that Permeate All Aspects of Service Delivery1. Data-Based Decision Making and Accountability2. Consultation and CollaborationDirect and Indirect Services for Children, Families, and SchoolsStudent-Level Services3. Interventions and Instructional Support to Develop Academic Skills4. Interventions and Mental Health Services to Develop Social and Life SkillsSystems-Level Services5. School-Wide Practices to Promote Learning6. Preventative and Responsive Services7. Family-School Collaboration Services
11 NASP Practice Model (continued) Foundations of School Psychological Service Delivery Model8. Diversity in Development and Learning9. Research and Program Evaluation10. Legal, Ethical, and Professional Practice
12 Practices That Permeate All Aspects of Service Delivery Domain 1: Data-Based Decision Making and AccountabilityDomain 2: Consultation and Collaboration
13 Data-Based Decision Making and Accountability BreadthDevelopment of services and programsConducting needs assessments including surveys for staff and student feedbackDepthAssessments to determine educational progress and instructional needsData collectionMonitoring growth over time (discrete or global academic skills, behavior)
14 Consultation and Collaboration BreadthUniversal, data-based decision-makingModels and strategies to communicate with Individuals, Families, Groups, SystemsDepthIndividual problem solving and analysisMethods to promote effective implementation of supports/services
15 A Continuum of Supports Breadth and DepthFrom systems level to individual student levelFrom universal, data-based decision-making to individual problem solvingFrom general education through intervention to special educationFrom community to school to homeFrom legal, ethical to medical to social-behavioral to developmental to cultural to academic to instructionKnowledge and application of best practices and evidence-based practices in real time
16 Direct and Indirect Services for Children, Families, and Schools Student-Level ServicesDomain 3: Intervention and Instructional Support to Develop Academic SkillsDomain 4: Interventions and Mental Health Services to Develop Social and Life Skills
17 Interventions and Instructional Support to Develop Academic Skills BreadthDevelopment of policy and procedure for decision-makingDepthOperationally defining the problemDetermining the baselineDefining the ‘best fit’ interventionDefining the parameters for implementationRegular, frequent data collection, data review and interpretationModifications to intervention in line with decision rules
18 Interventions and Mental Health Services to Develop Social and Life Skills BreadthSchool-community connections with mental health and medical supportsSystems-level social-emotional-behavioral skills instruction, expectations, data collection and use of dataDepthGroup level social-emotional-behavioral skills instruction and progress monitoringIndividual level social-emotional-behavioral evaluation and instructional plans, progress monitoring and data-based decision- making
19 Systems-Level Services Direct and Indirect Services for Children, Families, and Schools (continued)Systems-Level ServicesDomain 5: School-Wide Practices to Promote LearningDomain 6: Preventative and Responsive ServicesDomain 7: Family-School Collaboration Services
20 School-wide Practices to Promote Learning BreadthEvidence-Based Practices; Meta-analyses; Learning TheoryBehaviorInstructionCurriculumRoadblocks to learning, how to remove them, identification of efficacious programs and practiceUse of screening data for global decision-makingAcademic, Social-Emotional behavior, executive functioningDepthInstructional consultationBehavior-classroom management and consultation
21 Preventative and Responsive Services BreadthSystems level crisis responseSystems-level preventative and resilience building supportsAcquisition of social-emotional-behavioral data on all studentsData analysis for systems development and/or change as indicatedDepthIndividual counselingCrisis supportCoordination of wrap around services
22 Family-School Collaboration Services BreadthKnowledge of family and school systemsWorking within the school system to create and provideTeacher trainingParent trainingHome-school collaborationConnections with health providers in the communityDepthIntervention componentsIncorporate communication between school and familyDevelop supports that facilitate systems and routines at homeCultural considerations in defining specific supports
23 Foundations of School Psychological Service Delivery Domain 8: Diversity in Development and Learning Domain 9: Research and Program Evaluation Domain 10: Legal, Ethical, and Professional Practice
24 Diversity in Development and Learning BreadthUnderstanding of what is developmentally appropriateLearning differences that are appropriate to accommodateSystems approach that accurately targets ‘true positives’ for intervention, given language development and cultural differencesDepthKnowledge of the array of individual learner differences that effect learning and outcomesUnderstanding of a variety of factors from development, medical, socio-cultural, etc. that have an impact on students as learnersAccounting for language and culture in assessment and evaluation
25 Research and Program Evaluation BreadthKnowledge of statistics, measurement and research designAllows for analysis and interpretation of research, programs, curriculumSupports analysis of data collection tools and methodsSupports analysis of collected dataDepthNeeds assessment of systems and programsInform gaps and specific adjustments to systems and policy
26 Legal, Ethical and Professional Practice BreadthKnowledge of ethics in schools and the lawEffective guidance within the school setting to support complianceDepthInform and consult regarding Procedural Safeguards for IDEIA 2004Support legal and ethical decision-making for student safety
27 Intended Outcomes of School Psychologist practice within systems ~ Breadth and Depth ~Build Capacity of SystemsImproved Competencies for All StudentsSchool Psychology: A Blueprint for Training and Practice IIINational Association of School Psychologists ~ 2006
28 Local School Districts Can Help… Present the NASP Practice Model to the Board of Education, central administrators, parents, and other interested stakeholders • Conduct a needs assessment about current SP practices and identify discrepancies from the NASP Model in policy and practice • Assist school psychologists in accessing professional development needed to reduce discrepancies between current practice and the NASP Practice ModelSkalski, A.K. (April, 2014). The Evolving Role of the School Psych: Embracing the NASP Practice Model. Presentation at the meeting of Oregon School Psychologists Association and Portland Public Schools, Oregon
29 Local School Districts Can Help… Infuse the NASP Practice Model standards into district policy including job descriptions and personnel evaluation process • Provide mentoring and supervision to help improve practice and alignment with the NASP Practice Model standards • Include school psychologists in school accountability and school reform initiatives • Set as a goal adoption of the NASP Practice Model standards (professional practice & organizational principles) and align resources as needed to support this practiceSkalski, A.K. (April, 2014). The Evolving Role of the School Psych: Embracing the NASP Practice Model. Presentation at the meeting of Oregon School Psychologists Association and Portland Public Schools, Oregon.
30 School Psychologists…. Support teachers’ ability to teach and students’ ability to learnAre a ready resource to help ALL students achieve their bestSupport all aspects of systems improvementAcademic AchievementPositive Behavior developmentSocial-Emotional well being
31 We all want to make a difference Everyone here has the sense that right now is one of those moments when we are influencing the future.Steve Jobs
32 Presenter Contact informationSOESD SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS Moira McKenna, PhD, Kim Hosford, MS,