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SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY A CHANGING ROLE FOR CHANGING NEEDS MOIRA MCKENNA, PHD KIM HOSFORD, MS OR-RTI CONFERENCE, BEND, OREGON MAY 23-24, 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY A CHANGING ROLE FOR CHANGING NEEDS MOIRA MCKENNA, PHD KIM HOSFORD, MS OR-RTI CONFERENCE, BEND, OREGON MAY 23-24, 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY A CHANGING ROLE FOR CHANGING NEEDS MOIRA MCKENNA, PHD KIM HOSFORD, MS OR-RTI CONFERENCE, BEND, OREGON MAY 23-24, 2014

2 LEARNING TARGETS & OUTCOMES Current Context of Education Historical Perspective on School Psychology Accountability in Education – The Bigger Picture Current Practice/Expectations: NASP Practice Model Implications for System Development Identify and grow the capacity of what a school psychologist can do to impact your system Self assessment as a school psychologist, areas where you may want professional development If you’re a teacher or an administrator, areas where you could ask your psych for support

3 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Traditional role of psychometrician considered essential, with the earliest studies of practitioners – 1914 Primary Role, “Sorter” Eventual expansion of role included interventions, remedial instruction, and counseling – 1930 Secondary role, “repairer” Fagan and Wise (2000). School Psychology: Past, Present, and Future (2 nd Ed). Bethesda, Maryland: National Association of School Psychologists

4 BRIEF HISTORY OF SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY “Overall, the practice of school psychology is shifting from one of primarily special education evaluation and placement to one of analyzing the system for its overall effectiveness. School psychologists play a key role in shaping the system so that it provides quality education, implemented with fidelity, that demonstrates adequate growth over time in the entire student population.” Reschly, D. J. (2008). School Psychology Paradigm Shift and Beyond. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 3-15). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

5 ACCOUNTABILITY THROUGH LEGISLATION No Child Left Behind (NCLB) ~ 2001 Prior to and following NCLB, Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Individuals with Disabilities Education and Improvement Act ~ 2004 Common Core State Standards ~ 2009 Oregon Senate Bill 290 ~ 2011 Strengthens expectations for educator evaluations and professional growth ESEA Flex ~ 2012 ESEA Reauthorization Bill, Strengthening America’s Schools Act of 2013 (S. 1094), approved reauthorization Bill ~ June 2013 No immediate timeline to reach Senate Floor for a vote ESEA Reauthorization Bill, Student Success Act (H.R. 5), July 2013 Passed by House of Representatives

6 CONTEXTUALIZING SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY PRACTICE Ecological Systems Theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1977) Breadth of practice engages in systems-level prevention and systems-program development Solve “Big Problems” that affect systems Review of school-wide assessment data to define academic and behavior supports Depth of practice within assessment and intervention Approach to intervention and problem analysis Assessment, Intervention, Collaboration, Consultation School Psychologists as evaluators, teachers as instructors Burns, M.K. (2013). Contextualizing school psychology practice: Introducing featured research commentaries. School Psychology Review, 42,

7 THE CURRENT CONTEXT “Increasingly, there is consensus that schools must find solutions to address the relatively poor outcomes for students of color, those from backgrounds of poverty, children and youth with mental health concerns, and non-native speakers of English” School Psychology: A Blueprint for Training and Practice III National Association of School Psychologists ~ 2006

8 NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS (NASP) PRACTICE MODEL ~ What we have been doing is not the only thing we’re capable of doing ~ Improve Academic Engagement and Achievement Facilitate Effective Instruction Support Positive Behavior and Socially Successful Students Support Diverse Learners Create Safe, Positive School Climates Strengthen Family-School Partnerships Improve Assessment and Accountability

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10 NASP PRACTICE MODEL 10 Domains of Practice Practices that Permeate All Aspects of Service Delivery 1. Data-Based Decision Making and Accountability 2. Consultation and Collaboration Direct and Indirect Services for Children, Families, and Schools Student-Level Services 3. Interventions and Instructional Support to Develop Academic Skills 4. Interventions and Mental Health Services to Develop Social and Life Skills Systems-Level Services 5. School-Wide Practices to Promote Learning 6. Preventative and Responsive Services 7. Family-School Collaboration Services

11 NASP PRACTICE MODEL (CONTINUED) Foundations of School Psychological Service Delivery Model 8. Diversity in Development and Learning 9. Research and Program Evaluation 10. Legal, Ethical, and Professional Practice

12 PRACTICES THAT PERMEATE ALL ASPECTS OF SERVICE DELIVERY Domain 1: Data-Based Decision Making and Accountability Domain 2: Consultation and Collaboration

13 DATA-BASED DECISION MAKING AND ACCOUNTABILITY Breadth Development of services and programs Conducting needs assessments including surveys for staff and student feedback Depth Assessments to determine educational progress and instructional needs Data collection Monitoring growth over time (discrete or global academic skills, behavior)

14 CONSULTATION AND COLLABORATION Breadth Universal, data-based decision-making Models and strategies to communicate with Individuals, Families, Groups, Systems Depth Individual problem solving and analysis Methods to promote effective implementation of supports/services

15 A CONTINUUM OF SUPPORTS Breadth and Depth From systems level to individual student level From universal, data-based decision-making to individual problem solving From general education through intervention to special education From community to school to home From legal, ethical to medical to social-behavioral to developmental to cultural to academic to instruction Knowledge and application of best practices and evidence-based practices in real time

16 DIRECT AND INDIRECT SERVICES FOR CHILDREN, FAMILIES, AND SCHOOLS Student-Level Services Domain 3: Intervention and Instructional Support to Develop Academic Skills Domain 4: Interventions and Mental Health Services to Develop Social and Life Skills

17 INTERVENTIONS AND INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORT TO DEVELOP ACADEMIC SKILLS Breadth Development of policy and procedure for decision-making Depth Operationally defining the problem Determining the baseline Defining the ‘best fit’ intervention Defining the parameters for implementation Regular, frequent data collection, data review and interpretation Modifications to intervention in line with decision rules

18 INTERVENTIONS AND MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES TO DEVELOP SOCIAL AND LIFE SKILLS Breadth School-community connections with mental health and medical supports Systems-level social-emotional-behavioral skills instruction, expectations, data collection and use of data Depth Group level social-emotional-behavioral skills instruction and progress monitoring Individual level social-emotional-behavioral evaluation and instructional plans, progress monitoring and data-based decision- making

19 DIRECT AND INDIRECT SERVICES FOR CHILDREN, FAMILIES, AND SCHOOLS (CONTINUED) Systems-Level Services Domain 5: School-Wide Practices to Promote Learning Domain 6: Preventative and Responsive Services Domain 7: Family-School Collaboration Services

20 SCHOOL-WIDE PRACTICES TO PROMOTE LEARNING Breadth Evidence-Based Practices; Meta-analyses; Learning Theory Behavior Instruction Curriculum Roadblocks to learning, how to remove them, identification of efficacious programs and practice Use of screening data for global decision-making Academic, Social-Emotional behavior, executive functioning Depth Instructional consultation Behavior-classroom management and consultation

21 PREVENTATIVE AND RESPONSIVE SERVICES Breadth Systems level crisis response Systems-level preventative and resilience building supports Acquisition of social-emotional-behavioral data on all students Data analysis for systems development and/or change as indicated Depth Individual counseling Crisis support Coordination of wrap around services

22 FAMILY-SCHOOL COLLABORATION SERVICES Breadth Knowledge of family and school systems Working within the school system to create and provide Teacher training Parent training Home-school collaboration Connections with health providers in the community Depth Intervention components Incorporate communication between school and family Develop supports that facilitate systems and routines at home Cultural considerations in defining specific supports

23 FOUNDATIONS OF SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICE DELIVERY Domain 8: Diversity in Development and Learning Domain 9: Research and Program Evaluation Domain 10: Legal, Ethical, and Professional Practice

24 DIVERSITY IN DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING Breadth Understanding of what is developmentally appropriate Learning differences that are appropriate to accommodate Systems approach that accurately targets ‘true positives’ for intervention, given language development and cultural differences Depth Knowledge of the array of individual learner differences that effect learning and outcomes Understanding of a variety of factors from development, medical, socio-cultural, etc. that have an impact on students as learners Accounting for language and culture in assessment and evaluation

25 RESEARCH AND PROGRAM EVALUATION Breadth Knowledge of statistics, measurement and research design Allows for analysis and interpretation of research, programs, curriculum Supports analysis of data collection tools and methods Supports analysis of collected data Depth Needs assessment of systems and programs Inform gaps and specific adjustments to systems and policy

26 LEGAL, ETHICAL AND PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE Breadth Knowledge of ethics in schools and the law Effective guidance within the school setting to support compliance Depth Inform and consult regarding Procedural Safeguards for IDEIA 2004 Support legal and ethical decision-making for student safety

27 INTENDED OUTCOMES OF SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGIST PRACTICE WITHIN SYSTEMS ~ Breadth and Depth ~  Build Capacity of Systems  Improved Competencies for All Students School Psychology: A Blueprint for Training and Practice III National Association of School Psychologists ~ 2006

28 LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS CAN HELP… Present the NASP Practice Model to the Board of Education, central administrators, parents, and other interested stakeholders Conduct a needs assessment about current SP practices and identify discrepancies from the NASP Model in policy and practice Assist school psychologists in accessing professional development needed to reduce discrepancies between current practice and the NASP Practice Model Skalski, A.K. (April, 2014). The Evolving Role of the School Psych: Embracing the NASP Practice Model. Presentation at the meeting of Oregon School Psychologists Association and Portland Public Schools, Oregon. 80

29 LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS CAN HELP… Infuse the NASP Practice Model standards into district policy including job descriptions and personnel evaluation process Provide mentoring and supervision to help improve practice and alignment with the NASP Practice Model standards Include school psychologists in school accountability and school reform initiatives Set as a goal adoption of the NASP Practice Model standards (professional practice & organizational principles) and align resources as needed to support this practice Skalski, A.K. (April, 2014). The Evolving Role of the School Psych: Embracing the NASP Practice Model. Presentation at the meeting of Oregon School Psychologists Association and Portland Public Schools, Oregon.

30 SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS…. Support teachers’ ability to teach and students’ ability to learn Are a ready resource to help ALL students achieve their best Support all aspects of systems improvement Academic Achievement Positive Behavior development Social-Emotional well being

31 WE ALL WANT TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE Everyone here has the sense that right now is one of those moments when we are influencing the future. Steve Jobs

32 PRESENTER CONTACT INFORMATION SOESD SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS Moira McKenna, PhD, Kim Hosford, MS,


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