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Tim McCormick, M.Ed Kelly Spanoghe, Ed.S Kathy Ourand, M.Ed

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1 Secondary and Tertiary Interventions for Alternative and Special Settings
Tim McCormick, M.Ed Kelly Spanoghe, Ed.S Kathy Ourand, M.Ed Nano Kolls, LCSW-C

2 PBIS Alignment with NCLB and IDEA

3 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
The 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act responded to the growing concerns about how to create safe school environments and the conditions under which a child with disabilities may be removed from school if he or she is considered a danger to himself or others.

4 Challenges to IDEA 2004 The challenges faced in creating safe,effective, learning environments include: Problem behavior is the single most common reason why students are referred for removal from school Punishment and exclusion remain the most common responses to problem behaviors by students Reprimands, detentions, and exclusions are documented as ineffective strategies for improving the behavior of children School are being asked to do more with less

5 Impact of the Challenge
Student’s aberrant behavior impacts: Loss of instructional time for all students Overemphasis on reactive discipline and classroom management practices to control behavior Chaotic school environments; brain based learning informs us that the brain learns best with an absence of fear Ineffective and inefficient use of student and staff resources and time

6 NCLB and IDEA 2004 Legislative requirements support an integrated systems approach that includes: Accountability : data-based decision making Academic progress on the National Standards for all children Systems of intervention for ALL children Researched based, scientifically based instruction Increased parental involvement

7 Individualized Education Plans
Identify student goals and objectives: academic, social-emotional, requisite, functional living Enhance student’s ability to fully engage in the learning process through instructional modifications and related services Incorporate the development of a Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plan

8 Functional Behavioral Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans
The IDEA Amendments of 1997 mandate the use of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and positive behavioral supports and interventions for students with disabilities.

9 IDEA and FBA’s IDEA explicitly states:
“The team must address through a behavioral intervention plan any need for positive behavioral strategies and supports (614(d)3(B)(i)). In response to disciplinary actions by school personnel, the IEP team must, within 10 days, meet to develop a functional behavioral assessment plan to collect information. This information should be used for developing or reviewing and revising an existing behavioral intervention plan to address such behaviors (653©(3)(D)(vi)).

10 IDEA and FBA’s “In addition, states are required to address the in-service needs of personnel (including professionals and paraprofessionals who provide special education, general education, related services, or early intervention services) as they relate to developing and implementing positive intervention strategies (653)(3)(D)(vi))

11 A Systemic Solution: Creating Comprehensive, Integrated Service of Care Schools
“A comprehensive mission for schools is to educate students to be knowledgeable, responsible, socially skilled, healthy, caring and contributing citizens.” While there is a growing number of intervention programs out there, the results are limited due to insufficient coordination and integration with other components of the school.

12 Fragmented Initiatives
Uncoordinated efforts do not yield positive results for several reasons: Introduced as a series of short-term, fragmented initiatives Initiatives are not sufficiently linked to mission, philosophy and policies of the school Without strong support from leadership there is insufficient staff development and support for program implementation Programs that are insufficiently coordinated, monitored, evaluated, and improved over time will have reduced impact on student behavior and are unlikely to be sustained.

13 Systems Change Systems change is a developmental process. Implementation of new initiatives should be introduced gradually through on-going professional development. It will be necessary during the process to explore barriers that may impede progress. Staff empowerment to use their creativity and flexibility will be necessary during the change process.

14 Systems Change In order for system-wide change to occur, stakeholder teams need to have a clear vision, skills necessary to enact the process, incentives to operate differently, sufficient resources, and a definitive action plan. If one or more of these elements are missing, sustainable change will be unlikely.

15 Systems Change The growing research base supporting the effectiveness of PBS and recent policy changes (e.g., IDEA 1997) have created an impetus for systems change. In order for systems to effectively support PBS, they must be generally proactive, inclusive, flexible, and respectful to diversity.

16 PBIS Systems Change School-wide System Classroom Setting Individual
Student Systems Classroom Setting Non- Classroom Setting School-wide System

17 Making the PBIS Concepts, Interventions and Supports Operational
All in a day… Bus dominoes Morning meeting – aligned with behavioral matrix Academics – implemented throughout instruction for displaying matrix expectations Transitions – recognized for demonstrating hallway behavioral expectations Therapy – aligned with social/emotional goals on IEP Behavior management – daily progress report aligned with PBIS matrix Functional Behavioral Assessments Data Management - students

18 PBIS Systems Change Emphasis on arrangement of school organization, structures, and routines to improve effectiveness, efficiency and relevance of child and adult behavior Team based process for systemic problem solving, planning and evaluation.

19 Aligning NCLB/IDEA with PBIS
Accountability Data Data: supporting decision making *office referrals, time on task, suspension, etc. Academic Progress Social competence and academic achievement System of intervention for all children Broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior Research based, evidenced based instruction Research-validated instruction and management practices Increased parental involvement Collaborative interventions help family members and educators change what they do and improve the quality of life for the child

20 Benefits of PBIS in the School Setting
1. School Climate System employment enables staff to address issues and resolve problems Fosters development of a safe school environment Results in an increase in the amount of positive feedback students receive Students feel valued thereby resulting in a positive school climate

21 Benefits of PBIS in the School Setting
2. Data Decision-Making Staff participate in monthly data management review meetings Program decisions are made based on data analysis Staff identify problem areas for data collection PBIS team collects data and prepares for monthly meeting review Data management tools are introduced to review data


23 Benefits of PBIS in the School Setting
3. Systems Orientation Survey enables staff to identify areas of strengths and weaknesses Program focus centers around developing systems Staff and program are more effective when everyone knows how to implement systems


25 Maryland’s PBIS

26 PBIS in Maryland PBIS has been an initiative in Maryland since 1999
First year 14 schools trained Currently 467 schools trained Currently: 28 Special /Alternative Schools have been trained 5 school districts have at least a partial position devoted exclusively to PBIS

27 PBIS Maryland State Leadership A Collaborative Effort
Johns Hopkins MSDE Sheppard Pratt Health System University of Maryland Local School Systems DHMH Alternative and Special Schools

28 How it works Team Process Communication Self Assessment
Strategic Planning Coaching Managing Change

29 Team Process The alternative/special schools work in harmony with the local school systems within state. The MSDE Special School Liaison coordinates training and support for alternative schools and their coaches The administrator is always part of the team, but he/she is not typically the team leader. Input from all team members is valued, creativity is encouraged

30 Communication

31 Self Assessment Needs Assessment/Staff Survey are completed at the school, district and state level. Action planning tools provided at the Summer Institute training and online Data reviewed with staff at least monthly Implementation checklists are completed either monthly or quarterly, depending on team experience Coach checklist online to maintain team focus School Evaluation Tool used to evaluate fidelity

32 Strategic Planning Structure must be built at the state and district level to support the increase in implementation at the school level. Partnerships with community organizations is critical Spring Forum - Overview of PBIS to interested administrations and key personnel who are considering implementation in the fall. Leadership team plans Summer Institute (focused training for coaches, new teams and experienced teams) Presentations by national and local experts Ongoing training (at least quarterly) for coaches. System change must be focused and incremental

33 Coaching Summer Institute – One Day dedicated to developing coaching skills. Each coach has a Coaching Tool Box of resources to support their teams. Coaches meetings held quarterly Specialized training and/or break-out sessions for alternative and special school coaches Tutorials and presentations on website Special school coaches communicate regularly as their needs are similar

34 Managing Change District level support is necessary for high fidelity
Change should be slow and incremental Community agency involvement To educate is to empower Keep your eye on the data - Data-driven decisions Action planning – Make it measurable and specific. At school level, focus committees to reach school improvement goals Assign jobs for each team member Keep it positive - Celebrate successes

35 Forbush School Nonpublic Facility 10 programs statewide 244 Students
51 Primary 74 Secondary 58 Autism 49 Residential

36 Data Driven Decisions Data indicates an increase in the number of referrals during the transition from school to the bus in the afternoons. Bus drivers are trained in PBIS Revised bus point sheet Systematic routine in place for dismissal Staff are strategically stationed Increase in High-fives during this transition Mentor program initiated

37 Mentor Program Responsibilities Meet Mentini in class
Help prepare for dismissal Wrap-up social skills activity (with guidance) Walk Mentini to bus (with supervision) Encourage/model positive behavior during this transition The Mentor 6-8th graders The Mentini K-2nd graders

38 Mentor Program Resource teacher trained initial Mentors
Key Mentors earned “Senior Mentor” status Each new Mentor is trained by one of the Senior Mentors Positive behavior is expected (green or yellow) PBIS kickoff – mentors are formally introduced End of term-Mentor/Mentini field trip to transfer skills to the community

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42 Tertiary Programming

43 St. Elizabeth School Member of MANSEF (Maryland Association of Nonpublic Special Education Facilities) Our students range of years of age 125 Students

44 Who We Serve Local School Systems Baltimore County Anne Arundel County
Carroll County Harford County Howard County Prince Georges County Baltimore City Federal Codes 01-mental retardation 04-speech or language impairment 06- emotional disturbance 08-other health impairments 09-specific learning 13- traumatic brain injury 14-Autism

45 Diagnostic Continuum Pervasive Developmental Disorders:
Autism Aspergers PDD NOS Axis I Disorders: Anxiety D.O. Obsessive Compulsive D.O. Bi-Polar D.O. Sensory Integration D.O. ADHD, Depressive D.O. Learning, & Speech and Language Disorders

46 Tertiary Prevention Designed to focus on the needs of the individual student with patterns of problem behaviors that are dangerous, highly disruptive, and/or impede learning and social functioning Most effective when positive primary systems are well established (School wide and Classroom Systems)

47 Essential Features Identify goals: often called replacement behaviors
Data collection and analysis Hypothesis: sometimes called summary statements Multi-element plans: involve settings, structure, adult behavior, etc Review, ongoing assessment

48 Tertiary Interventions
Often referred to as Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Planning (FBA/BIP) Focus is on individual student, his/her characteristics, specific circumstances Allows team to vary features of process- data, extent of plan, etc. I.E. Labor intensive but worth it (OSEP Technical Assistance Center on PBIS)

49 FBA/ BIP Alignment No Child Left Behind
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Code of Maryland Regulations PBIS- A full continuum of PBS available for all students at the school and district level; Behaviorally competent personnel readily available; Function based approach serves as foundation for problem solving; Data collection to see if it’s working IEP- Individual Educational Plan

50 FBA/BIP TOOLS TEXT: Building Positive Behavior Support Systems in Schools; Functional Behavioral Assessment AUTHORS: Deanne A. Crone, Robert H. Horner Appendix A: Request for Assistance Form Appendix B: Action Team Plan (f-BSP Protocol)

51 APPENDIX C Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS-Part A & B) Problem in Picture Form (Pro-form) March, Horner, Lewis-Palmer, Brown , Crone, Todd & Carr (2000)

52 Tools and Process @ SES Request for assistance form
FBA Interview: Meet with Core Team (homeroom teacher/social worker) Meet with student and parent ABC data collected Formal Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plan Informal- enough info/data (SWIS) to form hypothesis and run with plan





57 Jay Axis I: Mood Disorder, NOS Attention Deficit w/ Hyperactivity
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Axis II: Developmental Learning Disorder, NOS BSR’s- Behavior Support Referrals T.O.C.- Time Out of Class/hours Maj OD- Oppositional Defiance

58 Alice Handicapping Code: 14
Axis I: Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Depressive Disorder, NOS, Intermittent Explosive Disorder BSR’s- Behavior Support Referrals T.O.C.- Time Out of Class/hours Skip- Refusing to Attend Class

59 Axis I: Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Damien Axis I: Oppositional Defiant Disorder Attention Deficit w/ Hyperactivity Axis II: Mild Mental Retardation 20 40 60 80 100 120 BSR's T.O.C. Maj. P.A. BSR’s - Behavior Support Referrals T.O.C. Time out of class/hours Maj. P.A. Major Physical Aggress ion

60 Collaboration Kennedy Krieger Institute
NeuroBehavioral Outpatient Clinic and Inpatient Unit Sheppard Pratt Health System District Level Collaboration

61 References Boehner, John. (2004). Strengthening and Renewing Special Education: The Improving Education Results for Children with Disabilities Act (H.R. 1350). House Education and Workforce Committee. Dunlop, G., Hieneman, M., Knoster, T., Fox, L., Anderson, J., & Albin, R.W. (2000). Essential elements of in-service training in positive behavioral support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2 (I), Greenberg, Mark, T. (2003). Enhancing School-Based Prevention and Youth Development Through Coordinated Social, Emotional, and Academic Learning. American Psychologist.. Gresham, Frank M. (2003). Relevance of functional behavioral assessment research for school-based interventions and positive behavioral support. Research in Developmental Disabilities. Hieneman, M. & Dunlap, G. (2000). Factors affecting the outcomes of community-based behavioral support: I. Identification and description of factor categories. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 2(3), , 178. Knoster, T.P., Villa, R.A., & Thousand, J.S. (2000). A framework for thinking about systems change. In R.A. Villa & J.S. Thousand (Ed.S), Restructuring for caring and effective education: Piecing the puzzle together (pp ). Baltimore, Paul H. Brookes. Maryland State Department of Education (2003). Maryland Institute (2003) Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Prichard, E. Alice. Families and Positive Behavior Support: Addressing Problem Behavior in Family Contexts by Joseph M. Lucyshyn, Glen Dunlap and Richard W. Allen.. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 11, No. 1.

62 Recommended Readings Attwood, T. (1998). Asperger’s syndrome: A guide for parents and professional. Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Klin, A., Volkmar, F. R. & Sparrow, S.S. (Editors). (2000). Asperger Syndrome. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Greene, Ross W., Ph.D. (1998). The Explosive Child: A New Approach for Understanding and Parenting Easily Frustrated, “Chronically Inflexible” Children., New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers. Wilens, Timothy E., MD., (1999). Straight Talk about Psychiatric Medication for Kids., New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Crone, Deana A. and Horner, Robert H., (2003). Building Positive Behavior Support Systems in School: Functional Behavioral Assessment Watson, Steuart,T.,and Steege, Mark W., (2003). Conducting School-Based Functional Behavioral Assessments: A practitioner’s guide

63 Contact Us Nano K. Kolls, MSW, LCSW-C
Kathy Ourand, M.Ed Kelly Spanoghe, Ed S

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