3Individuals with Disabilities Education Act The 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act responded to the growing concerns about how to create safe school environments and the conditions under which a child with disabilities may be removed from school if he or she is considered a danger to himself or others.
4Challenges to IDEA 2004The challenges faced in creating safe,effective, learning environments include:Problem behavior is the single most common reason why students are referred for removal from schoolPunishment and exclusion remain the most common responses to problem behaviors by studentsReprimands, detentions, and exclusions are documented as ineffective strategies for improving the behavior of childrenSchool are being asked to do more with less
5Impact of the Challenge Student’s aberrant behavior impacts:Loss of instructional time for all studentsOveremphasis on reactive discipline and classroom management practices to control behaviorChaotic school environments; brain based learning informs us that the brain learns best with an absence of fearIneffective and inefficient use of student and staff resources and time
6NCLB and IDEA 2004Legislative requirements support an integrated systems approach that includes:Accountability : data-based decision makingAcademic progress on the National Standards for all childrenSystems of intervention for ALL childrenResearched based, scientifically based instructionIncreased parental involvement
7Individualized Education Plans Identify student goals and objectives: academic, social-emotional, requisite, functional livingEnhance student’s ability to fully engage in the learning process through instructional modifications and related servicesIncorporate the development of a Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plan
8Functional Behavioral Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans The IDEA Amendments of 1997 mandate the use of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and positive behavioral supports and interventions for students with disabilities.
10IDEA and FBA’s“In addition, states are required to address the in-service needs of personnel (including professionals and paraprofessionals who provide special education, general education, related services, or early intervention services) as they relate to developing and implementing positive intervention strategies (653)(3)(D)(vi))
11A Systemic Solution: Creating Comprehensive, Integrated Service of Care Schools “A comprehensive mission for schools is to educate students to be knowledgeable, responsible, socially skilled, healthy, caring and contributing citizens.” While there is a growing number of intervention programs out there, the results are limited due to insufficient coordination and integration with other components of the school.
12Fragmented Initiatives Uncoordinated efforts do not yield positive results for several reasons:Introduced as a series of short-term, fragmented initiativesInitiatives are not sufficiently linked to mission, philosophy and policies of the schoolWithout strong support from leadership there is insufficient staff development and support for program implementationPrograms that are insufficiently coordinated, monitored, evaluated, and improved over time will have reduced impact on student behavior and are unlikely to be sustained.
13Systems ChangeSystems change is a developmental process. Implementation of new initiatives should be introduced gradually through on-going professional development. It will be necessary during the process to explore barriers that may impede progress. Staff empowerment to use their creativity and flexibility will be necessary during the change process.
14Systems ChangeIn order for system-wide change to occur, stakeholder teams need to have a clear vision, skills necessary to enact the process, incentives to operate differently, sufficient resources, and a definitive action plan. If one or more of these elements are missing, sustainable change will be unlikely.
15Systems ChangeThe growing research base supporting the effectiveness of PBS and recent policy changes (e.g., IDEA 1997) have created an impetus for systems change. In order for systems to effectively support PBS, they must be generally proactive, inclusive, flexible, and respectful to diversity.
16PBIS Systems Change School-wide System Classroom Setting Individual StudentSystemsClassroom SettingNon-ClassroomSettingSchool-wideSystem
17Making the PBIS Concepts, Interventions and Supports Operational All in a day…Bus dominoesMorning meeting – aligned with behavioral matrixAcademics – implemented throughout instruction for displaying matrix expectationsTransitions – recognized for demonstrating hallwaybehavioral expectationsTherapy – aligned with social/emotional goals on IEPBehavior management – daily progress report aligned with PBIS matrixFunctional Behavioral AssessmentsData Management - students
18PBIS Systems ChangeEmphasis on arrangement of school organization, structures, and routines to improve effectiveness, efficiency and relevance of child and adult behaviorTeam based process for systemic problem solving, planning and evaluation.
19Aligning NCLB/IDEA with PBIS AccountabilityDataData: supporting decision making*office referrals, time on task,suspension, etc.AcademicProgressSocial competence and academic achievementSystem of intervention for all childrenBroad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behaviorResearch based, evidenced based instructionResearch-validated instruction and management practicesIncreased parental involvementCollaborative interventions help family members and educators change what they do and improve the quality of life for the child
20Benefits of PBIS in the School Setting 1. School ClimateSystem employment enables staff to address issues and resolve problemsFosters development of a safe school environmentResults in an increase in the amount of positive feedback students receiveStudents feel valued thereby resulting in a positive school climate
21Benefits of PBIS in the School Setting 2. Data Decision-MakingStaff participate in monthly data management review meetingsProgram decisions are made based on data analysisStaff identify problem areas for data collectionPBIS team collects data and prepares for monthly meeting reviewData management tools are introduced to review data
23Benefits of PBIS in the School Setting 3. Systems OrientationSurvey enables staff to identify areas of strengths and weaknessesProgram focus centers around developing systemsStaff and program are more effective when everyone knows how to implement systems
26PBIS in Maryland PBIS has been an initiative in Maryland since 1999 First year 14 schools trainedCurrently 467 schools trainedCurrently:28 Special /Alternative Schools have been trained5 school districts have at least a partial position devoted exclusively to PBIS
27PBIS Maryland State Leadership A Collaborative Effort Johns HopkinsMSDESheppard PrattHealth SystemUniversity ofMarylandLocal SchoolSystemsDHMHAlternative andSpecial Schools
28How it works Team Process Communication Self Assessment Strategic PlanningCoachingManaging Change
29Team ProcessThe alternative/special schools work in harmony with the local school systems within state.The MSDE Special School Liaison coordinates training and support for alternative schools and their coachesThe administrator is always part of the team, but he/she is not typically the team leader.Input from all team members is valued, creativity is encouraged
31Self AssessmentNeeds Assessment/Staff Survey are completed at the school, district and state level.Action planning tools provided at the Summer Institute training and onlineData reviewed with staff at least monthlyImplementation checklists are completed either monthly or quarterly, depending on team experienceCoach checklist online to maintain team focusSchool Evaluation Tool used to evaluate fidelity
32Strategic PlanningStructure must be built at the state and district level to support the increase in implementation at the school level.Partnerships with community organizations is criticalSpring Forum - Overview of PBIS to interested administrations and key personnel who are considering implementation in the fall.Leadership team plans Summer Institute (focused training for coaches, new teams and experienced teams) Presentations by national and local expertsOngoing training (at least quarterly) for coaches.System change must be focused and incremental
33CoachingSummer Institute – One Day dedicated to developing coaching skills.Each coach has a Coaching Tool Box of resources to support their teams.Coaches meetings held quarterlySpecialized training and/or break-out sessions for alternative and special school coachesTutorials and presentations on websiteSpecial school coaches communicate regularly as their needs are similar
34Managing Change District level support is necessary for high fidelity Change should be slow and incrementalCommunity agency involvementTo educate is to empowerKeep your eye on the data - Data-driven decisionsAction planning – Make it measurable and specific.At school level, focus committees to reach school improvement goalsAssign jobs for each team memberKeep it positive - Celebrate successes
35Forbush School Nonpublic Facility 10 programs statewide 244 Students 51 Primary74 Secondary58 Autism49 Residential
36Data Driven DecisionsData indicates an increase in the number of referrals during the transition from school to the bus in the afternoons.Bus drivers are trained in PBISRevised bus point sheetSystematic routine in place for dismissalStaff are strategically stationedIncrease in High-fives during thistransitionMentor program initiated
37Mentor Program Responsibilities Meet Mentini in class Help prepare for dismissalWrap-up social skills activity (with guidance)Walk Mentini to bus(with supervision)Encourage/model positive behavior during this transitionThe Mentor 6-8th graders The Mentini K-2nd graders
38Mentor Program Resource teacher trained initial Mentors Key Mentors earned “Senior Mentor” statusEach new Mentor is trained by one of the Senior MentorsPositive behavior is expected (green or yellow)PBIS kickoff – mentors are formally introducedEnd of term-Mentor/Mentini field trip to transfer skills to the community
39Below is a preview of your graph. To edit your graph Click here... Below is a preview of your graph. To edit your graph Click here...This was sent to you automatically from the NCES Create a Graph website.
43St. Elizabeth SchoolMember of MANSEF (Maryland Association of Nonpublic Special Education Facilities)Our students range of years of age125 Students
44Who We Serve Local School Systems Baltimore County Anne Arundel County Carroll CountyHarford CountyHoward CountyPrince GeorgesCountyBaltimore CityFederal Codes01-mental retardation04-speech or language impairment06- emotional disturbance08-other health impairments09-specific learning13- traumatic brain injury14-Autism
45Diagnostic Continuum Pervasive Developmental Disorders: AutismAspergersPDD NOSAxis I Disorders:Anxiety D.O.Obsessive Compulsive D.O.Bi-Polar D.O.Sensory Integration D.O.ADHD, Depressive D.O.Learning, & Speech and Language Disorders
46Tertiary PreventionDesigned to focus on the needs of the individual student with patterns of problem behaviors that are dangerous, highly disruptive, and/or impede learning and social functioningMost effective when positive primary systems are well established (School wide and Classroom Systems)
47Essential Features Identify goals: often called replacement behaviors Data collection and analysisHypothesis: sometimes called summary statementsMulti-element plans: involve settings, structure, adult behavior, etcReview, ongoing assessment
48Tertiary Interventions Often referred to as Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Planning (FBA/BIP)Focus is on individual student, his/her characteristics, specific circumstancesAllows team to vary features of process- data, extent of plan, etc. I.E. Labor intensive but worth it(OSEP Technical Assistance Center on PBIS)
49FBA/ BIP Alignment No Child Left Behind Individuals with Disabilities Education ActCode of Maryland RegulationsPBIS- A full continuum of PBS available for all students at the school and district level; Behaviorally competent personnel readily available; Function based approach serves as foundation for problem solving; Data collection to see if it’s workingIEP- Individual Educational Plan
50FBA/BIP TOOLSTEXT: Building Positive Behavior Support Systems in Schools; Functional Behavioral AssessmentAUTHORS: Deanne A. Crone, Robert H. HornerAppendix A: Request for Assistance FormAppendix B: Action Team Plan (f-BSP Protocol)
51APPENDIX CFunctional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS-Part A & B)Problem in Picture Form (Pro-form)March, Horner, Lewis-Palmer, Brown , Crone, Todd & Carr (2000)
52Tools and Process @ SES Request for assistance form FBA Interview: Meet with Core Team (homeroom teacher/social worker)Meet with student and parentABC data collectedFormal Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention PlanInformal- enough info/data (SWIS) to form hypothesis and run with plan
57Jay Axis I: Mood Disorder, NOS Attention Deficit w/ Hyperactivity Generalized Anxiety DisorderAxis II: Developmental LearningDisorder, NOSBSR’s- Behavior Support ReferralsT.O.C.- Time Out of Class/hoursMaj OD- Oppositional Defiance
58Alice Handicapping Code: 14 Axis I: Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Depressive Disorder, NOS, Intermittent Explosive DisorderBSR’s- Behavior Support ReferralsT.O.C.- Time Out of Class/hoursSkip- Refusing to Attend Class
59Axis I: Oppositional Defiant Disorder DamienAxis I: Oppositional Defiant DisorderAttention Deficit w/ HyperactivityAxis II: Mild Mental Retardation20406080100120BSR'sT.O.C.Maj. P.A.BSR’s-Behavior Support ReferralsT.O.C.Time out of class/hoursMaj. P.A.Major Physical Aggression
60Collaboration Kennedy Krieger Institute NeuroBehavioral Outpatient Clinic and Inpatient UnitSheppard Pratt Health SystemDistrict Level Collaboration
61ReferencesBoehner, John. (2004). Strengthening and Renewing Special Education: The Improving Education Results for Children with Disabilities Act (H.R. 1350). House Education and Workforce Committee.Dunlop, G., Hieneman, M., Knoster, T., Fox, L., Anderson, J., & Albin, R.W. (2000). Essential elements of in-service training in positive behavioral support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2 (I),Greenberg, Mark, T. (2003). Enhancing School-Based Prevention and Youth Development Through Coordinated Social, Emotional, and Academic Learning. American Psychologist..Gresham, Frank M. (2003). Relevance of functional behavioral assessment research for school-based interventions and positive behavioral support. Research in Developmental Disabilities.Hieneman, M. & Dunlap, G. (2000). Factors affecting the outcomes of community-based behavioral support: I. Identification and description of factor categories. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 2(3), , 178.Knoster, T.P., Villa, R.A., & Thousand, J.S. (2000). A framework for thinking about systems change. In R.A. Villa & J.S. Thousand (Ed.S), Restructuring for caring and effective education: Piecing the puzzle together (pp ). Baltimore, Paul H. Brookes.Maryland State Department of Education (2003). Maryland Institute (2003) Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.Prichard, E. Alice. Families and Positive Behavior Support: Addressing Problem Behavior in Family Contexts by Joseph M. Lucyshyn, Glen Dunlap and Richard W. Allen.. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 11, No. 1.
62Recommended ReadingsAttwood, T. (1998). Asperger’s syndrome: A guide for parents and professional. Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Klin, A., Volkmar, F. R. & Sparrow, S.S. (Editors). (2000). Asperger Syndrome. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Greene, Ross W., Ph.D. (1998). The Explosive Child: A New Approach for Understanding and Parenting Easily Frustrated, “Chronically Inflexible” Children., New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers.Wilens, Timothy E., MD., (1999). Straight Talk about Psychiatric Medication for Kids., New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Crone, Deana A. and Horner, Robert H., (2003). Building Positive Behavior Support Systems in School: Functional Behavioral AssessmentWatson, Steuart,T.,and Steege, Mark W., (2003). Conducting School-Based Functional Behavioral Assessments: A practitioner’s guide
63Contact Us Nano K. Kolls, MSW, LCSW-C email@example.com Kathy Ourand, M.EdKelly Spanoghe, Ed S