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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 1 Chapter 1 In Search of a Paradigm This Multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20072 In Search of a Paradigm Organizational Behavior is the interplay between individuals and the social environment in which they work. You must play an active role in reading and understanding this book. Internalize meanings by reading, questioning, and discussing with others how concepts fit into the practical world of your work.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20073 Assumptions, Beliefs, and Behaviors Every culture has basic assumptions about people. From these assumptions flow values and beliefs. From values and beliefs flow action. Yet in society and organizations, our expressed assumptions do not always lead to appropriate action. Hypocrisy abounds in education and other organizations. Examples?
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20074 Modernist and Structuralist Thought Modernism is a way of thinking about the world and cultures in an orderly, logical manner, leading us to discover truths through the scientific method. Uses quantitative research methods Postmodernism is a challenge to modernism and its focus on absolute truths and “grand narratives or metanarratives”. Primarily uses qualitative research methods.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20075 The Nature of Scientific Progress Thomas Kuhn’s landmark publication in 1962. Tranquil periods of scientific thought followed by scientific revolutions. Example—Copernicus Paradigms—an interlocking set of scientific, social, and political beliefs.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20076 Paradigms in Education Education has no overarching paradigm. The last paradigm in education was progressive education. The conservative social and political landscape is currently attempting to force a scientific revolution as embodied in NCLB, which does not have full support of the education community.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20077 Example Scientific Revolution Underway The Food Pyramid Guide established by the US Department of Agriculture Diet rich in carbohydrates. Challenged by 20 years of data and Dr. Robert Atkins low carbohydrate diet. After years of conflict with the scientific community, researchers begin to agree with Atkins and a shift in basic thinking about human physiology is ongoing.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20078 Psychology Paradigms Behaviorism—focus on extrinsic rewards and punishments to explain and control behavior. B.F. Skinner Remains Influential in Curriculum and instruction Classroom management
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20079 Psychology Paradigms (continued) Psychoanalytic Psychology—unconscious drives and internal instincts motivate people and cause their behavior. Sigmund Freud and Bruno Bettelheim Cognitive Psychology—mental processes including thinking, reasoning, decision making underlie behavior (critical and creative thinking). Jean Piaget most influential in affecting education.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 200710 Psychology Paradigms (continued) Social Psychology—the study of how individuals perceive, influence and relate to others in the context of environment. Kurt Lewin B = f(p · environment), that is behavior is a function of the interaction between the person and the environment. Organizations exist only as socially constructed reality. This has implications for leadership. B = f(p · environment) is the subject of this book.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 200711 Sociological and Psychological Points of View Sociologists and Psychologists generally agree on goals of schooling. However, they differ on how to achieve those goals. Psychologists tend to focus on the individual interactions and relationships. Sociologists tend to focus on group interactions and organizational characteristics. Taken together, these points of view help us understand organizational behavior. School are unique and should not mindlessly follow business approaches to management. School should uniquely strive for Kaizen—the Japanese principle that “small incremental steps” lead to continuous improvement.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 200712 The Relevance of School Leadership Today The processes of developing Educational Leadership are dynamic with constant and ongoing change and development. The emergence of new knowledge about how people function in organizations. The dynamic impact of changes in the larger society in which the schools exist. Leaders must guide schools to be nimble, adaptive organizations that detect emerging problems and react proactively.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 200713 No Child Left Behind The reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA). Signed by President George W. Bush on January 8, 2002. Signified a clear shift in federal role toward policy maker and reformer.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 200714 NCLB (continued) Three goals of NCLB: Closing the achievement gap for disadvantaged students. Improving the preparation of teachers and increasing their compensation so as to have every classroom in America staffed by a “highly qualified” teacher by the end of the 2005–2006 school year. Instituting closely monitored systems of accountability for students, teachers, and schools. NCLB mentions research 116 times, giving rise to controversy over the operational definition of scientifically-based research.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 200715 Research Methods in Education Education research has not been held in high esteem in the research community. A scholarly discipline has a well-defined body of knowledge from theory and research. The “gold standard” for research are studies that use randomized selection and assignment of participants into experimental and control groups.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 200716 Examples of Gold Standard Research Framingham Heart Study Over 5,000 participants since 1948. Cigarette smoking, cholesterol level, and hypertension increased risk of heart disease. Tennessee Student-Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR). Began in 1985 for four years. Over 7,000 students in 300 k-3 classes, randomly assigned. Found that: small classes (<18) improved student achievement and grade retention; low SES students gained more than high SES students; large classes with aides were no better than large classes with no aides.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 200717 Impact on School Leaders In the wake of NCLB, School leaders should be cognizant of what constitutes “good research”. NCLB has been highly criticized, not in its focus on scientifically-based research or accountability, but in the over-reliance on high-stakes testing and mandates whose costs are borne by the states. Pontiac School District v. Spellings –defendant wins in US District Court. Many educational leadership organizations are strong advocates for changes in NCLB, such as AASA, NASSP, NAESP, NEA, CEC, and the National PTA.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 200718 Leadership as Coaching Since 1980s, education literature on school reforms and school leadership has been critical of leadership preparation. ISLLC Standards published in 1996 with nationwide impact. (See preface of book for background and future of ISLLC).
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 200719 Leadership as Coaching (continued) Mortimer Adler’s three methods of teaching well: didactic instruction, Socratic method, and coaching. Coaching is an effective method used in leadership. Although techniques and leadership may differ, the metaphor of an athletic coach, may be helpful. This book uses the metaphor of a “game plan” to develop educational leadership students’ theory of practice as leaders. See discussion and suggestions for developing a theory of practice in the Reflective Activities section of Chapter 1.
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