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Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice Chapter 9 Accommodating Instruction to Meet Individual Needs.

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Presentation on theme: "Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice Chapter 9 Accommodating Instruction to Meet Individual Needs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice Chapter 9 Accommodating Instruction to Meet Individual Needs

2 Effective Instruction Takes A Lot More Than Effective Lectures What went wrong?

3 Carroll’s Model of Effective Instruction Aptitude Ability to Understand Instruction Perseverance Opportunity Quality of Instruction

4 Slavin’s QAIT Model of Effective Instruction Quality of Instruction Appropriate Levels of Instruction Incentive Time

5 Grouping to Accommodate Achievement Differences Tracking Between-Class Ability Grouping Within-Class Ability Grouping Regrouping for Reading and Mathematics Untracking (Multidimensional; mixed grouping) Nongraded (Cross-Age Grouping) Elementary Schools

6 Mastery Learning Characteristics –Varies Instructional Time, Not Level of Achievement (Hospital Rule) –Assumes All Students Can Learn Essential Skills Forms –Additional Out-of-Class Instruction –Block and Anderson Formula

7 Block and Anderson Formula for Mastery Learning Teach Lesson Based on a Learning Objective Give Formative Test –Students Who Meet Criterion Receive Enrichment Activities –Students Who Fail to Meet Criterion Receive Corrective Instruction Summative Test

8 The Saxon Approach Practice

9 Individualizing Instruction: Programmed Instruction Individualized Self-Instructional Materials Disappointing Results

10 Individualizing Instruction: Computer-Based Instruction Using a Structured Curriculum Letting Students Work at Their Own Pace Giving Students Controlled, Frequent Feedback and Reinforcement Measuring Performance Quickly and Giving Students Information on Their Performance

11 Students Placed At Risk: Compensatory Education Programs Title I –Federal Program –Disadvantaged Students Who Are Having Problems in School –Pull Out Programs or Teaching Assistants –Parental Involvement

12 No Child Left Behind--NCLB Historical Perspective and Purpose of NCLBHistorical Perspective and Purpose of NCLB –Passed in 2001 to supplement State & Local Educational Efforts –Goal: Reduce Achievement Gap between Students –Improve Reading Instruction –Improve Teacher Quality –Increase Accountability

13 No Child Left Behind--NCLB NCLB’s Assessment and EvaluationNCLB’s Assessment and Evaluation –Tests in Reading, Language Arts & Math in Grades 3-8 and ONE Year in High School –Adequate Yearly Progress—AYP must be Achieved by Schools

14 No Child Left Behind--NCLB NCLB’s Incentives and SanctionsNCLB’s Incentives and Sanctions –All Students Must Reach Proficient Level by 2014 –Each Year Schools Must Reduce Number of Students NOT Reaching Proficiency by 10% –Sanctions Begin for Title I Schools Not Meeting AYP after Two Years –Schools Not Meeting Target Achievement After Five Years Can be Closed/Restructured –Schools in Need of Improvement can Receive Technical Assistance—using Scientifically Based Practices


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