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Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 1 The American Institutes for Research Don’t Get Left Behind David Osher The American Institutes for.

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Presentation on theme: "Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 1 The American Institutes for Research Don’t Get Left Behind David Osher The American Institutes for."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 1 The American Institutes for Research Don’t Get Left Behind David Osher The American Institutes for Research Trina W. Osher Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health

3 2 The American Institutes for Research Overview  Federal Role in Education  No Child Left Behind Act of 2001  IDEA and Section 504  Improving Schools – what works  Criteria for Choosing Improvement Strategies and Programs

4 Where To Go For:  Resources,  Links, &  Overheads

5 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 4 The American Institutes for Research It’s about being children first – children who need special help to do what their siblings and friends do naturally. Keep in mind that

6 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 5 The American Institutes for Research Federal Role in Education  No Federal Constitutional Right to Education  Education is a STATE Matter  Elementary and Secondary Education Act – Title 1- Background  Cold War  War on Poverty

7 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 6 The American Institutes for Research Federal vs. State Law Federal Law Sets the BASELINE and Takes Precedence Over State Law When there is a conflict, Federal law controls, unless the State confers additional protections or benefits that do not limit rights.

8 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 7 The American Institutes for Research The Logic of Leaving No Child Behind Adapted from: Beth Doll, University of Nebraska

9 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 8 The American Institutes for Research No Child LEFT Behind Background  A Nation At Risk  Standards Based Reform  Goals 2000  Opportunity to Learn Standards

10 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 9 The American Institutes for Research NCLB Act of 2001 Key Provisions  Increased Accountability  Annual testing in math and reading  Annual statewide progress towards meeting state or locally determined objectives reported to families and the public.

11 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 10 The American Institutes for Research NCLB Act of 2001 Specific Requirements  A single accountability system  Applies the same standards to all students in a State  Includes annual measurable objectives  Based on the State’s academic standards, academic assessments, and other academic indicators  States also required to establish uniform data system on school safety & drug use  Goal: continuous and substantial improvement for all students

12 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 11 The American Institutes for Research NCLB Act of 2001 Enhancements  Focus on Evidenced-Based Interventions  What Work’s Clearing House  Improvement of Title One Program for Delinquent and Neglected Youth  Access to general curriculum  Focus on transition  Focus on Accountability  Parental & Student Choice  Academic Failure  Persistently Dangerous Schools  Victims of Violent Crime

13 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 12 The American Institutes for Research Adequate Yearly Progress-(AYP)  Applies the state or locally determined objectives to specific groups of students  Measures progress separately for reading/language arts and math  Accounts for participation rates of students (overall and subgroups (poverty, race, ethnicity, disability, limited English proficiency)  Includes other academic indicators such as:  graduation rates in high school,  attendance,  grade-to-grade retention rates

14 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 13 The American Institutes for Research AYP Making IT: A school (or LEA) makes AYP if:  each group of students for which disaggregated data are reported meets or exceeds the annual measurable objectives;  each group meets or exceeds the ‘other academic indicator;’  at least 95% participation for each disaggregated group  applies to both math and reading/language arts.

15 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 14 The American Institutes for Research Sanctions for Not Making AYP  Year 1 – Parental choice + improvement plan developed + technical assistance  Year 2 – PLUS supplementary educational services  Year 3 – PLUS designating a specific corrective action(s)  Year 4 – PLUS develop a plan to implement an alternative governance arrangement  Year 5 – RESTRUCTURE SCHOOL

16 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 15 The American Institutes for Research Questions About NCLB

17 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 16 The American Institutes for Research

18 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 17 The American Institutes for Research IDEA Foundation  The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act guarantees children with disabilities a free, appropriate, public education in the least restrictive environment.  It is built on the same constitutional principles applied to eliminate racial segregation in school – namely providing equal access. (If the state provides something to one class of individuals - public education in the case of schools - then it must give all members of the class the same opportunity to participate and benefit.)

19 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 18 The American Institutes for Research Purposes of the IDEA #1  To ensure that all children with disabilities have available to them a free appropriate public education that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for employment and independent living; [Parts B & C and the IEP Process]  To ensure that the rights of children with disabilities and parents of such children are protected; and [procedural safeguards]  To to assist States, localities, educational service agencies, and Federal agencies to provide for the education of all children with disabilities. [Part D and funding]

20 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 19 The American Institutes for Research Purposes of the IDEA #2  to assist States in the implementation of a statewide, comprehensive, coordinated, multidisciplinary, interagency system of early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families.

21 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 20 The American Institutes for Research Purposes of the IDEA #3  to ensure that educators and parents have the necessary tools to improve educational results for children with disabilities by:  supporting systemic-change activities;  coordinated research and personnel preparation;  coordinated technical assistance, dissemination, and support; and  technology development and media services.

22 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 21 The American Institutes for Research Purposes of the IDEA #4  to assess, and ensure the effectiveness of, efforts to educate children with disabilities. [high stakes district and school-wide accountability testing]

23 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 22 The American Institutes for Research Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 “No otherwise qualified individual with disabilities in the United States shall, solely by reasons of her or his disability, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits or, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance or under any program or activity conducted by any Executive Agency of by the United states Postal Service.” (29 USC Sec. 794)

24 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 23 The American Institutes for Research Comparing the Laws IDEA  program entitlement  disability has an impact on educational performance  student must “require” special education  services in the IEP should confer educational benefit  federal funding to help states bear the burden Section 504  non-discrimination civil rights statute  physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life function (9 functions)  regarded as handicapped by others  reasonable accommodations to participate in same educational program as typical students  no federal funding

25 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 24 The American Institutes for Research Does the student have a disability as specified in IDEA? Does the impairment have an adverse effect on educational performance? Does the student have a physical or mental impairment that affects a major life function? Eligible for IDEA Develop an IEP Develop recommendations for general education teacher Develop Section 504 plan Eligible for Section 504 HOW DO YOU DECIDE?

26 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 25 The American Institutes for Research Resource for More Information Section 504 and the ADA, Promoting Student Access: A Resource Guide for Educators Council of Administrators of Special Education, Inc Technical Assistance Partnership Website FAQs June 2002 Resources for March 2002

27 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 26 The American Institutes for Research Least Restrictive Environment for Students with Disabilities IDEA and Sec. 504 both require that - to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities are educated with children who are nondisabled and that special classes, separate schooling, or other removal regular educational environment occurs only if the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1412(a)(5))

28 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 27 The American Institutes for Research Special Education Placement Requirements are Consistent with NCLB  Each student with a disability must receive services in a program or class that can provide ALL the special education and related services described in their own IEP  This includes supplementary services to be provided in conjunction with regular class placements  Continuum includes regular classes, special classes, special schools, home instruction, and instruction in hospitals and institutions (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1412(a)(5))

29 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 28 The American Institutes for Research Systems of Care and the Wraparound Process Can Help  Facilitate developing new options on the continuum  Bring schools resources from other systems  Contribute expertise to schools  Provide a vehicle for braiding funding streams to serve a child

30 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 29 The American Institutes for Research Questions About Special Education

31 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 30 The American Institutes for Research Who is the Fish? What is in the Water? Adapted from: Beth Doll, University of Nebraska

32 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 31 The American Institutes for Research

33 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 32 The American Institutes for Research Linking Student Support & School Improvement Student Support Team School-wide Team Principal Teacher Mental Health Professional Dwyer & Osher, 2000

34 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 33 The American Institutes for Research Address the Whole Child Understand the Links Between Psychological, Social, and Academic Development Improved Learning Improved Behavior

35 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 34 The American Institutes for Research Success4 MISSION Iowa needs to become a place where schools, families and communities work together to provide the skills children need to succeed in school and throughout life.

36 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 35 The American Institutes for Research Success4 Beliefs  Social, emotional, intellectual and behavioral skills are essential to success in school and throughout life.  All children and youth can be successful socially, emotionally, intellectually, and behaviorally.  Families, schools, and the community must work together in partnership to ensure the social, emotional, intellectual, and behavioral well-being of children and youth.  Changing the family-school-community relationship is necessary in order to create an environment which nurtures social, emotional, intellectual and behavioral development for all children and youth

37 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 36 The American Institutes for Research How To Intervene ? Primary Prevention ? Early Intervention ? Intensive Intervention ? Home ? School ? Community

38 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 37 The American Institutes for Research Where to Look For Solutions  Risk Factors  Individual  Social (Family, Peers)  Institutional (Schools; Facilities)  Societal  Protective Factors  Individual  Social  Institutional  Societal

39 A nested ecological system of influences on youth behavior. Adapted from “Prevention of Delinquency: Current status and issues” by P. H. Tolan and N. G. Guerra, 1994, Applied and Preventive Psychology, 3, p Societal Macrosystems Proximal Social Contexts Where To Intervene ? Close Interpersonal Relations Individual Factors

40 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 39 The American Institutes for Research All Foundation Few Some Building Blocks Universal Intervention Early Intervention Intensive Intervention

41 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 40 The American Institutes for Research All The Logic of Universal Intervention Universal Interventions Cannot identify all at risk Children affect each other No stigma No self-fulfilling prophecies No homogenous grouping Per child cost is less

42 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 41 The American Institutes for Research Connect with Every Child Students who FEEL Connected Are:  Less likely to use alcohol or substances  Experience less emotional distress  Attempt suicide less  Engage in less deviant and violent behavior National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health) Blum, 2001

43 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 42 The American Institutes for Research Connect with Every Child  Small schools;  Well managed classrooms;  Positive (not harsh) discipline policies;  Overlapping and integrated social groups;  E.g., Child Development Project  Resource: Every Child Learning: Safe & Supportive Schools Blum, 2001

44 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 43 The American Institutes for Research Support Family-School Collaboration  Value all families;  Effective outreach (e.g., FAST);  Culturally competent approaches;  Support for family participation; and  Positive interactions with families (e.g., video: Cleveland Elementary School, Tampa, FL) Resource: Claming Children Issue on Collaboration Download from

45 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 44 The American Institutes for Research Teach Social-Emotional & Problem Solving Skills  Teach, model, practice, coach, reinforce, generalize  PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies)  Second step  Life Skills  Culturally competent approaches (e.g., Gwen Cartledge Resource: Safe & Sound Check

46 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 45 The American Institutes for Research Provide Positive Behavioral Supports  High behavioral standards and strong supports for students and adults to realize them;  Workable school and classroom behavior plans;  Positive behavioral strategies;  Supporting appropriate behaviors (e.g., Helping students stay on task); and  Teaching and modeling skills  Example: Project Achieve Resources: National Center for Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports Check

47 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 46 The American Institutes for Research Provide Engaging & Appropriate Instruction  High academic standards and strong supports for students and adults to realize them;  Strong curricula approaches;  Strong teaching approaches (e.g., Class-wide Peer Tutoring);  Engaging curricula and teaching;  Culturally competent curricula and teaching;  Individualization; and  Use of multiple modalities (individual, group, experiential, technology, etc.) Resource:Safeguarding Our Youth: An Action Guide Download from

48 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 47 The American Institutes for Research Selective Indicated Early Intervention Selective interventions for individuals who whose risk of illness or poor outcomes is above average (e.g., single teenage mothers) Indicated interventions for individuals who exhibit a risk factor or condition that identifies them, individually, as being at high risk for the development of illness or poor outcomes

49 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 48 The American Institutes for Research Functional Behavioral Assessments  Goals of functional behavioral assessment:  to determine the causes of a behavior; and  identify likely interventions.  Functions are the things that sustain a behavior - what the child gets from doing it.  Behaviors that look alike (slamming a book shut) may serve different functions (getting attention; avoiding work that is too hard).  Different behaviors (studying hard, fighting at recess) may serve the same function (getting attention from adults).

50 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 49 The American Institutes for Research Resource for More Information Addressing Student Problem Behavior Part I: An IEP Team's Introduction to Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans Part II: Conducting A Functional Assessment Part II: Creating Positive Behavioral Intervention Plans and Supports download from

51 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 50 The American Institutes for Research Intensive Intervention and Treatment Individualized Address multiple risk factors & cross multiple domains Linguistically & culturally competent Child & family driven Intensive & sustained.

52 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 51 The American Institutes for Research

53 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 52 The American Institutes for Research Efficacy vs. Effectiveness  Does it work with students who have complex needs?  Does it work with students from diverse backgrounds?  Does it work when school staff implement it without direct and ongoing involvement of developers?  Can it be integrated with your practice knowledge?

54 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 53 The American Institutes for Research Criteria for Selecting Interventions The program must:  Document its effectiveness and be based on sound theory.  Easily integrate with existing school practices.  Have data demonstrating effectiveness or ineffectiveness with particular student groups.  Have data indicating a positive impact on student achievement.  Demonstrate that subscribing schools receive sufficient technical assistance from developers.  Have components focusing on promoting positive solutions to behavioral and emotional problems.

55 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 54 The American Institutes for Research Intervention Selection Calculus X Intervention works with Y Students In Z context When you do: A B C

56 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 55 The American Institutes for Research Resources for More Information Teaching and Working with Children Who Have Emotional and Behavioral Challenges $10.00 available from Sopris West Safe, Supportive, & Successful Schools Step By Step (forthcoming from Sopris West Summer 2003) Check Briefs for Families on Evidence-based Practices Download from

57 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 56 The American Institutes for Research Questions About Selecting Interventions

58 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 57 The American Institutes for Research What does your school need? What does your school have? What are your school goals? Which students are being left behind? What outcomes are you looking for? What interventions are likely to be helpful? Which interventions fit your school? What do we need to implement the intervention? How will the chosen intervention be carried out? How will quality of implementation be assessed? How will you know if it worked? For which students is it effective? How will you regularly use data to improve your intervention? How will you sustain the intervention? Questions to Guide Planning

59 Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health 58 The American Institutes for Research Complete the evaluation form and leave it at the door Complete the evaluation form and leave it at the door.


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