Presentation on theme: "Welcome Trainer Introduction Rule of (2) feet Limit side conversation Cell Phones turned off or to vibrate “Tater Family” Parking lot questions."— Presentation transcript:
Welcome Trainer Introduction Rule of (2) feet Limit side conversation Cell Phones turned off or to vibrate “Tater Family” Parking lot questions Other?
“Fifty Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners” (Adrienne Herrell and Michael Jordan…second edition) The following modules are designed for school leadership to readily share with teachers. Included are strategies on how to help one of our NCLB targeted gap populations; our English Language Learners. These modules are designed to be shared in approximately (5), 60 minute sessions (faculty meetings, team meetings, department meetings, early release days etc.) If more time and opportunity allows, in the notes section there are activities to better engage teachers and heighten the learning experience. In order to complete each session, the group will be provided roughly 5 minutes per strategy, unless extra time is built to address the activities/notes section. Share/discuss/implement. The critical piece to any professional development is follow-up and reflection. Reconvene at another time for follow-up and reflection on each of the strategies and determine the impact these strategies had on student learning and teaching.
NCLB Target Populations Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners
Statistical Facts…………… The U.S. is becoming more ethnically and linguistically diverse every year. More than 90% of new residents come from non-English- speaking countries The number of students with non-English- speaking backgrounds represents the fastest growing group of this population In the last decade, the total student enrollment in public schools increased by only 14% English learners grew by 70% and is projected to grow even more The 2000 U.S.Census identified 20% of school-age children as non-native English speakers
Intentional Planning…. With some extra effort in instructional planning and assessment development, teachers will be well on their way to providing English learners with opportunities to learn and become active participants.
Part I: Enhancing Instruction See it….. Hear it….. Smell it….. Touch it….. Act it….. Draw it….. Move to it….. Model it….. Talk about it…. Repeat it… Teach it…
1. Develop Classroom Routines … Predictable routines are important strategies that help reduce anxiety and stress for English language learners. Because English language learners do not always understand everything being said in the classroom, having set patterns, routines and signals helps minimize their anxiety and helps students better understand what to expect. If they know what to expect, they can then focus their energy on instruction.
Routines in the classroom….. “Fifty Strategies For Teaching English Language Learners” (Second Edition) Adrienne Herrell and Michael Jordan Routine Examples:Benefits To ELL: Morning Sign InStudents feel their presence is valued Starting activity (Sponge activity, Journal entries, Problems of the day, Bell ringer activity etc.) Students know what to do immediately. Teacher can note ELL student progress. Students may have the opportunity to share out and chat briefly with peers. Set place where certain activities occur.Students know what to expect when moved to a certain area. List the class activities and approximate times, posted in the same place daily. Students have a visual reminder of the day’s activities. Less reliance on oral directions. Students begin to associate vocabulary with the routines. Model and Contextualize the oral directions.Students waste less energy wondering what to do next “Take out your Math book,” should be accompanied with holding up the math book. “Open to page 21” should be modeled and page 21 written on the board. Use of hand signalsStudents are alerted to a change in pace, changing of activity Posting of assignments, page numbers, long-term assignments, homework Students are aware of expectations Set place to submit assignments and get materialsStudents are aware of expectations
2. Visual Scaffolding Visual Scaffolding is planning instruction that effectively incorporates and uses drawings and photographs that connects English words students hear to visual images being displayed.
In Mr. Gym’s high school physical education class… Students are studying a unit on lifetime fitness and its benefits upon the human body…. Mr. Gym plans to develop a “Word Wall” using critical vocabulary important to the unit. In planning for the unit, he begins collecting visual images of the core content vocabulary that will be introduced.
Activity: Scaffolding Example In table groups……….. Appoint a table leader to read the directions in the folder to the group, distribute copies and materials. Read the Open Response question in the folder Match up critical vocabulary to pictures within the folder of words to be taught within the unit that will be placed on a “Word Wall” For words that you can not find a picture to match….discuss as a group what symbol or picture you could use.
Begin with the end in mind… Develop the assessment up front…then teach to that end in mind. Develop the open response question before the unit begins Best practice supports that teachers should write a proficient response to the question they have developed that would be expected of the students upon completion of the unit. (Keep in mind….student responses are a reflection of teacher instruction. Proficient and Distinguished responses come from proficient and distinguished instruction….)
3. Connect language acquisition to the real world…….. Things that are “real world are things that are concrete to learners.” They are things that can be seen, heard, touched, smelled etc. This is a powerful way to connect vocabulary to real life. Find, collect and store the many things that can be used in instruction of a particular lesson or unit that gives students concrete examples of vocabulary that are important to the lesson. The more concrete examples that can be shared, the greater chance that learning and understanding will take place. The further down the continuum one teaches with less concrete examples there is a loss of sensory information that could be helpful in comprehension.
4. Interactive Read-Aloud Although read aloud has traditionally been used with young children, research has lead some administrators of high schools with low test scores in reading comprehension to mandate the use of read- aloud school-wide on a daily basis with very positive results. (Trelease, 1995)
Read Aloud addresses….. Helping ELL interact with personal expression Helping students interact and be active participants in the classroom Helps ELL apply academic knowledge Helps students obtain, process, construct subject matter information in spoken and written form.
Interactive Read-aloud is motivational When students observe a teacher reading fluently and with enthusiasm…they often choose to read the same book or another book by the same author. The discussion of characters, setting and description that is involved in interactive read-aloud provides shared understanding and vocabulary that helps English Language Learners stretch their linguistic abilities. Step by Step: A. Chose an appropriate book above their reading level using different voices, excitement and drama. Set aside time to do this daily. B. Pre-read an plan interactions. Before you read a section of the book, mark the book with sticky notes for discussion, predicting and connections to other books or personal experiences of the students. C. Stop for interactions. Select minute section of the text to read each time. D. Assess student progress and understanding. A student’s ability to retell events in a story are indicative of their understanding. If ELL students can not retell the story, they can often draw or act it out to indicate their comprehension.
5. Advanced Organizers Two Types: Expository Organizer- presents concepts and principles to the learner that will create a bridge between what is already known and the new material learned. Comparative Organizer- integrates new material with similar material already understood and focuses on how the new and old material differ.
6. Pre-view/Review (Building Vocabulary and Concepts to Support Understanding) Steps: Plan your lesson and gather materials that will help students understand concepts and vocabulary needed to comprehend the lesson Introduce key vocabulary and concepts (The focus here is not on teaching the lesson but on making students familiar with the key vocabulary and concepts Teaching the lesson using the supporting materials and critical vocabulary at every opportunity Reviewing vocabulary and concepts and encourage students to demonstrate understanding by referring to the support materials. Provide additional practice by creating bulletin boards, word walls or learning centers that allow students to practice the key concepts. Assess student progress and understanding by documenting students’ interaction with the materials.
7. Language Focus (English Vocabulary and Structures) Language focus lessons are lessons in which the emphasis is on English vocabulary and usage rather than curricular content. Steps: Observe and note language errors. (Plan time to work with small groups of students who have the same needs for direct instruction. Gather materials for hands on demonstrations of the language usage to be taught Explaining and modeling language usage is when teachers introduce the vocabulary and model simultaneously. Practicing in active mode gives students the opportunity to perform or model a hands-on movement or activity as they focus on language usage. Practicing for mastery allows the teacher to observe the student’s mastery of the focus language. If students do not connect the language to the actions correctly, repeat the 3 rd and 4 th steps.
8. Academic Scaffolding (Support of student use of language in various academic settings) For students to successfully participate in academic lessons in the classroom, teachers use a series of scaffolding strategies that include: A. Modeling academic language B. Contextualizing academic language using visuals, gestures, demonstrations C. Supporting students in the use of academic language through active learning activities.
Steps in a language scaffolding lesson: Identify academic vocabulary and language structures Design and teach introductory activity. (If students are required to ask questions, model the use of language in question form. If students are to take notes, then model how the notes could be taken. Practice in pairs and small groups. Research supports improved learning when students are allowed to work in pairs or small groups. Interacting verbally allows students to practice language in authentic ways. Guiding and monitoring the practice requires a teacher to move about the room to monitor and encourage the students’ use of academic language. Reviewing the vocabulary and language structures allows pairs or small groups of learners to report back to the whole group using the academic language in context.
9. Language Framework Planning LFP is a strategy in which the teacher identifies the language necessary for the students to be successful in a lesson and plans activities that support the use of the language in multiple functions.
10.Skills grouping (Arranging students in groups based on their need for instruction in a specific skill) Steps in implementing skills groups: 1. Observing and documenting language levels 2. Reviewing needs for instruction (look for commonalities for “like groups”) 3. Designing and implementing lessons
Part II. Support for Student Involvement Providing English learners with multiple opportunities to interact in English in non stressful setting.
Give students opportunities to practice their growing English skills in partner and small group settings. Elicit information and ask clarification questions Clarify and restate information as needed Indicate interests, opinions, or preferences related to class projects
11. Integrating Movement Into English Acquisition In first language acquisition, children listen and acquire language before they attempt to speak. They develop understanding through moving their bodies and they are not forced to speak until they are ready. In total physical response the teacher gradually introduces commands, acting as she says them. The students initially respond by performing the actions as the teacher demonstrates them. Gradually teacher demonstration are removed and students respond to the verbal commands only.
Step by Step: Total Physical Response Choose vocabulary to physicalize: Make a list of classroom words students will need to know. (Directions, colors, simple commands etc. that require a movement response “Stand-up,” “Sit down,” “Show Me” etc.) Introduce vocabulary gradually: Introduce 2-3 commands at first, giving commands while demonstrating them physically. Dropping the physical model: As students understand what to do without waiting for teacher commands, drop the demonstrations and introduce new ones. Practice these students understand them, then drop demonstrations. Add additional commands: Add new commands, no more than 3 at a time. Always start with demonstrations as you introduce the new commands Add additional response: Find new ways for the students to demonstrate their understanding of vocabulary such as pointing, drawing pictures, taking turns understanding commands. Play games for additional practice: Have ESL student’s volunteer to give the commands when they feel confident enough to do so. Asses student progress and understanding: It is easy to document student progress and their ability to respond to commands with physical movements. Make a check list of what has been taught.
12. Shared Reading Shared reading is a strategy that teachers use to read books, charts and other texts when the text are too difficult to read independently. Students and teacher read the text loud, together. Even if the students can not read the words, they are hearing the words pronounced and follow along with their eyes. Shared reading can be done with multiple choices of small books, poetry, charts, song lyrics or any text where student and teacher can all see the words. Shared reading gives the teacher the opportunity to use illustrations to support vocabulary developments, to use think a-loud strategies to teach problem solving and to integrate verbal integrations to support comprehension. Shared reading helps to build background knowledge experiences that help the student to understand the meaning of the text.
Step by Step: Shared Reading Introduce the text-Predict from the illustrations on the cover. Encourage students to talk about experiences they have had that relate to the topic of the book, chart, or poem. Read the book and tact the print-Track the words as you read so students can read along. Use a pointer to make sure students are looking and saying the words with you. They will hear you pronounce them as you point. Stop for discussion and prediction- Stop at appropriate times to discuss what is happening or to predict what will happen next. Use the illustrations to help support understanding of vocabulary. Involve students in acting out movement words and story events to reinforce meaning. Encourage verbal interactions-Encourage students to talk about the story. This allows students to practice oral language and incorporate new vocabulary into their retelling of the story. Rereading for additional practice and exposure- Re-read the book, tracking with a pointer. Encourage students to take turns reading a page or refrain aloud. Practice will small versions of the text- After students have read the text several times, they can read small copies of the book independently or illustrate their favorite part of the story and write about it.
13. Leveled Questions: Adjusting questioning strategies to the language levels of students Observing and documenting students’ language levels-On a class list, determine what stage each student is at. This will need to be kept up to date as you work with students and observe their responses. Stages 1. Preproduction- Nodding, pointing, physically demonstrating (“Show me…” “Which of these…?”) 2. Early production- 1 or 2 word responses, making choices from given language samples (Questions that can me answered with 1 or 2 words. “is it the ____one or the____one?” 3. Speech emergence- Phrase or short sentences (expect grammar errors) ( “Did this happen at the beginning or at the end?” “What happened next?” “Where did you find the answer?”) 4. Intermediate Fluency- Longer sentences, fewer grammar errors (“How did you…?” “What was the character trying to do?”)
Leveled Questions (Continued) Choosing and gathering materials-Determine which visuals, artifacts or gestures you will need to make your meaning clear to students whose understanding of English is limited. Planning a hierarchy of questions- Plan a series of questions at different levels that will help you involve your students and determine their levels of understanding of the material you will be teaching. Involve all students- Use the list of students and speech levels as a checklist to make sure that you are involving all students in discussion and questioning and that you are adapting the levels of your questions to their changing language acquisition levels. Assessing student progress and understanding-Use the checklist you have created for observation purposes. Observe a few students each day until you have examples of the verbal responses typical for each student.
14. Manipulative Strategies: Identify concepts to be taught and ways to represent them Demonstrate and explain (Use manipulatives as you explain the concept. Use the demonstration to connect the manipulatives as examples.) Provide Guide Practice Give students time for additional practice Celebrate and review
Manipulative Strategies Subject AreaSuggested Manipulative Use Vocabulary Miniatures or wooden cut-outs of objects Colored blocks to teach colors, singular, plural forms Attribute blocks to teach shapes, sizes, texture, color Dolls to teach body parts Mathematics Beans for counters Small groups for acting out word problems Geometric shapes cut into fractional parts Colored linking cubes for building patterns Measuring cups and containers for studying measurement Science Human body models Realia for experiments Styrofoam balls and toothpicks for construction Magnets, batteries, iron filings
15. Partner Work Pairing Students Modeling the Task Providing Supporting Practice Sharing Progress
Partner Work FormatLearning TaskPairing Scheme Think-Pair ShareStudents think about their responses and then share and discuss their responses with their partner. Pair with one strong English speaking model Buddy ReadOne student reads, the other listens and takes notes Pair with one strong reader Research InterviewStudents do research on a topic. Partners interview each other and gain knowledge obtained by their partner. Equal partners or one strong reader Conversation Role PlayPartners role play social situations such as a birthday party, job interview, meeting new people etc. Equal Partners Convince MeTeacher presents a problem to be solved. Students work independently to find solutions Students are paired to convince each other of the viability of the solutions. They meet with another pair and present the best solution to the group. One strong English model
16. Communication Games: Identifying a language need Modeling the game Organizing the pairs or groups Guiding the practice Talking about the experience
Activity: Communication games ActivityDescriptionExample Barrier Games2 students sit back to back. One student is given a complete set of instructions that must be conveyed verbally to the second student who completes the task Information SharingEach student has a part of the information to complete a task or solve a problem. They must share their information to accomplish the task. Inquiring and Elimination A small group of students works together. One has a set of information that must be obtained by the others through questioning and elimination of irrelevant items. The group then decides the solution based upon their inquiry. Rank orderingStudents work together in a small group to suggest solutions to a problem and then reach consensus as to the rank order of the usefulness of each of the solutions.
17. Bilingual Books and Labels Identify the languages represented in the classroom Pronouncing and labeling common objects Providing Bilingual Books Providing translations Exploring key vocabulary in several languages
18. Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning is a term used for a collection of strategies which students work together to accomplish a group task. K-12 researchers have concluded that, to succeed, group work must be carefully structured. Students must be prepared for social skill- building activities, assignments must be open- ended. The task must be such that the group rather than the individual be required to accomplish the task.
Cooperative Groups… Assigning groups and building a team-Each time a team is formed, provide an opportunity for team- building activity to allow team members to be familiar with each other’s abilities. Assigning role within the group-Give team members assigned roles and list clear descriptions of their duties. (Leader, note-taker, reporter, timekeeper) Assigning the task-Give each team a task to complete. Intervening to ensure full participation- Teachers must monitor group participation and intervene when a student is being excluded. Teachers must listen to make sure that every member of the group is given a chance to talk. Reporting back to the class-Provide an opportunity for the groups to report back to the class at the end of the assigned time. Debriefing and examining the group process-Give each team the chance to debrief, discussing the roles each team member played in the success of the group.
19. Culture Studies Culture studies (Freeman & Freeman 1994) are studies in which students research and share information about their own cultural history.
20. Learning Centers GradeCenter Kindergarten Counting Center Language Master Center Sorting Center Story retelling Center Listening Center Letter Work Center Primary Word Work Center Skills Center Pocket Chart Center Literature Response Computer Center Project Center Writing and Publishing Center Illustration Center Upper Elementary Science Center Observation Center Theater Center Editing Center Middle & High School Logic center Video Center Research center Multiple Intelligences Center
21. Imaging: (Creating Visual Pictures to Support Understanding) Step by Step: Identify a curricular connections in which imaging would support student understanding. If students are having difficulty remembering what they read or conceptualizing word problems in math, students need instruction in imaging. Plan an introductory imaging activity Create mental pictures through verbalization- Plan the words you will use to create the mental pictures. Be prepared to use synonyms to make images clear with English learners. Assess the students’ understanding and progress Add technology
Imaging… Curricular AreaImaging Use VocabularyPicture a word in your mind. ComprehensionClose your eyes and picture the scene in your mind MathematicsUse with word problems. Have students close their eyes and picture the people, animals and things involved in the problem. SummarizingAfter a section of text…create a mind picture of the text Art Before you being to create art media, picture what you want to create. Question students about the line, color and texture of what they see. MusicHave students picture what the music is suggesting. Have students describe their mind pictures. WritingBefore students begin writing, have them picture the image they want to create with words. Have students verbalize the image.
22. Integrated Curriculum Projects: Grade LevelProjects KindergartenMaking our playground cleaner Eating Healthy Foods Our Families PrimaryMaking our neighborhood cleaner Making our school safer Who are our neighbors Where does our food come from Upper ElementaryOur friends and our world Making our town safer How our officials are elected Lobbying for a cause Manufacturing a product Middle SchoolAdvocating for a safe school Adopting a group Beautifying a public area Publishing a magazine or newspaper Senior High SchoolUniting the community Designing a homework center Advocating for a change in the school system All LevelsStudies based on literature
23. Sorting Activities: (Organizing Information into Categories) Sorting activities require students to sort objects, words, phrases and sentences according to parameters. These activities are helpful to English language learners because they provide a way for students to manipulate objects and written symbols to show their understanding of concepts while acquiring vocabulary needed for verbal interaction.
24. Collaborative Reading (When students can not read the text ….) This strategy is helpful to English language learners when they are reading for information. This allows a teacher to support readers of various abilities to work collaboratively as they study a specific topic. Students use a variety of library or textbooks with information on the topic being studied that provide a wide range of reading levels to meet the needs within the class. Step by Step: Gather a range of books on a topic-Gather books covering the topic to be studies to include various reading levels. Organize heterogeneous groups-Organize students into groups of 4-5 to explore topics. Make sure that each group has a strong reader and writer. Have each group explore a different topic. Have the group brainstorm questions about the topic they are researching. Provide each member with book on the group’s topic. The group researches the questions using the book on the topic. Providing research Instruction-Instruct the group to find the answers to their questions and take notes about the information they will share with their group. Create a data chart-After the group participates in note-taking, have the group create a data chart or visual and plan how they will share their information with the class. Practicing and sharing and information-Have the groups practice their presentation and then share out. Document the groups progress-Document the groups progress through anecdotal records, check lists, rubrics
25. Multi-media presentations Grade LevelProjectEquipment K Story retelling Math presentations Overhead projector, Transparency pictures Math manipulatives, overhead projector P Book talks (video book reports) Publishing Books Research on the internet Video camera, VCR monitor Computer/Word software processing and illustrating Computer with internet access, websites Above 3 The sky is the limit! Classroom connections projects Space Exploration projects Computer with internet access Writing and publishing software Hyperstudio, Video productions, Power Point, Capability to connect wit classrooms across the nation (www.gsn.org)www.gsn.org Internet with related to space(http://spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov/)
26. Reciprocal Teaching Reciprocal teaching is a strategy where students take turns teaching small sections of the text. Students take turns summarizing, clarifying and asking questions until all sections have been read. Step by Step: Identify tough text- Identify a section that has some difficult vocabulary or concepts Explain the process and purpose- Explain to students that they will work in small groups to make sense of the information they have been reading. Have them read information silently. Walkthrough the process- After the group has read it silently, have them summarize the material and pose questions to the group members. Identify literal questions (simple recall), inferential questions (finding unstated meaning) and critical questions (calling for higher level thinking)
Reciprocal Teaching…. Type of Q’sExamples LiteralWho…What…When…Where…How Comprehension (Facts and ideas) Tell in your own words. What is the main idea…? ApplicationHow is ________an example of________? Why is ____________important? AnalysisWhat is the main elements of__________? How does________compare or contrasts with_________? SynthesisHow could you design a _____________? What might happen if you combine_____________? EvaluationDo you agree with__________? How would you decide to___________? *** This strategy is helpful to ELL because of its support for comprehension and small group interactions
Part III. Strategies For Building Vocabulary Fluency The following section will include active- involvement strategies that build 2 important skills---vocabulary and fluency.
27. Modeled Talk Give a verbal explanation and physical demonstration of the directions or concepts. This is one of the most simplest and most powerful strategies with English Language Learners.
28. Reporting Back (Verbal Practice in Curricular Connections) This strategy is used to support students in bridging the gap between spoken and written language. Students describe their experience, using vocabulary that is connected with the experience, then the students write their reporting back summary. (daily learning logs)
29. Vocabulary Role Play (Dramatization) This strategy encourages learners to make connections among past experiences, the content being studied and vocabulary that is new. Learners are introduced to new vocabulary and given the opportunity to discuss and use the vocabulary in context though role playing. Students are asked to perform a skit in which words are used and demonstrated.
Role Play… Identify key vocabulary n the unit to be taught. Make cards with the words written on them Teach the lesson and as you encounter key vocabulary take the time to discuss them. Show the written word and pronounce the word clearly and have students pronounce them back. Connect the vocabulary to past experiences. Shoe the cards with the key vocabulary and have students share ways in which they have seen that word used. Sort the words. Put the words in similar categories; nouns, verbs, adjectives, similar meanings etc. Plan ways to use the words. Involve students in creating scenes using the new vocabulary by dividing the class into small groups of 3-5, giving each groups a set of 4-5 words. Give the students time to practice. Give the groups time to work on their scripts and practice performing their scenes. Perform the scenes. Have the students perform the scene they have written. Celebrate innovative uses of the new vocabulary Focus on multiple word meanings. Compare and contrast the uses of the words by groups, emphasizing the differing contexts used in the skits
30. Vocabulary Processing: (A Multistrategy Approach) Vocabulary processing is especially important to English language learners because the vocabulary is introduced in several contexts and the students are given multiple opportunities to use the words in their everyday interactions both in and out of school.
Vocabulary processing… Word Collections are a special kind of word wall. Written on chart paper or overhead transparencies, these words are all related in some way. Example: Ways to walk- Amble Students are the involved in discussion, thinking of all of the different ways they can think of “to walk.” As each word is written, someone demonstrates it, everyone practices saying it, acting it out and then relating it to something they are familiar with. Finally, students write the word in their journal.
31. Word Walls It is helpful to create bilingual or multilingual word walls with the words written in several languages and illustrated. Word walls are alphabetical lists of words for the purpose of word study and vocabulary development. Some teachers create a number of words walls…high frequency words and content specific vocabulary connected to the unit of study.
32. Story re-enactment (Making stories come to life) This strategy encourages students to act out stories after they have read them or heard them read. It involves making props for the students to use to re-enact the stories. Students use the book language they have heard or read and better comprehend the text by acting it out.
33. Scripting: (Practicing verbal interactions) This strategy prepares English language learners with “sample language interactions or situational dialogues.” These are called, scripts. Preparing and practicing scripts in advance builds confidence in the ability to communicate the English language Examples: ---A script for greeting classroom visitors ---A script for celebration visits to the principal (what to say to the secretary, how to introduce yourself and tell why you are there.) ---Field trips (protocol, when talk is appropriate) ---Parent nights at school (what is expected, special assignments, providing commentary)
34. Talk Show Talk show helps ELL students and all students practice verbal communication skills, builds confidence, vocabulary and comprehension. This strategy involves 3 students working together to create an interview in which one plays the show host(ess), one plays the person to be interviewed, and the third provides a silent “acting out”
35. Writing Workshop: Writing workshop is an approach to teaching writing in which students use their own topics as they move through the writing process. This strategy is especially helpful to ELL because students are encouraged to discuss their own ideas, work with a partner or or a group in revising and editing and interact verbally with others Writing Process: 1. Pre-writing 2. Drafting 3. Revising 4. Editing 5. Publishing
Part IV: Strategies to Build Comprehension These strategies are devoted to helping students making meaning from text.
36. Read-Aloud Plus: Making meaning from text…is a complex act that requires a number of elements including vocabulary knowledge automatically. It is the automatic recognition of printed words, background knowledge and the use of cueing systems. This strategy is helpful to ELL students because it incorporates modeling fluent, expressive reading of English with techniques for clarifying vocabulary, periodic checking for understanding and the providing and activating knowledge that helps students make connections between text and personal experience. It incorporates: Visuals Realia Paraphrasing Rewriting Rewriting and illustrating Comparing and Contrasting Physicalization
37. Language Experience Approach (building on an experience to create a written account) Publishing FormatInstructions Parent Newsletter Collaboratively written where text is used and students share class activities with parents. Wall Story After text is written, copy it one sentence at a time onto construction paper. Display the pages in proper sequences along a wall or hang from a display line in the room. Individual Books Help students to make a book of their text and fold them into a book. Pocket Chart Game As the text is dictated, write the sentences on a strip of paper. Mix the sentences up and and have the students re-arrange them in order. Walk on Story Have students copy the sentences, one sentence per page of construction paper. The students read the text by spreading the pages out on the floor and stepping from page to page, reading as they walk.
38. Interactive Writing: (developing writing skills through active scaffolding) Interactive writing is a form of shared writing or language experience lesson. The teacher and students compose a story or text and share the pen in writing down the words on a chart. Students are encouraged to write the parts of the text they are able to write. This strategy provides scaffolding for young children moving from invented spelling into conventional spelling. It helps ELL because it provides an experience which to write is the first step in interactive writing. The teacher helps students in creating complete sentences, sounding out words to be written and teaching the use of capitalization and punctuation.
39. Guided Reading (Providing individual support within a group setting) Guided reading- teaching reading in a small group setting, while providing individual coaching. Students are taught in groups of 4-6 all reading at approximately the same level. The lesson begins with a book walk (teacher and students predict what will happen.) Students read to themselves as the teacher moves from student to student, listening to them read and coaching them on decoding, self monitoring and comprehension. The teacher them conducts mini- lessons based o the needs of the students identified during the coaching sessions.
40. Peer Tutoring (Students supporting student learning) Peer tutoring is a strategy where a student who has already achieved certain skills, works with a classmate to help them acquire the skills Identify student needs Train potential tutors in how to pose questions that support thinking, how to break the task into manageable pieces, when to explain in the first language and how to support English vocabulary development Match students considering gender, home language and personality Work with the teams and celebrate their successes
41. CLOZE(Using context to create meaning) This strategy is based on written text where some words are left out and blanks are inserted. This strategy helps ELL, because it provides an opportunity to teach English vocabulary and reading decoding skills in a meaningful context.
42. Attribute Charting (organizing information to support understanding) ContinentIslandConnectMountainFlatRiversDesertForestIce Africa---////yes --- Antarctica--- // yes Asia---yes/////--- Australiayes---///// Europe/yes/---/ / North America ---////// South America ---//// /
43. Cohesion Links (the glue that holds paragraphs together) Cohesion links often appear in the form of pronouns that refer back to a person, place or thing in a previous sentence or references that require the reader recall a previously stated condition.
44. Acquiring self-help skills A. Metacognitive Strategies B. Cognitive Strategies C. Social /affective strategies
45. Dictoglos (improving listening and oral communication skills) This strategy was developed by Ruth Wajnryb (1990) for use with high school students but it can be used with all students Dictoglos involves students in listening to repeated, fluent readings of English text. Students will listen then take down as much of the text as possible. Students then get in pairs and again in fours to combine their notations and re-create as much of the text as possible.
46. Free voluntary reading Nothing helps reading…like reading!!! This strategy encourages silent, self selected reading of enjoyable books written at the students’ independent levels.
47. Repetition and Innovation This strategy is the use of a piece of text in several different ways to reinforce the understanding of it and the gradual integration of the vocabulary and concepts into speaking and writing vocabulary of the students. The text is introduced and explored in multiple modes with the students finally rewriting the text to create an innovation on the original.
48. GIST (Exploring tough text) This strategy is important for supporting comprehension of informational text. Students work in cooperative groups and read the section silently. After each section is read, members of the group work collaboratively to generate one sentence that summarizes the “gist” of the passage.
49. Syntax Surgery (Visually manipulating English Grammar) This strategy helps students to see the relationship of elements within a sentence that my be confusing to understand. Because English syntax often differs from the word order found in students’ home languages, ELL sometimes encounter difficulty in comprehending sentences they read or confuse word order when speaking or writing in English. How To: Write a sentence on a sentence strip and then cut the sentence apart to rearrange it into more understandable pieces.
50. Multiple Intelligences Strategies: IntelligenceDefinition Bodily/ Kinesthetic Body smart, sport smart, ability to move through space effectively, learns well through movement IntrapersonalSelf smart---the person understands his/her own ways of knowing and learning InterpersonalPeople smart--- the person reads others well, works well in groups, interacts effectively with other people LinguisticWord smart---the person manipulates words and language easily, understands what is read, enjoys verbal interactions Logical/ Mathematical Number smart---the person manipulates numbers and or logic easily, understands logical connections among concepts MusicalMusic smart---the person expresses himself/herself easily in rhythm and melody, sees patterns and music in all endeavors Visual/ Spatial Picture smart---the person sees pleasing visual/spatial arrangements around him/her, has the ability to learn and express with visual arrangements, art, and beauty