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Kim Workman Director Rethinking Crime and Punishment Prisons as Fiscal and Moral Failure.

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Presentation on theme: "Kim Workman Director Rethinking Crime and Punishment Prisons as Fiscal and Moral Failure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kim Workman Director Rethinking Crime and Punishment Prisons as Fiscal and Moral Failure

2 2005 General Election

3 2008 General Election

4 Prison as Fiscal and Moral Failure “ Prisons are a fiscal and moral failure and building more of them on a large scale is something no New Zealander wants to see” Hon Bill English, Families Commission 50 Critical Thinkers Forum. 10 May 2011

5 Justice sector pipeline Precursors to Offending Event Sanctions collections Non-custodial custodial Outcome Court Processes Police Response Min. PoliceMin. JusticeMin. CourtsMin. Corrections Vote Police $1.5 Billion Vote Justice $200 million Vote Courts $600 million Vote Corrections $1.2 Billion Total crown spend: $3.5 billion annually

6 The sector spends a lot and has increased rapidly Source: Treasury Real expenditure, Justice sector Votes

7 Source: Treasury It can’t continue to grow

8 Asset base has grown very rapidly Source: Treasury Real asset values, Justice sector Votes

9 Police frontline activity has increased * Excluding traffic. Police and Crown Law do about 90% of prosecutions; the remainder is prosecutions by other government agencies. Source: Police Annual Reports

10 Criminal court volumes have grown * Individuals convicted, diverted, discharged or whose case was not proven in the High, District and Youth Courts. Data continuity from Source: Ministry of Justice

11 The prison population has grown Source: Corrections Annual Reports

12 The Māori and Pasifika share of the prison population has grown... Prison sentenced snapshot by ethnicity Source: Offender Volumes Report 2009, Department of Corrections

13 Sentence lengths have increased... Prison sentenced snapshot by management category Source: Offender Volumes Report 2009, Department of Corrections

14 ...yet short sentences dominate prison throughput Source: Offender Volumes Report 2009, Department of Corrections

15 Community sentenced period starts by management group Community sentences have also grown rapidly... Source: Offender Volumes Report 2009, Department of Corrections

16 Prison sentenced snapshot by discretionary release eligibility... and the Parole Board has a great deal of influence over sentence length served Source: Offender Volumes Report 2009, Department of Corrections

17 Increasing interventionism coincides with slightly reduced crime in the past decade Source: New Zealand Crime Statistics 2009/10, Police

18 all this activity has not reduced recidivism Source: Corrections, Annual Report 2009/10 and 2004/5 Recidivism Index Released from prison -> reconvicted Started a community sentence -> reconvicted 12 month follow up 47.5%32.8% 12 month follow up for Maori 52.2%37.2% 24 month follow up 61.9%46.5% 24 month follow up for Maori 68.2%51.5% Recidivism Index Released from prison -> reconvicted Started a community sentence -> reconvicted 12 month follow up 42.6%29.2% 12 month follow up for Maori 47.0%33.0% 24 month follow up 55.4%40.2% 24 month follow up for Maori 61.1%45.6% 2004/ /10

19 The outlook: prison population is forecast to continue to rise... Source: Department of Corrections Annual Reports / Ministry of Justice: Justice Sector Forecast

20 Rising volumes and a flat fiscal picture are not easy to reconcile The justice sector costs the Crown a lot of money NZ has very high incarceration rates Efficiency gains are necessary but not sufficient Volumes are amenable to policy changes particularly in the area of short sentences The justice sector needs to move to a more sustainable path

21 OrderCountryRate 1United States of America743 30South Africa319 47Singapore265 66New Zealand192 89United Kingdom: England & Wales153 89United Kingdom: Scotland Australia Canada Italy France Ireland, Republic of99 145Netherlands94 150United Kingdom: Northern Ireland90 157Germany85 162Switzerland79 163Sweden78 184Iceland60 186Finland59

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23 1933 – An Imprisoning Nation ‘New Zealand has on the whole very little serious crime. Its prisons, nonetheless, are always full to overflowing and there is daily on an average, a prison population more than three times as great, in proportion to the general population, as that of England and Wales.’ Laing, R., de la mare, F. and Baughan, B. (1933), ‘The Penal System of New Zealand’, Howard Journal of Penology and Crime Prevention,

24 An Imprisoning Nation ‘in relation to population, we have 50% more people in our prisons daily than they have in England and Wales.’ Department of Justice (1954), A Penal Policy for New Zealand. Wellington: Government Printer.

25 Prisons as Moral Failure John Pratt: 1985 Zealand friendly, egalitarian Value social cohesion, homogeneity, security and conformity – a paradise Intolerant toward those who threaten it’s social cohesion –Anti-vagrancy laws 1870’s, –Treatment of conscientious objectors 1916 –Drunks and lunatics 1960’s –Resistance to homosexual reform 1970’s –Gang members as terrorists 2010 –Pratt, John, The Dark Side of Paradise. “ Explaining New Zealand’s history of high imprisonment” The British Journal of Criminology (2006) 46,

26 Rise of Penal Populism John Pratt: Impact of Market Economy - A more heterogeneous and pluralistic society. Competing Values – Individualism vs. collectivism, –meritocracy vs egalitarianism, –choice vs uniformity, Intolerance toward welfarism and ‘bludgers’ Increasing gap between rich and poor

27 Rise of Penal Populism 2000 Referendum ‘Tough on Crime’ mantra Media Promotion of Fear of Crime Demise of Reliance on Expert Advice Pre-election Bidding Wars Victims Rights vs Offenders Rights

28 Prisons as Moral Failure Bull: Describes historical Maori over-representation in criminal justice system in the period 1853 – 1919, in terms of: – culture conflict, –literal normlessness, and –pursuit of the illusion of state control. The British colonial government criminalised Maori whenever they rebelled. A gross violation of human rights and the criminalisation of Maori independence. Bull, Simone, ‘The Land of Murder, Cannabilism, and all kinds of Atrocious Crimes: Maori and Crime in New Zealand 1853 – 1919’ Brit.J.Criminol. (2004) 44,

29 Prisons as Moral Failure Kim Workman: Maori as “Inside Outsiders” The Maori population changed from being 80% rural in 1940, to some 80% urban by Maori Youth Offending Rate rose 50% between 1954 and 1958

30 Prisons as Moral Failure Prior to the 1950’s, Maori offending occurred at a similar rate to non- Maori. One of the factors which caused an increase in crime, related not to how Maori behaved in this strange and new urban world – it had as much to do with how they were treated by non- Maori. John Pratt describes a mindset, which if applied to Maori urban migrants, would see them perceived as a threat to uniformity and homogeneity, and treated as a potentially dangerous underclass.” Workman, Kim, “Politics and Punitiveness – Overcoming the Criminal Justice Dilemma” A seminar delivered at The School of Government and the Institute of Policy Studies Election, 20th October 2008

31 Dept of Social Welfare Report Young Maori who entered the youth justice system did so with, on average, less severe offences than non-Maori. Socio-economic factors did not explain the differences in terms of the numbers of Maori young people entering the youth justice system. Those who ‘solely’ identified as Maori experienced greater risks than those who identified as mixed-Maori. Young Maori were more likely to receive outcomes involving orders for supervision either in the community or in a residence, independent of the seriousness of their offences Young Maori were more likely to be dealt with in the Youth Court than were young Pakeha (71% compared with 56%). Achieving Effective Outcomes in Youth Justice: An Overview of Findings; Department of Social Development, Feb 2004.

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34 Ministry of Justice Report 2007 Mäori are four to five times more likely to be apprehended, prosecuted and convicted than their non-­Mäori counterparts Mäori are also 7 ½ times more likely to be given a custodial sentence, and Eleven times more likely to be remanded in custody awaiting trial

35 Ministry of Justice Report 2007 Mäori aged 10 to 13 six times more likely to be apprehended than their New Zealand European counterparts. Mäori aged 17 to 20 are three times more likely to be so. Mäori women are 5 ½ times more likely to be apprehended and ten times more likely to receive a custodial sentence Mäori men are over four times more likely to be apprehended and seven times more likely to receive a custodial sentence

36 Ministry of Justice Report 2007 Three times more likely to be apprehended for drug-­related offences Seven times more likely to be apprehended for offences against justice Almost six times more likely to be apprehended for violent offences compared to New Zealand Europeans. More likely to be reconvicted and re-­imprisoned following community-­based sentences and on release from prison in comparison to other groups

37 Ministry of Justice Report 2007 Conclusion Address the direct and underlying causes of ethnic minority and indigenous offending; Enhance cultural understanding and responsiveness within the justice sector Develop responses that identify and seek to offset the negative impact of neutral laws, structures, processes and decision making criteria on particular ethnic-­minority groups

38 Maori Over-Representation At present, 40% of all Maori males over the age of 15 years have either been in prison or served a community based sentence. If Maori are being imprisoned at a rate six times that of non-Maori, what is the collective impact on their whanau and communities?

39 The Collateral Cost of Imprisonment “ High rates of imprisonment break down the social and family bonds that guide individuals away from crime, remove adults who would otherwise nurture children, deprive communities of income, reduce future income potential, and engender a deep resentment toward the legal system. As a result, as communities become less capable of managing social order through family or social groups, crime rates go up” Stemen D (2007) Reconsidering Incarceration: New Directions for Reducing Crime Vera Institute of Justice New York

40 The Collateral Cost of Imprisonment “Imprisonment becomes part of the socialisation process. Every family, every householder, every individual in these neighbourhoods has direct personal knowledge of the prison –through a spouse, a child, a parent, a neighbor, a friend. Imprisonment ceases to be a fate of a few criminal individuals and becomes a shaping institution for whole sectors of the population.” Garland D (ed) (2001) Mass Imprisonment: Social Causes and Consequences Sage Publications London

41 A New Direction for Criminal Justice?

42 Short Term Measures Define ‘public safety’ Focus on low-level, repeat offending Strengthen and expand community sentencing options Implement a comprehensive prisoner reintegration strategy Address Māori overrepresentation in the criminal justice system Support the Drivers of Crime strategy Promote community-based offender transformation Back whānau, family and community engagement Establish a community justice strategy Achieve community justice through justice reinvestment

43 Strategic Policy Direction Bi-partisan Political Agreement Criminal Justice Policy as part of broad social policy agenda Establishment of Independent Criminal Justice Commission Independent Review of Criminal Justice System and Strategy Limits on media reporting post - sentence

44 You can download a copy of this presentation tomorrow at: Check out our website and search engine – 1500 hits a week on the website – 1000 hits a day on Facebook – rethinkingcrime on Twitter

45 Kim Workman Director Rethinking Crime and Punishment Prison as Fiscal and Moral Failure


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