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© Professor David Alexander THE CHALLENGES, REALITIES AND MYTHS OF TERRORISM Professor David A Alexander MA(Hons), C.Psychol, PhD, FBPS, FRSM, (Hon) FRCPsych Director, Aberdeen Centre for Trauma Research
© Professor David Alexander Bouncy castle boy awarded damages
© Professor David Alexander
© “…kill one, frighten ten thousand” (Sun Tzu, Chinese Strategist)
© Professor David Alexander Terrorists aim to… create mass anxiety helpless, demoralisation social disruption demonstrate impotence and incompetence of the authorities
© Professor David Alexander August 16, 2005 Documents, reportedly leaked from the investigation into the death of Jean Charles de Menezes, the Brazilian electrician shot dead by British Police on the London Underground on 22 July reveal that Mr de Menezes was not acting suspiciously and was already restrained when shot. Furthermore, the documents reveal that the original report given by the police and recorded on the coroners report contained many false statements. The reports suggest the police shot Jean Charles de Menezes because they mistakenly identified him as Hussain Osman, and had agreed to shoot him if he ran. Hussain Osman was suspected of having placed a faulty or mock explosive in a train. Brazilian shot by police on London Underground was not acting suspiciously London Underground From Wikinews, the free news source you can write!
© Professor David Alexander Other deaths (2001) 30,000 suicides 16,000 homicides 43,000 motor vehicles 15,000 “drink driving”
© Professor David Alexander “Let no one be in any doubt; the rules of the game are changing.” Mr Tony Blair, Press Conference, 5 th August 2005
© Professor David Alexander
© The “rule of law” means the protection from arbitrary action from the State and the general population. The “rule by law” subjugates the “rule of law”. Vaughan and Kilcommins, 2008
© Professor David Alexander “IT WOULDN’T HAPPEN HERE...”
© Aircraft cockpit intrusions not a new phenomena “Air Rage: crisis in the skies”, AR Thomas, 2001
© Professor David Alexander Excessive faith in technology
© Professor David Alexander US Transportation Security Administration Screeners Missed 70% knives 60% simulated explosives 30% guns NB:“Hit rate” 52%
© Professor David Alexander Weaknesses...? poor training (regular) poor psychological understanding lack of resources real threats not on database lack of courtesy
© Professor David Alexander Who am I...? son of kind, self made philanthropist shy, isolated one of 54 children polite, intelligent, conscientious enjoyed desert camping believed in modesty of women ?
© Professor David Alexander Osama bin Laden son of kind, self made philanthropist shy, isolated one of 54 children polite, intelligent, conscientious enjoyed desert camping believed in modesty of women
© Professor David Alexander No single profile, but... charismatic leader indoctrination powerless disaffected injustice humiliation lack of self esteem
© Professor David Alexander
© “animals” “ghastly” “scum” “vile people” “filth” “cowardly” “pigs” “appalling” “inhuman” “evil” “abhorrent”
© Professor David Alexander Suicide terrorism Mad, bad, sad, or glad?
© Professor David Alexander A CBRN attack would benefit from… an invisible “enemy” uncertain effects uncertain scientific knowledge no fixed “low point” physical inconveniences
© Professor David Alexander Physical inconveniences barrier environments quarantine restricted travel mass immunisation decontamination
© Professor David Alexander MASS PSYCHOGENIC ILLNESS
© Initial reactions to trauma 15% “rational” 75% stunned and numbed 10% “frozen” or panic NB:Collective reactions may well be constructive
© Professor David Alexander London bombings: 14 day follow-up 31% “substantial stress 32% intended to travel less “substantial stress” linked to unable to contact family thought could been have killed or wounded being Muslim 1% wanted professional help
© Professor David Alexander Dilemmas forewarning orunnecessary anxiety preparation orpreoccupation investmentormonopoly securityorloss of civil liberties
© Professor David Alexander Phases of Response to Major Trauma Warning Impact “Honeymoon” Level of Adjustment TimeWeeksMonths Previous Level of Adjustment (Modified with permission of Raphael  “When disaster strikes”) Enhanced Community and Individual Adjustment “Second Disaster” Disillusionment
REACTION TO TRAUMA: MYTHS AND REALITIES Professor David A Alexander MA(Hons), C.Psychol, PhD, FBPS, FRSM, (Hon) FRCPsych Aberdeen Centre for Trauma Research.
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