3Inter linking of rivers Inter linking of rivers as a solution for droughtand flood.It was Sir Arthur Cotton who had originallyproposed the networking of rivers more than acentury ago.Channelling the surplus water to underfed areaswill solve the perennial problem of floods anddroughts and bring a boom in employment.
4Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam (ex- President of India) “Instead of thinking of interlinking of rivers only at times of flood and drought, it’s time that we should implement this programme with a great sense of urgency.”
5River Linking Project“Of all the social and natural crisis we face, water crisis lie at the heart of our survival”- Kochiro Matsuura, Director General of UNESCO
8Jalgaon District: Brief History Jalgaon District is located in the north-west region of the state of MaharashtraBounded by Satpuda mountain ranges in the north and Ajanta mountain ranges in the southDiverse climateExceptionally hot and dry in summer with temps up to 48° C
9Jalgaon District: Brief History Principle natural feature – Tapi River, which flows westward from headwaters in eastern Maharashtra and empties in the Arabian SeaThe Tapi receives 13 principal tributaries in its course through KhandeshMost of Khandesh lies south of the TapiThe Tapi is drained by its tributaries: the Girna, Bori and Anjani RiversThe Tapi flows in a deep bed, historically making it difficult to use for irrigation
10Situation.....June and July 2005Lots of clouds – but no rains!
11Water Levels DownJuly 2005Water level drastically reduced in wells!
12Land Drought This was the land situation ! June and July 2005July 2005Lots of clouds – but no rains!This was the land situation !
13Improper growth of crops due to insufficient rains Stunted Crop GrowthJuly 2005Improper growth of crops due to insufficient rains
14Jalgaon: “River Linking Project” Idea Generation and Concept:Necessity is the Mother of Inventions!In the Monsoon of 2005, there were insufficient rains in the Jalgaon district – while the Girna Dam (a major project situated in south west, adjoining the Nashik district) was overflowing because of heavy rains in Nashik district. So this water, which was otherwise going waste in the Arabian Sea through Jalgaon district, was diverted – it was then the idea of river linking generated...Average Rainfall of Jalgaon District: MM
15Necessity: Mother of Invention! Bhokar Bari Medium ProjectWe’re thinking about how to solve the problem of drinking water in Parola Tah, Jalgaon District during this time of insufficient stocks of water...In the meantime, Girna Dam in the adjoining district of Nashik, is at the verge of reaching its maximum capacity !(post 15th July 2005)
16Jalgaon: “River Linking Project” How to bring the overflowing waters of Girna River using existing canals, channels, nalas and other links into the Bori, Anjani and Titur rivers?Is it possible to refill Medium Projects, M.I. Projects, percolation tanks, village ponds, farm ponds, and mines on this route?Planning after discussion with Irrigation Department OfficialsDifferent solutions and ideas were discussed and comparedProposal submitted to Government under scarcity fundGovernment sanctioned Rs. 20 millionImplementation started immediately as per planningWidening Nalla
17Strategies AdoptedDiversion of surplus flood water into deficient basin:160 villages dependent for drinking water on reservoirs were covered under this, (Bori dam covers the highly drought-prone areas of Dhule and Jalgaon districts)Existing canals and other systems were utilised to the maximum capacity with minimum possible modificationsExisting canal systems (Jamda canals, Titur canals, Lower Girna canals,) with increased capacity and maximum discharge kept on flowing and diverting water to deficient storagesUse of gravity rather than pumping for diversion of water.Girna Bori, Girna Titur, Girna Mhasva,Girna Anjani
18Strategies Adopted...Existing canal capacity was increased by raising canal banks with earth work; rugosity coefficient was improved by laying PVC paper of low cost at leaky portionsAqueduct and syphons capacity increased by raising wall heights with B. B. masonry temporarily and PVC paper was laid in the channels to increase the rugosity coefficientLow cost polyethene paper was used at canal apexes and in aqueduct beds, syphons to improve the rugosity coefficient (increase carrying capacity in turn with Jamda left Bank Canal, Panzan left Bank Canal, etc.)Short Links – searched to divert the higher discharges, i.e., Panzan to BoriGirna dam
19Strategies Adopted...New links wherever required were dug immediately – Jamda to Khadakesim, Jamda to TiturExisting deficient storages got filled and canal water diverted to wells in command,Reservoir capacity was increased to store maximum possible water by putting gunny bags on top of w. w. with calculated risk (i.e., no encroachment beyond high flood level and can be easily pulled down by simply wire rope in a flood situation)
20Jalgaon: “River Linking Project” Project Objectives1. Providing water for drinking as well as irrigation purposes in the drought hit areas of Jalgaon district by using diverted excess overflowing water2. Increase the efficiency of different water storage structures3. Conserve the water by taking it through canals ducts, drains, nallas, natural drains etc. in the drought-prone areas4. Carry out qualitative and quantitative assessment of water resource5. Suggest suitable sites and methods for artificial recharge to augment ground water recharge in the area.
24Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work DoneTo divert excessive overflowing water,the work of stone breaking and digging was carried out on war footing to create additional channel
25Work started on war footing Resulted in diversion of higher discharge JalgaonWork started on war footingResulted in diversion of higher discharge
26Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work DonePVC lining increased rugosity coefficient
27Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work Done
28Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work Done
29Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work Done
30Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work Done
31Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work DoneNew Link Dug
32Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work DoneCanal carrying capacity increased by raising its height
33Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work DoneCarrying capacity of existing canals increased by raising bank height – these canals were then used for linking various riversUse of Canals for River Linking
34Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work DonePanzhan Left Canal was cut here to divert Girna’s water in the Kanholi and then Bori river through Big Nala (water passage)
35Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work DonePanzhan Left Canal was cut here to divert Girna’s water in Kanholi and then Bori river through Big Nala (water passage)
36Jalgaon River Linking Project Post Project Scenario
45Jalgaon River Linking Project Benefits Received :Helped solve the drinking water problem of 5 municipal councils and 128 villages(dependent population = 8,23,500)Increased water table in some Tahsils (even after less rainfall) –over 16,000 wells recharged as endorsed by GSDA( Groundwater Survey Development Agency of Govt), in its report
46Jalgaon River Linking Project Life saver for almost lost crops!Thousands of hectors of additional land irrigated; highest irrigation in the history of Jalgaon (about 35% more irrigated area) – even though 30% less than average rain fallArea under irrigation:
47Jalgaon River Linking Project Contd..Total of 4,486 Mcft (127Mm3) excessive overflowing water of Girna dam brought to use- Cost of this water : Rs. 112 millionsThis water filled:2 medium projects,5 M.I. projects, and700 percolation tanks, K.T. weirs, farm ponds, and minesSaved approximately Rs. 90 million of Water Scarcity Funds
48Jalgaon River Linking Project Indirect BenefitsImproved economic condition of farmersProhibited migration of local & poor people in search of jobsSaved huge expenditure which would have been incurred to provide employment under Employment Guarantee Scheme of Govt.Repaired canals – which further reduced seepages and other lossesTotal benefits: Rs million, as per rough estimates – in one year only and these benefits are recurring every year.
49Jalgaon River Linking Project Benefits Received:-291125-5510152030Project CostSavings in tanker costsAdditional StorageIncreased benefit toagriculturistsin Rs crsRecurring Benefits
50Jalgaon River Linking Project RESOURCE CONVERGENCE : technical and financialFollowing sources of funding were tapped:Irrigation Deptt.: Funds for basic survey repair & maintenanceJalgaon Collectorate: Scarcity funds (Head:2245)Municipal Corporation/Councils : Internal resources for augmenting water availability for drinkingMP/MLA Local Area Development Scheme: For various developmental workLand-owners, agricultural communities and citizen groups contribution
51Jalgaon River Linking Project Project Presentation to theH.E. Smt. Pratibhatai Patil (President of India) andHonorable Sh. Sharad Pawar (Union Minister for Agriculture)by Vijay Singhal, IAS , Collector Jalgaon
52Jalgaon River Linking Project Project Presentation to Hon. Chief Minister and Dy. Chief Minister
53Jalgaon River Linking Project Watershed Development = Water Conservation + Diversion of Excess WaterComments :Unique innovative initiative at district levelConverging resources of different agencies towards the welfare of people of JalgaonOverwhelming response from the peoples’ representativesVillagers contribution & participation in the processNo addition of water storage structures – only diversion by way of interlinkingDiligence in planning and focusing on sustainabilityPermissible water used as per Inter-state agreement. So no chances of dispute
54Jalgaon River Linking Project Contd..No deforestation.No need for land acquisition – Zero land acquisition cost as land was donated by villagers on their own.Use of local technical know-how and their expertise.Circulation of water through canals provides additional benefits like conservation and percolation, which are highly beneficial to ecology w.r.t. temperature, additional greenery, etc.Replicability : GoM issued order to implement it in all the districts and approved river linking as planned & regular scheme in DPC.Govt of India approved it as MODEL PROJECT for replication in all the states of CountryCost-effective, Citizen-friendly & Sustainable.
55Jalgaon River Linking Project Project Recognition :The project outcomes appreciated by President of India H.E. Smt Pratibhatai Patil.Appreciation by Hon. Sharad Pawar & Hon. C.M.of Maharashtra.Dept of Adm Reforms, GoI identifies it as MODEL PROJECT & directed me to send copies (350 in all) of this project to Chief Secretaries of all states, all Secretary (Admn reforms), Parliament Library & 28 ATI,s in the Country for dissemination and replication.Govt. of Maharashtra issued order to implement it in all the districts of Maharashtra.Attended International River Symposium 2006 at Brisbane, Australia & presented there “Jalgaon River Linking Project”.Delivered a keynote lecture on this project at an International Conference in Macau, China in 2007.Provided lead discussion and presented innovative & pioneer work on Jalgaon River Linking project at State University of New York, Albany, USA and Pennsylvania State University, University Park, USA in October, 2009Invited by the then Chief Minister of Rajasthan, Hon. Smt Vasundhara Raje to share the experience. She also appreciated the efforts taken. She also visited Jalgaon to see River Linking Project.Received Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar National Fellowship Award given by National Bhartiya Sahitya Academy for river linking project.
56Jalgaon River Linking Project SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEY: by JalaSRI, a Watershed Surveillance and Research Institute (a third party agency)-Conducted survey of 840 households in 42 villages in year 2007Project is not only successful but also sustainable. Its benefits are still being enjoyed by the people.This project is positively received by all sections of society84.52% are in favour of river linking efforts.53.92% farmers noticed considerable rise in water levels of their wells.64.64% people have positive approach towards Govt. Agency26.15% households actively participated in execution of the links contributing to 2142 man-days.42.42% people reported increase in their employment opportunities
57Jalgaon River linking project Thank YouJalgaon River linking project