Presentation on theme: "1 ISLANDS AS LEADERS Global Sustainable Energy Islands Initiative (GSEII) The Hon. Tom Roper Board Member, Climate Institute Project Leader, GSEII First."— Presentation transcript:
1 ISLANDS AS LEADERS Global Sustainable Energy Islands Initiative (GSEII) The Hon. Tom Roper Board Member, Climate Institute Project Leader, GSEII First International Conference On Environmental and Sustainable Development Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic August 10 – 12, 2005
2 Climate Change and Small Island States n Small Island States produce only a tiny fraction of global greenhouse gas emissions n Island States are among the most vulnerable to Climate Change n Most island nations are dependent on high-cost fossil fuels and very expensive electricity n A significant number of people don’t have access to electricity n Island States are especially suited to utilize modern renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies due to their economic and geographical conditions
3 A Voice from the Caribbean The Government of Dominica has determined that dependence on foreign energy resources cannot be in our long-term national interest. First of all, the recent decline in our export income generation does not provide us with the ability to import energy resources on a long-term basis. Second, in view of our country’s natural endowment of renewable energy resources, we have come to the realization that the only future for Dominica in the energy arena is development of renewable energy. This approach is fully consistent with our national goal to harness all our natural resources for the economic transformation or our country. The Late Hon. Pierre Charles, Prime Minister of Dominica – Johannesburg Summit, 2002
4 Barriers To Sustainable Energy n A lack of commitment on the part of Government Ministers, officials & utilities n A lack of knowledge and capacity – skilled personnel are in short supply n Utility dependence on established diesel technology combined with little or no experience of renewables and few resource assessments n Few successful demonstration projects that can be seen and touched, and n The often high up front cost of renewables and a scarcity of finance
5 Global Sustainable Energy Islands Initiative (GSEII) - Objectives n To help those Small Island Developing States (SIDS) seeking to become sustainable energy nations n To establish donor support and private sector investment for sustainable energy initiatives n To increase awareness of the potential and advantages of renewable energy utilization and energy efficiency in the SIDS and provide practical examples n To demonstrate that SIDS can set examples for the bigger and more polluting countries by cutting their greenhouse gas emissions.
6 Partner Organizations n Climate Institute n United Nations Industrial Development Organization n The Organization of American States n Energy & Security Group n Counterpart International n Winrock International n International Network for Sustainable Energy n Multilateral Funding Base: u Rockefeller Brothers Fund u UN Foundation u US Agency for International Development u Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership u Government of Italy
7 Components of GSEII n Identification of Candidate Countries n Development of Sustainable Energy Plans n Implementation of Sustainable Energy Action Plans n Capacity Building and Awareness n International Outreach
8 GSEII – St Lucia A sustainable energy demonstration country First island nation to announce plans to transform energy systems from fossil fuel to renewables and energy efficient systems Sustainable Energy Plan approved by the Cabinet. Calls for 35% reductions in power sector GHG Emissions by 2010 Implementation Plan developed with broad participation of local and international organizations and private sector Next Major Steps: Broader National Energy Policy - Reforms Capacity Building and Awareness Programs - Solar Water Heaters Finance Initiative Major Geothermal and Wind Energy Projects
9 St. Lucia Energy Week n December 6th to 10 th, 2004 – Theme: A Vision for St. Lucia's Energy Future u Minister of Energy’s address on Television and Radio u Energy Supplement Placed In the Local Newspapers u Energy Exhibition and School Project Competition – 50 participants, 10 projects u Seminar On National And Regional Energy Initiatives n Energy Efficient Lighting Project - Climate Care, UK & Ministry of Planning & Environment, St. Lucia u Voluntary scheme – outside Kyoto u Climate Care paid for 6,000 lamps u Each lamp saves the import of half a barrel of oil
10 GSEII - Grenada The Green Island State Government of Grenada requested GSEII Assistance in developing a Sustainable Energy Plan (SEP) Draft Sustainable Energy Plan has been developed after a series of stakeholders meetings Hurricane Ivan hit Grenada in August 2004 Efforts are being made to incorporate elements of Sustainable Energy Plan in the reconstruction efforts Pilot projects of Solar PV systems for clinics and hurricane shelters are proposed 10,000 Energy Efficient bulbs will be installed as part of energy efficient reconstruction Technical assistance will be provided to evaluate wind energy and mini-hydro potential in Grenada.
11 GSEII - Dominica The Nature Island Government of Dominica requested GSEII Assistance in Developing a Sustainable Energy Plan (SEP) Sustainable Energy Plan finalized in 2004 1 kW Wind Energy Pilot Project Next Major Steps: Sustainable Energy Plan sent for Cabinet Approval Geo-Caraibes Project underway Energy Efficiency in the Transmission & Distribution System – UNIDO
13 “ Geo-Caraïbes” – Eastern Caribbean Geothermal Development Project n Technical: Assess the resource / technical potential for the several sites and electricity interconnection scenario u Reduce resource uncertainty and development risks n Policy/Legal: Reform legal framework and Develop Local/Regional Capacity u Reduce contract/policy uncertainties, expedite licensing/permitting, and strengthen local inputs n Financial: Prepare Geothermal Drilling Risk Fund u Reduce financial risks associated with initial commercial exploration
14 French Leadership - Guadeloupe n Renewables supply 25% of all energy needs and cost less than diesel u Geothermal – from the volcano u Small hydropower – the mountain foothills u Wind turbines – designed to resist hurricanes u PV Solar for rural power supply – 2000 units u Solar thermal for water heaters – 15000 units u Bagasse as a sugar industry byproduct u Ethanol from molasses u Energy from waste n 350,000 energy efficient lamps installed in 44,000 households – saving 7 MW of Peak Demand
15 Prony – New Caledonia 6,8 MW (31x220 kW) Wind average speed : 7,5 m/s. Electricity output:13.8 GWh/yr CO2 saving: 13,300 t / year Cyclone Experience: Friday March 14 th, 2003 - 150 km/h in average – more then 210 km/h measured gust. All the Prony wind turbines (10) tilted down on the 13th. 2 anchor plates were bent due to excess load on gin poles. 1 broken blade. All but one turbine available before grid restored
16 Other Renewable Energy Examples n Barbados u More than 30,000 Solar Hot Water Heater Systems – payback for individuals: 2.5 years n Curacao u A 3 MW wind farm to reduce high fuel costs n Galapagos u A wind farm on San Cristobal Island to replace 50% of diesel power and reduce the risk of disastrous oil spills n Cape Verde u 20% reduction in diesel use through energy efficiency measures and wind turbines n Jamaica u A 20 MW wind farm facility at Wigton, Jamaica involving World Bank carbon funding
17 Caribbean Renewable Energy Development Project (CREDP) Goal:To remove barriers to the increased use of renewable energy thus reducing the dependence on fossil fuels while contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. u POLICY u FINANCE u HUMAN & INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY u INFORMATION & AWARENESS Participating SIDS:The Bahamas, Jamaica, Barbados, St. Kitts & Nevis, Belize, Saint Lucia, Cuba, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Dominica, Grenada, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago Caribbean Renewable Energy Technical Assistance Facility (CRETAF) As part of the CREDP, a US $1.6 million fund has been established to provide early-stage, high risk financing for qualified projects.
18 Funding Mechanisms n Kyoto – Clean Development Mechanism n World Bank Community Development Carbon Fund n Global Environment Facility/UNDP n World Bank / Regional Development Banks / International Finance Corporation n Government and Private Carbon Funds n Donor Programs – European Union, USAID, AUSAID n Private Sector Investments n Kyoto parties’ carbon purchases - particularly by European countries
19 CDM Project Types n FUEL CONSUMPTION u Community or Large Scale PV u Wind Power u Hydro u Waste to Energy u Biomass n ENERGY EFFICIENCY u Improve Generation and Distribution u High Efficiency Lighting and Appliances u Solar Water Heaters u Improved Building Codes & Methods n TRANSPORTATION u Vehicle Efficiency u Fuel Substitution u Transit Systems
20 Challenges for CDM in the Caribbean n Limited Capacity u Only 6 Designated National Authorities (DNAs) set up: Antigua and Barbuda; Barbados; Cuba; Jamaica; Saint Lucia; and Trinidad and Tobago u Lack of legal framework and structure for establishing DNAs u DNAs do not have sufficient human and financial resources n Lack of Awareness and Initiatives for Project Opportunities u Few stakeholders understand opportunities afforded by the CDM u Those who do are often intimidated by the complexities and costs of CDM project preparation n Barriers to Market Participation u Regulatory uncertainty makes it difficult to develop or utilize approved baseline methodology u Lack of financing for project preparation and base financing u High transaction costs due to smaller size of economy makes it difficult to achieve economies of scale
21 CDM Opportunities in the Caribbean n CDM offers financial incentives for projects that reduce GHG emissions and help countries achieve sustainable development goals n Limited number of CDM projects in the Caribbean for many reasons: u Limited project proponents u Unavailability of needed institutional arrangements (e.g., few DNAs) u Lack of capacity u Relatively small size of projects, which influences the financial viability of projects n Based upon preliminary analysis by the Center for Clean Air Policy there appear to be opportunities for CDM in the electricity sector n BUT, the Caribbean community must act relatively quickly given the time it takes to move projects through the CDM cycle to implementation if it is to take advantage of CER payments
22 Conclusion Sustainable energy is not only an environmental necessity… It makes economic and social sense