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Instructor Dustin M Price

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1 Instructor Dustin M Price
Art History II Instructor Dustin M Price

2 This period is also known as the Ashikaga era
Japan The era when members of the Ashikaga family occupied the position of shogun is known as the Muromachi period ( ), named after the district in Kyoto where their headquarters was located This period is also known as the Ashikaga era the Muromachi period was economically and artistically innovative. This epoch saw the first steps in the establishment of modern commercial, transportation, and urban developments Contact with China, which had been resumed in the Kamakura period, once again enriched and transformed Japanese thought and aesthetics One of the imports that was to have a far-reaching impact was Zen Buddhism Source: Muromachi Period (1392–1573) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan M useum of Art Shogun: the title applied to the chief military commanders from about the 8th century a.d. to the end of the 12th century, then applied to the hereditary officials who governed japan, with the emperor as nominal ruler, until 1868, when the shogunate was terminated and the ruling power was returned to the emperor. Su Dongpo in Straw Hat and Wooden Shoes, Muromachi period

3 Japan Although known in Japan since the seventh century, Zen was enthusiastically embraced by the military class beginning in the thirteenth century and went on to have a profound effect on all aspects of national life, from government and commerce to the arts and education The samurai were highly fond of Zen philosophy The military elite dominated Japanese politics, economics, and social policies between the twelfth and nineteenth centuries Known as bushi or samurai, these warriors, who first appear in historical records of the tenth century, rose to power initially through their martial prowess—in particular, they were expert in archery, swordsmanship, and horseback riding Source: Muromachi Period (1392–1573) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

4 Muromachi in painting was highly influenced by Zen aesthetics
Japan Pure Land Buddhism which had been introduced earlier remained popular but Zen became the dominant cultural force in Japan among the ruling class The private villas that the Ashikaga shoguns built there served as elegant settings for the pursuit of art and culture. During the Muromachi period brightly covered narrative hand scrolls continued to be produced but ink painting in its monochromatic grays and blacks, introduced to Japan from the continent became the most popular type of brush art Muromachi in painting was highly influenced by Zen aesthetics Japan’s first great master of ink was the monk-artist Shubun Source: Muromachi Period (1392–1573) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art The essential element of Zen Buddhism is found in its name, for Zen means "meditation." Zen teaches that enlightenment is achieved through the profound realization that one is already an enlightened being. This awakening can happen gradually or in a flash of insight (as emphasized by the Soto and Rinzai schools, respectively). But in either case, it is the result of one's own efforts. Deities and scriptures can offer only limited assistance. Portrait sculpture of a Zen priest, Muromachi period (1392–1573), 14th–15th century Japan Lacquered wood

5 Japan Shubun is known for his influence and his pupils work but no actual works of art by him are known One of his students, Bunsei has two surviving landscape paintings one of which Landscape you can see to the left You can see heavy Korean influences within the work and because the Koreans copied many Ming Dynasty Chinese works, you can also see their influence Sesshu (next slide) was another of Shubun’s students, Sesshu is believed to have outshined his master and is now known as one of the greatest Japanese painters of all time Although they completed training to become Zen monks Shubun and his followers specialized in art rather than religious ritual or teaching Source: Muromachi Period (1392–1573) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

6 Landscape Sesshu Winter Landscape Sesshu 1470’s


8 Dry gardens began to be built in the 15th and 16th centuries in Japan
Zen Rock Garden Dry gardens began to be built in the 15th and 16th centuries in Japan Zen rock gardens, or karesansui (translated as "dry-mountain-water"), originated in Japan and are renowned for their simplicity and serenity Zen monks in Japan lead simple monastic lives, they meditated daily, and engaged in manual labor to provide for themselves and maintain their temple properties Many Zen temples constructed dry landscape courtyard gardens Creating, maintaining, and cleaning these gardens was a kind of active meditation The most famous of these can be found in Kyoto at the 15th-century Ryoanji, the Temple of the Peaceful Dragon Read more:


10 Zen Rock Garden "While there are other similar gardens of great beauty," says James Ulak, curator of Japanese art at Smithsonian's Freer and Sackler galleries, "Ryoanji remains the ur-site of the type—powerful, abstract, Zen Buddhist landscapes designed to invoke deep meditation.“ Measuring 98 by 32 feet, the Ryoanji garden is about the size of a tennis court and is composed solely of 15 large and small rocks, some encircled by moss, grouped in five clusters on a bed of carefully raked white sand. From a distance, the rocks resemble islands, the sand a tranquil sea Many feel the rocks do represent land masses or islands in the sea, or mountain peaks resting above clouds, even a constellation of stars and planets Read more:

11 Zen Rock Garden In 2002, a research team at Kyoto University claimed to have cracked the Zen code. Relying on computer models, they found that the garden's rocks—when viewed from the proper angle—subconsciously evoke the tranquil outline of a branching tree Over the centuries, however, visitors have discerned images as diverse as a tigress escorting her cubs across water and the Chinese character for "heart" or "mind." Since the anonymous designer left no explanation, the garden's exact meaning remains a mystery, which no doubt contributes to its enduring allure Nowadays, (from what I hear) it is overrun by tourists so any attempt at using the facility to meditate is disrupted by people laughing and talking and camera flashes Read more:

12 The Tea Ceremony Tea was introduced to Japan in the 9th century, Zen monks used it for meditation and others felt it had medicinal properties The Japanese ritual of drinking tea “The Tea Ceremony” has no counterpart in Western culture What we commonly refer to as the “Japanese tea ceremony” is called chanoyu ( lit. "tea hot-water") or also chado or sado ("the way of tea") in Japanese the Japanese tea ceremony is a multifaceted traditional activity in which powdered green tea, called matcha, is ceremonially prepared and served to others Interestingly, Zen Buddhism was integral to its development, and this influence pervades many aspects of it

13 The Tea Ceremony By the 16th century, tea drinking had spread to all levels of society in Japan. During this time, Sen no Rikyu, perhaps the most well-known historical figure in tea ceremony, perfected his teachings - He is largely responsible for the aesthetic of modesty, refinement, and rusticity The principles set forward by Sen no Rikyu harmony, respect, purity, and tranquility - are still central to the tea ceremony These ideals influenced the Tearoom (next slide) a traditional tearoom combines simple elegance and rusticity. It is made of natural materials such as bamboo and wood Every utensil connected with tea, including the water pot, the kettle, the bamboo spoon, whisk, tea caddy is important but the tea bowl is by far the most important Tea Bowl, Called Mount Fuji Hon’ami Koetsu

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15 Exam III Vocab: Zen rock gardens, or karesansui Japanese Tea Ceremony, or chanoyu Artwork: Winter Landscape Sesshu 25-3 Ryoanji Rock Garden 25-4 Tea Bowl, Called Mount Fuji Hon’ami Koetsu 25-8 The Great Wave Katsushika Hokusai 25-12 Read pages 943 – 959 by Monday

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