4Background Born August 6, 1809. at Somersby Several men in his family had mental and physical problems: epilepsy, insanity, excessive drinkingTennyson’s father was abusive and violent
5Cambridge Tennyson attended Trinity College, Cambridge Invited to join The Apostles, an undergraduate club.This group included his lifelong friends.Most important friendship was with Arthur Hallam. He and Tennyson knew each other for only four years, but their intense friendship had a major influence on the poet.Hallam’s death in 1833 when he was only 22 lead to his best poetry, including In Memoriam.
61830 and 1832 Poems In 1830, Tennyson published Poems, Chiefly Lyrical Poems (1832 and 1833) were attacked by critics as obscure and affected.Criticism kept Tennyson from publishing again for another nine years.
71842 Poems Established Tennyson’s career as a writer This volume includes “The Lady of Shalott,” “The Lotus Eaters,” and “Ulysses.”
8In Memoriam Tennyson’s greatest poem Published in 1850 Represents his struggle with Hallam’s death and with the new developments in astronomy, biology, and geology that were diminishing man’s stature in the universe.After publication of this poem, Tennyson was named Poet Laureate.
9Tennyson’s Later Poetry Tennyson’s later poetry follows a narrative styleSeveral poems dealt with national affairsBy this time, Tennyson was established as the most popular poet of the Victorian period. The money from his poetry allowed him to purchase a house in the country and write in seclusion.His appearance enhanced his notoriety.
10Idylls of the KingLarge-scale epic poem that occupied the second half of his career.Uses the Arthurian legend to construct a vision of the rise and fall of civilization.Tennyson’s most extensive social vision.
11Themes in Tennyson’s Poetry The divided selfLinks external scenery to interior states of mind.The historical pastThe mythological pastTennyson’s personal pastGeological time and evolutionary historySocial and political concerns
12Tennyson’s Reputation Tennyson was the most popular poet in England in his own dayHe was the target of mockery by his immediate successors, the Edwardians and Georgians.Today, many critics consider Tennyson to be the greatest poet of the Victorian Age.
13Robert BrowningHe was born on May 7, 1812 in Camberwell, EnglandBrowning had a sister named Sarianna BrowningHis mother, Sarah Anne Wiedemann was an accomplished pianist and a devout ChristianHis father, Robert Browning was a bank clerk, and also an artist, scholar, antiquarian, and collector of books and picturesBrowning got much of his education from his fatherHe learned Latin, Greek, and French by the time he was fourteenFrom age fourteen to sixteen he was educated at homeWhen he was ten he started at the Peckam school where he stayed for four yearsAt age twelve he wrote a volume of Byronic verse entitled Incondita. His parents tried to have it published but were unsuccessful (www.poets.org)
14In 1828 Browning enrolled at the University of London, but soon after he left because he wanted to read and learn at his own paceIn 1833 he anonymously published his first major work, Pauline: A Fragment of a ConfessionIn 1840 he published Sordello, which was a failureBrowning also tried writing drama, but his plays, Strafford, and the Bells and Pomegranates series were unsuccessfulHowever his use of diction, rhythm, and symbol are regarded as his most important contribution to poetry, influencing major poets of the twentieth century such as Ezra Pound, T.S. Eliot, and Robert FrostBrowning corresponded with Elizabeth Barrett in 1844 for a few months after reading her Poems, and finally met her in 1845They got married in 1846 and moved to Pisa and then to Florence where they continued to writeIn 1849 they had a son, Robert “Pen” Wiedemann Barrett BrowningThis was the same year Browning’s Collected Poems was publishedElizabeth inspired Robert’s collection of poems Men and Women in 1855, which is now one of his best works but at the time was not noticed much(www.poets.org)(http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poet37.html)(http://www.galegroup.com/free_resources/poets/bio/browning_r.htm)
15Elizabeth Barrett Browning died in 1861 and Robert Browning and his son moved back to London In 1863 Browning published Dramatis PersonaeIn 1868 The Ring and the Book firmly established Browning’s reputation, and from then on he was considered one of England’s greatest living poetsIn he published Dramatic Idyls and other works that brought him worldwide fameIn 1881 the Browning Society was established in London to study his poemsHe was awarded with Hon. M.A. of Oxford: June 1868, Hon. fellow of Balliol College: October 1868, Hon. LL.D. of the University of Edinburgh: 1884, Hon. president of 5 Assoc. Societies of Edinburgh: 1885Robert Browning died on December 12,1889 during a stay in Venice and, he was buried in Poet’s Corner of Westminster Abbey (www.poets.org) (www.galegroup.com) (
16This is the first stanza of The Pied Piper of Hamelin Hamelin Town's in Brunswick,By famous Hanover city;The river Weser, deep and wide,Washes its wall on the southern side;A pleasanter spot you never spied;But, when begins my ditty,Almost five hundred years ago,To see the townsfolk suffer so
17A Woman's Last WordI. Let's contend no more, Love, Strive nor weep: All be as before, Love, ---Only sleep! II. What so wild as words are? I and thou In debate, as birds are, Hawk on bough! III. See the creature stalking While we speak! Hush and hide the talking, Cheek on cheek! IV. What so false as truth is, False to thee? Where the serpent's tooth is Shun the tree---V. Where the apple reddens Never pry--- Lest we lose our Edens, Eve and I. VI. Be a god and hold me With a charm! Be a man and fold me With thine arm! VII. Teach me, only teach, Love As I ought I will speak thy speech, Love, Think thy thought---VIII. Meet, if thou require it, Both demands, Laying flesh and spirit In thy hands.IX. That shall be to-morrow Not to-night: I must bury sorrow Out of sight: X ---Must a little weep, Love, (Foolish me!) And so fall asleep, Love, Loved by thee.
18Meeting At NightThe grey sea and the long black land;And the yellow half-moon large and low;And the startled little waves that leapIn fiery ringlets from their sleep,As I gain the cove with pushing prow,And quench its speed i' the slushy sand.Then a mile of warm sea-scented beach;Three fields to cross till a farm appears;A tap at the pane, the quick sharp scratchAnd blue spurt of a lighted match,And a voice less loud, thro' its joys and fears,Than the two hearts beating each to each!My StarAll that I knowOf a certain star,Is, it can throw(Like the angled spar)Now a dart of red,Now a dart of blue,Till my friends have saidThey would fain see, too, My star that dartles the red and the blue!Then it stops like a bird; like a flower, hangs furled:They must solace themselves with the Saturn above it.What matter to me if their star is a world?Mine has opened its soul to me; therefore I love it.
20Biographical Information Dates ( )Remembered as both a literary critic and poetStudied at the Rugby School (his father was headmaster), and later Balliol College, Oxford University (degree in 1844)Returned to Rugby as a teacher of classicsMarried in 1851; worked as a government school inspector (grueling job, but offered travel throughout England and the Continent)
21Biography (continued) School inspector’s job (for 35 years) developed an interest in education, which influenced his critical works and his poetryTwo volumes of poetry (Empedocles on Etna, 1852, and Poems, 1853) established his reputation as a poet. In 1857 he was offered the position of Professor of Poetry at Oxford. Arnold was the first professor to lecture in English at Oxford, rather than in Latin.During this time Arnold wrote the bulk of his most famous critical works, which reflect the main values of the Victorian era.
22Nature and Themes of his poetry Meditative and rhetorical (not expecting a response)Often wrestles with problems of psychological isolation: reverses Donne’s idea that “No man is an island,” suggesting instead that we mortals are all isolated to some extent. Ex: “To Marguerite—Continued”
23Nature and Themes (continued) Problem of isolation linked with the dwindling faith (questioning) of the Victorian era, such as “Dover Beach.”Arnold struggled with his own religious doubts but wanted to establish the “essential truth” of Christianity.
24Arnold’s EssaysMost influential were those concerning literary topics. In “The Function of Criticism” and “The Study of Poetry” he called for a “new epic poetry,” a poetry that would address the moral needs of his readers, to “animate and ennoble them.” He favored a renewed religious faith and a return to classical theories of poetry.Set the tone and approach of modern criticism as an art form; always respectful, gentlemanly, and subtle.
25Later LifeMade two lecture tours of the United States in 1883 and 1886Died in Liverpool in 1888.