Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

CONDITIONS AND FACTORS OF EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS IN AFRICA Bilingual Education, Active Pedagogies and Pertinent Curricula: Factors of Effective Learning. By:

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "CONDITIONS AND FACTORS OF EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS IN AFRICA Bilingual Education, Active Pedagogies and Pertinent Curricula: Factors of Effective Learning. By:"— Presentation transcript:

1

2 CONDITIONS AND FACTORS OF EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS IN AFRICA Bilingual Education, Active Pedagogies and Pertinent Curricula: Factors of Effective Learning. By: Hon. Dr. (Mrs.) Becky, R.K. Ndjoze-Ojo, MP Deputy Minister of Education: Republic of Namibia A presentation prepared for and delivered TO: The Association of Development of Education in Africa’s (ADEA) Biennial Meeting DATE: March,2006 Venue: Libreville, Gabon

3 INTRODUCTION Premise → Bilingual education + Active Pedagogies+ Pertinent curricula = factors of effective learning for African children in African countries. Premise → Bilingual education + Active Pedagogies+ Pertinent curricula = factors of effective learning for African children in African countries. The above premise is informed by rich background & broader framework of 2003 Biennale Meeting of ADEA in Mauritius that resolved that there is need for: The above premise is informed by rich background & broader framework of 2003 Biennale Meeting of ADEA in Mauritius that resolved that there is need for: i. Curricula Adoption with regard to the use of African Languages in Education ii. Bilingual Education and the use of local languages as Media of instruction (MOI) iii. Base Line Study on the state-of-the-art of Mother-tongue Education and bilingual education in African countries.

4 3- pronged approach provide an opportunity for empirical research & data provide an opportunity for empirical research & data Eventually will lead to the development of a clear argumentation based on scientific research Eventually will lead to the development of a clear argumentation based on scientific research Shall Enhance and facilitate the most effective policies on the use of African languages in the education systems for the African children. Shall Enhance and facilitate the most effective policies on the use of African languages in the education systems for the African children.

5 Recommendations of 2003 Biennale Meeting of ADEA (Mauritius) UNESCO Institute for Education initiated & supervised 6 international researchers who studied & analyzed cases from African countries (such as: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda & Zambia) UNESCO Institute for Education initiated & supervised 6 international researchers who studied & analyzed cases from African countries (such as: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda & Zambia) Stocktaking Report on “Optimizing Learning & Education in Africa: The Language Factor”. Stocktaking Report on “Optimizing Learning & Education in Africa: The Language Factor”. More than 60 international experts & Officials of African Ministries of Education- representing 20 African countries, came together to reflect on an issue that is “Vital for the development of relevant and effective African education systems.” (Hon. Nangolo Mbumba 2005) More than 60 international experts & Officials of African Ministries of Education- representing 20 African countries, came together to reflect on an issue that is “Vital for the development of relevant and effective African education systems.” (Hon. Nangolo Mbumba 2005)

6 AIMS of ADEA Biennale Meeting 2006 To prepare the grounds for discussion on bilingually-oriented languages-in- education policies. To prepare the grounds for discussion on bilingually-oriented languages-in- education policies. In theory there is perhaps nothing new In theory there is perhaps nothing new In practical terms however, we have to chart the way forward for a conducive environment with favorable conditions & factors for responsive education systems & effective schools in Africa. In practical terms however, we have to chart the way forward for a conducive environment with favorable conditions & factors for responsive education systems & effective schools in Africa.

7 Extensive Theoretical & Empirical Framework Multilingualism Bilingualism Active Pedagogies & Pertinent Curricula

8 Multilingualism in Africa  Africa is a multilingual continent= (2000) = 1/3 of world languages  Multilingualism is the norm & not the exception in Africa  Therefore, we must view multilingualism as an important resource to be extensively utilized.  H.Ekkehard Wolff’s study Underlying aim to: a) Establish the normality of multilingualism b) Highlight the necessity to make language a central issue in all developmental discourse c) Draw attention to various factors that tend to impede the formulation & implementation of adequate & socio-culturally integrated language & language- in- education policies. Findings: a) Comprehensive social planning & implementation of planning b) Visions- these visions must view education as a societal project that aims at sustained economic & socio- political development, including poverty alleviation.

9 Bilingualism of Education Systems in Africa  Bilingualism not Monolingualism  Education is the Key Arguments: If Education is the key to development If Education is the key to development then language is the key to education because then language is the key to education because Language is to Education as Mathematics is to Science. (Ndjoze- Ojo 2000:80) Language is to Education as Mathematics is to Science. (Ndjoze- Ojo 2000:80) Language is not everything in education, but without Language everything is nothing in Education ( Wolff 2005: 49) Language is not everything in education, but without Language everything is nothing in Education ( Wolff 2005: 49) We dissect nature along lines laid down by our native languages and that, thought processes are determined by language such that human beings are at the mercy of their languages. ( Hudson 1980, and as cited in Ndjoze-Ojo, 2000:79) We dissect nature along lines laid down by our native languages and that, thought processes are determined by language such that human beings are at the mercy of their languages. ( Hudson 1980, and as cited in Ndjoze-Ojo, 2000:79)

10 Worry about words, Bobby… For words are the tools of thought. ( A.P Herbert, as quoted in Aitchison 1978) Worry about words, Bobby… For words are the tools of thought. ( A.P Herbert, as quoted in Aitchison 1978) Language is perhaps the single most important visible factor in educational efficiency. ( cf. Snow 1990; Collier and Thomas 1988) Language is perhaps the single most important visible factor in educational efficiency. ( cf. Snow 1990; Collier and Thomas 1988)  Therefore, Language is without doubt the most important factor in the learning process and its importance cannot be over emphasized.  If the above arguments are true, then African countries cannot afford to ignore the importance of Language in Education for effective learning and educational responsiveness and efficiency.

11 Bilingual Models  Kathleen Heugh’s study Underlying aim to: a) Investigate the models used in Education systems in Africa b) Make recommendations Findings: a) Early exit models are currently dominantly used. b) NO evidence that the early exit models are cheaper. c) Additive bilingual models promote balanced bilingualism & better learning outcomes. Recommendations -Replace the early exit models currently used in Africa with additive bilingual models. - Additive bilingual models are the most effective models for African education systems. - Need for competent language teacher, well trained in methodology & pedagogy of L2 teaching.

12 Active Pedagogies & Pertinent Curricula

13 Impact of Language on learners & teachers  Hassana Alidou’s & Birgit Brock- Utne’s Studies Underlying aim to: a) - investigate the impact of the language used as MoI on teachers’ performance and teaching practices, and b) - Investigate the impact of the language used as MoI on learners’ performance & learning practices respectively. c) - conduct classroom observations in several African countries Findings: a) Learners learn better if they understand the MoI b) Many African learners do not understand the MoI currently used. c) The use of unfamiliar languages forces teachers to use ineffective and teacher-centered teaching methods.

14 - These methods undermine the teachers’ efforts to teach and learners’ efforts to learn. - Teachers do most of the talking while learners become silent passive participants. - The end result is use of passive pedagogies & ineffective teaching techniques. (e.g.: chorus teaching, Rote learning, memorization, etc.) -Thus schools in Africa experience ineffectiveness & low academic achievement. - However where MoI are familiar learners & teachers interact & communicate better for overall better performance.

15 Recommendations: By implication, there is need to replace unfamiliar MoI with familiar ones. By implication, there is need to replace unfamiliar MoI with familiar ones. To replace passive pedagogies with active ones. To replace passive pedagogies with active ones. To move from teacher- centered to learner- centered approaches. To move from teacher- centered to learner- centered approaches. To finally move from non- interactive, ineffective schools to interactive, educationally efficient schools. To finally move from non- interactive, ineffective schools to interactive, educationally efficient schools.

16 Pertinent Curricula  The experts at the conference commented as follows:  Teacher quality leads to learner quality (Adama Samassekou)  How can we make educational reforms understood, widely accepted & effectively implemented unless we develop strategies for the promotion of the idea of Bilingual education & the use of local languages in African education systems. (Alfred Opubor)  We need to include ACAlAN (Ayo Bamgbose)  The current state of teacher training in African countries needs redress and there is greater need for collaboration & consolidation.

17  There is urgent need for the development and implementation of quality teacher training programmes to reflect the particular needs of bilingual education and the use of mother tongue within African classrooms.  There is need for competency- based curricula that reflect the circumstances of African learners in terms of languages & contents integrating indigenous knowledge systems.  Base line studies in ECDs, educational aspects of bilingualism & use of MT as MoI are needed.

18 Recommendations Need to distinguish L1 acquisition from L2 learning. Need to distinguish L1 acquisition from L2 learning. Specific guidelines for language policy formulation, formalization & implementation. Specific guidelines for language policy formulation, formalization & implementation. Language issues & social issues (HIV/AIDS) Language issues & social issues (HIV/AIDS) African countries uncompromisingly strive for additive bilingual models African countries uncompromisingly strive for additive bilingual models

19 Not Colonial monolingualism, Not African monolingualism Not Colonial monolingualism, Not African monolingualism Institutional Frameworks must be developed Institutional Frameworks must be developed Consultative communication between experts & policy makers Consultative communication between experts & policy makers Challenges seemingly insurmountable but “Where there is a will, There is a way.” Challenges seemingly insurmountable but “Where there is a will, There is a way.”

20 African countries must strive to apply lessons learnt African countries must strive to apply lessons learnt We now know the way forward. We have the wisdom & the capacity, We are unusually optimistic. The situation is ripe & we have the power to do this. We now know the way forward. We have the wisdom & the capacity, We are unusually optimistic. The situation is ripe & we have the power to do this. ADEA’s message to Ministers of Education in Africa ADEA’s message to Ministers of Education in Africa ADEA to contact AU & NEPAD for major ministerial conference on African languages in education systems ADEA to contact AU & NEPAD for major ministerial conference on African languages in education systems

21 Conclusions The studies reviewed & summarized not only are they self explanatory but conclusively so, self- regulatory. The studies reviewed & summarized not only are they self explanatory but conclusively so, self- regulatory. In fact, every study lived up to expectations as it raised its underlying aims & objectives; presents its findings & made recommendations. In fact, every study lived up to expectations as it raised its underlying aims & objectives; presents its findings & made recommendations. It is from within these recommendations that we as Education Ministers, Education Practitioners, African Educationalists (and their friends), should be able to map the way forward for bilingual education systems that are laced with active pedagogies, dynamic & responsive curricula. It is from within these recommendations that we as Education Ministers, Education Practitioners, African Educationalists (and their friends), should be able to map the way forward for bilingual education systems that are laced with active pedagogies, dynamic & responsive curricula. It is my sincere hope that the way we have travelled so far, is enough evidence that we are all fully committed to sincere educational reforms and development on the African continent & this requires strong political will & commitment from our governments. It is my sincere hope that the way we have travelled so far, is enough evidence that we are all fully committed to sincere educational reforms and development on the African continent & this requires strong political will & commitment from our governments.

22 I THANK YOU


Download ppt "CONDITIONS AND FACTORS OF EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS IN AFRICA Bilingual Education, Active Pedagogies and Pertinent Curricula: Factors of Effective Learning. By:"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google