Presentation on theme: "1 CARRYING CAPACITY IN COASTAL TOURISM. 2 PRESENTATION OUTLINES: 1.CONCEPT OF CARRYING CAPACITY 2.IMPACT PARAMETERS AND GUIDELINES FOR TOURISM CARRYING."— Presentation transcript:
1 CARRYING CAPACITY IN COASTAL TOURISM
2 PRESENTATION OUTLINES: 1.CONCEPT OF CARRYING CAPACITY 2.IMPACT PARAMETERS AND GUIDELINES FOR TOURISM CARRYING CAPACITY 3.CARRYING CAPACITY IN THE COASTAL TOURISM 4.CARRYING CAPACITY IN HON MUN MARINE PROTECTED AREA - VIETNAM
3 1. THE CONCEPT OF CARRYING CAPACITY - The term derives from ecological science indicate the maximum population density for a given species in an environment without degradation of that environment. - In broadest sense, carrying capacity is a measure of the natural and artificial limits to development beyond which significant harm will occur. - Carrying capacity is being used as a management tool in land use planning, growth management, fisheries, aquaculture, tourism, etc. to control their adverse impacts. - In coastal regions, carrying capacity can be used, for example, to assess the effects of development on: * natural factors such as groundwater supply or wetland productivity. * artificial factors such as sewage treatment, roadway and bridge capacity for evacuation in case of storm hazards.
4 - There is no standard ways of conducting carrying capacity analyses and no universally accepted guides to how to do it (American Planning Association, 2001) - Adapted to tourism management: Carrying capacity is ability of a destination to accommodate: * the number of visitor * the quality of the visitors' satisfaction. (WTO, 1981) * tourism development (WTO, 1992) without detrimentally affecting the environment and its resources, or effecting a decline in visitor satisfaction (WTO, 1992).
5 - Other terms with similar meanings: * limits to use, * maximum occupancy, * sustainable limit, * limits of acceptable change: most appropriate all refer to a definable, often quantitative threshold. DRAWBACKS OF CARRYING CAPACITY: - Carrying capacity puts a limit on the number of visitors can be politically difficult because local businesses want more tourists to maximize their revenue and many problems are not so much due to numbers of people, but their behavior. - “Limits of acceptable change”: instead how many visitors, should ask what biological and social conditions are acceptable, and how they may be attained (the point is not the number of visitors but their use of resource in a destination)
6 2. IMPACT PARAMETERS AND GUIDELINES FOR TOURISM CARRYING CAPACITY Impact parameters: §Physical carrying capacity: amount of space or number of visitor per area unit (on a beach, campground, dive site, etc). A basic equation for calculating visitor carrying capacity developed in 1992 by the WTO and the UNEP: §Facility carrying capacity: number of visitors per boat ramp, restrooms, parking lot, campground, visitor-staff ratios, etc. § Economic carrying capacity: ability to absorb tourism activities without displacing or disrupting desirable local activities. § Ecological carrying capacity: maximum level of recreational use can be ecologically accommodated in a destination. § Social carrying capacity (also referred to as perceptual, psychological, or behavioral capacity): two aspects * number of encounters with other tourist groups. * level of tolerance of host population for the presence and behavior of tourists.
7 Guidelines for tourism carrying capacity in natural areas (Clark, 2000): Excessive use or visitation of natural areas can lead to their degradation and destruction use should be matched with a carrying capacity as per following guidelines: 1. Human use is a major threat to natural areas carrying capacity should be used to manage it. 2. Carrying capacity should be a major component of any management plan for a natural area. 3. The requirement to set a carrying capacity for each natural area should be embodied in legislation. 4. Zoning is the most useful framework for application of carrying capacity controls. 5. Carrying capacity should be seen as a mechanism that should be proactive rather than reactive. 6. Planning for infrastructure should limit facilities to the physical carrying capacity (ie. less than or equal to the carrying capacity ): a challenge to meet visitor’s satisfaction.
8 3. CARRYING CAPACITY IN COASTAL TOURISM In coastal zones, control of tourism is a good example of the use of carrying capacity. Let’s take a look into the carrying capacity of coral reef in an MPA: Reef carrying capacity * Physical capacity: the size and shape of the reef, and the number of visitor (divers and snorkellers) per area unit of a reef. * Facility capacity: the availability of boats which ferry divers and snorkellers to the reefs. * Ecological capacity: the threshold limit for visitor use and consequent incidental damage that a coral reef ecosystem can sustain without being degraded * Social capacity: the limit to visual contact between divers and snorkellers beyond which they become dissatisfied.
9 Coral reefs are very sensitive to change carrying capacity may differ from site to site, depending on habitat: a vertical wall of coral reef may be able to sustain more divers than a flatter reef in that the latter is more prone to damage by divers with buoyancy problems. A coral reef’s carrying capacity can increase or decrease with visitors’ level of experience and education. For instance, the diver with buoyancy problems has a greater impact on habitat than the diver with good buoyancy control. If a MPA is able to educate visitors to have less impact per person, its carrying capacity increases accordingly.
10 Hon Mieu Hon Mot Hon Noc Hon Rom Hon Cau Hon Vung Hon Mun MPA pilot project with very satisfactory results was initiated in 2001 to re- establish a healthy fishery and preserve natural marine jewels. * Covers 9 islands with a total area of 160 sq.km * IUCN recent survey: over 350 species of hard coral over 40% of all the hard corals on earth – an amazing diversity for such a small area. * Hon Mun MPA receives roughly 70,000 tourists annually, who are attracted by diving, snorkeling, boating, beaches, etc. HUS 4. CARRYING CAPACITY IN HON MUN MPA – VIETNAM Nha Trang Bay
11 * There are totally 9 diving sites, about 3000 divers/year/dive site. * Nha Trang has recently been recognized as one of the most beautiful bays on earth tourism increase Increasing carrying capacity in Hon Mun MPA. Tourism carrying capacity philosophy * Proactive planning vs. reactive planning: address tourism boom in future. * Increasing visitor numbers is not the essence. Instead, great efforts have been made in terms of appropriate management to control the existing levels of visitation and limit visitor use to protect environment and meet visitors' satisfaction. * Zoning is the most useful framework for application of carrying capacity controls. What have been done towards tourism carrying capacity in Hon Mun?
12 Physical carrying capacity: * Limits on reinforced concrete facilities to be built on the MPA. Facility carrying capacity: * transportation services improvement, a safe jetty building, staff training to handle visitor needs. Ecological carrying capacity: * Other alternative activities to diving and snorkeling: glass- bottomed boat rides, boating, parachuting less impacts on coral reefs. * Existing nature trails is being further promoted allow some dispersion of activities and alleviation of pressure on the reefs. * A series of mooring buoys has been established to avoid destructive anchoring of tourist boats. Socio-economic carrying capacity: * Entrance fee to the island * Promoting sustainable aquaculture in transition zones.
Zoning in Hon Mun MPA The Zoning Plan, in conjunction with other management mechanisms, aims: * to protect and conserve the biodiversity of the MPA * to provide opportunities for the ecologically sustainable use of, and access to the MPA. * to provide for a range of recreational, commercial and research opportunities, and for the continuity of traditional activities. * to reconcile the conflicting interests of all the stakeholders in tourism, aquaculture and conservation. IUCN and its partners have developed a multiple-use MPA into different zones: 1. Core zone: covers around 10% of the total area, no fishing. Education and research activities, nature based tourism such as diving and snorkeling are allowed. 2. Buffer zone: Traditional fishing but trawling is allowed. Permitted tourism activities include boating and diving, but no anchoring. 3. Transition zone: sustainable aquaculture is allowed.