Presentation on theme: "1 Tiger Flag 2008 FreeBirds VFW. 2 Table Of Contents FreeBirds Restricted 1.Situation Report 2.Order Of Battle 3.Exercise Objective 4.Comms plan 5.Special."— Presentation transcript:
1 Tiger Flag 2008 FreeBirds VFW
2 Table Of Contents FreeBirds Restricted 1.Situation Report 2.Order Of Battle 3.Exercise Objective 4.Comms plan 5.Special Intructions 6.Air Annex 7.Day 1 – Fly In 8.Day 2 – DCA 9.Day 3 – OCA Strike 10. Appendix – Brevity Codes/Procedures/Primary/Secondary Target Lists
3 Situation Report FreeBirds VFW Restricted Since the end of the cold war, the situation has stabilized in the Korean peninsula. The ex-North Korea, renamed HostLand, is still under socialist influence with a military totalitarian system. South Korea has been divided in two distinct countries. The ex-demilitarized area, in the center of Korean peninsula, is now an independent country care of United Nations, subject to maintain political and military neutrality. This wealthy country is independent and renamed NeutraLand. An international coalition is in charge of the south of the peninsula. This coalition manages the region (political and military power) under CoalitioLand designation. The presence of this opposing force allows assuring peace and relative stability in Korean peninsula due to armed forces in presence. Situation Briefing:
4 Situation Report Cont’d FreeBirds VFW Restricted Yet these last years, even if the situation seems to be calm, some attempts of political destabilization and spying acts have been listed from side to side. The last year, we can notice an arms race between HostLand and CoalitioLand, aiming to upset this balance. We are nearly sure today that HostLand is about to become a nuclear power, especially thanks to China and Russia support, even if this last deny its involvement. On the other side, CoalitioLand is in final step to develop a new real time tactical data link. This system will allow any information type exchanges (vocal messages, written messages, map, satellite pictures, IR pictures, orders etc...) between all operational participants, in real time. This system will link fighters, AWACS, ABCCC, tankers, ground units, ground to air units, command and space centers. An instantaneous overview of the battlefield will be given to each connected units, and allow this way reactive and suitable orders for the situation. In front of this critical evolution of the situation in Korean peninsula, NeutraLand troops are on alert. Other Korean countries and international instances have been warned that any penetration of NeutraLand airspace or territory would be considered as an aggression. Such event would end NeutraLand neutrality. And as a consequence a front would be opened against the considered country, breaking the balance of power in Korean peninsula. Situation Briefing:
5 Exercise Objective FreeBirds VFW Restricted Desired effects in the Blue Force Tiger Flag 08 Operation: CoalitioLand force demonstration limited to a week-end, in order to show determination in preventing Hostland having nuclear weapons Hostland classical military potential attrition Hostland military nuclear factories and research centre destruction keep Neutraland at a neutral position in the area or join CoalitioLand.
6 Comms Plan FreeBirds VFW Restricted Frequency Chart
7 Comms Plan Cont’d FreeBirds VFW Restricted Ingame initial contact will be done preferentially on Pohang Tower VHF frequency (except for the Fly-in mission). Pohang frequencies 236,6 and 118,05 not in use in order to not mix human ATS and AI ATS comms. 100,100 frequencies are secondary. Flight comms will be done on VHF. Channel assignment is the responsability of leaders. Package, operation and control support (AWACS or ground) will be done on UHF. Pohang Tower frequency must be maintained till 30 Nm outbound Pohang airfield. For egress, first contact with Pohang Tower must be done 40Nm inbound. In case the human Air Trafic Service is not available, self-information procedures will be in force. In that situation, priorities for landing and take-off will be managed by flight leaders according VFR rules. Minimum Fuel message : in case fuel estimate at landing under 600 lbs. Rules of Use
8 Comms Plan Cont’d FreeBirds VFW Restricted Teamspeak Info In order to use Ground Controlled Intercept/Air Intercept Control human support, or for contact with Operation Control, TeamSpeak will be used simultaneously with Internal Voice Comms. Yet a strict procedure is in force, and must be followed, in order to not degrade immersion effect provided by IVC. All pilots have to map a “whisper to” “Player list” on human who will provide the support for the flight. The key combination for this whisper must be the UHF emit combination (ALT 1 by default in OF). Some pics on how to map the command : Once pilots have committed TE, any communication via TeamSpeak is strictly forbidden ! Whatever happens (ingame death, CTD), no communication between pilots via TeamSpeak. For pilots, the only way to communicate between them remain IVC and only IVC ! The double emission when communicating on UHF thanks the TS “whisper to” is only for GCI/AIC/Operation control human support. CAUTION
9 Comms Plan cont’d FreeBirds VFW Restricted GCI/AIC procedures Few reminders. Alpha check : request for bearing and range to bullseye. GCI : Scapin11 report ready for alpha check. Pil : copy.... when ready... Pil : Calva, Scapin11, alpha check , 2.0. miles. GCI : Calva same. Ziplip : directive call to minimize radio transmissions. Pil : Calva ZIPLIP = communications between pilots for the fight... when GCI support needed again Pil : Calva, Scapin11, request picture. GCI : Scapin11, Calva, two groups... GCI/AIC coordination with package will be defined in the briefing before flight. In case of specific request for coordination, please inform organisation team.
10 Comms Plan Cont’d FreeBirds VFW Restricted Hide communication Some code words can be used in order to hide messages in communications. Will be defined in a CommPlan update. Code words. INCOMPLETE
11 Authentication Procedure In case communications are jammed by RedAir, prepare a plan to change work channel. During the Operation, intrusion or disappointment communication may occur. When in doubt challenge an authentication ! Communication Jamming Procedure:
12 Special Instructions FreeBirds VFW Restricted Time Reference: For all the Operation, time reference will be Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Organizing team will have responsibility to make ingame time matching as close as possible UTC ! All slots and times are given according UTC reference both for ingame and real times. There is only for spare missions, played in case of technical problems, that there could be a difference between ingame and real time. In case of spare mission would be played, details about time managing will be given in a live brief.
13 FreeBirds VFW Restricted Connection procedures Prerequisites : pilots have to be familiar with OF Launcher operations ! Before each mission a pre flight briefing slot is given to participating teams (slots given in the annex Air Operation Plan). A member of the organizing team will attend the brief. Flight leaders have to give the load of each aircraft to this organizing team member before the pre flight briefing. At the end of the brief he'll invite pilots to join the game. He will recall OF Launcher server settings to connect. A “Commit TE” slot is given per pilot in the ATO. Pilots can connect the TF server till 5 minutes before their “commit TE” slot. And at their time slot, pilots have 1 minute to commit TE. Then, pilots have less than 2 minutes to wait before launching game in ramp start mode. Ramp start mode is mandatory for Tiger Flag Operation. In case of problem (UI/Falcon freeze or CTD during 3D join, or even CTD during the game), report it to Operation Control (always available on TeamSpeak) ! A new “commit TE” slot will be given to the pilot by Operation Control. Two additional “commit TE” slots maximum will be given by Operation Control to a same pilot. In case the recommit doesn't work, do not insist ! Report it to Operation Control. In case a pilot is late, other pilots have to respect their “commit TE” time slots, and play the mission in doing the best they can. The pilot who's late has to report to Operation Control and wait for further instructions. An additional rule, once TE commited, before launching ramp start, steerpoint modifications is forbidden. Pilots are authorized to set only the DTC. Special Instructions
14 FreeBirds VFW Restricted Domestics procedures Start-up Once in-game, when flight leader think all wingmen are also 3D, he makes a roll call on tower frequency. Once roll call completed, Flight leader request startup to Tower. In case human ATS wouldn't be available, self-information procedures are in force for start-up. Airfield departure All flights are asked to maintain 1500 ft ground and 350 kt till 30 Nm outband airfield in case of VMC. f IMC, POSCO ONE Departure, then climb FL100 maintaining 350 kt maximum till 30 Nm outband joining flight plan route. Follow human ATS clearance if different. Contacts with tower according Comm Plan. After 30 Nm, evolutions according airspace organisation constraints, if there are. Airfield arrival Contacts with tower according Comm Plan. All flights are asked to maintain 2000 ft ground and 350 kt from 30 Nm inbound airfield in case of VMC. If IMC, follow published instrument arrival according human ATS clearance. If no ATS proceed for standalone instrument approach. Special Instructions
15 FreeBirds VFW Restricted In Flight Report: In case you are asked to produce an inflight rep, message structure : Flight callsign Report time Number, type and status of flight aircrafts Effective time on target or estimated time on target Target status Weapons status Endurance Threat situation, type and degree Arrival estimate or next contact Special Instructions Rules of engagement Defensive Counter Air missions Forbid to Hostland forces the use of our airspace, our national waters and our territory. No engagement over internationals waters. No penetration in Neutraland airspace and/or territory. Kill on enemy forces only over our territory or airspace.
16 FreeBirds VFW Restricted Rules of engagement Cont’d: Airspace organisation respect. If no radio coordination with unknown A/C : -in corridor, level or low speed (< M 0,5) → go VID -outside corridor but low speed (< M 0,5) → go VID -if supersonic, very high, spike or fire on friendly aircraft or installations : hostile act = must be destroyed Transit corridors are defined between two ground points (town, factories etc…) and have 5 Nm wide. FAOR must be placed over Transit corridors or over high value ground assets. VID : visual identification: If an aircraft is identified as a Bogey, if we don’t know he is a friendly or hostile, in the doubt and to avoid a friendly kill, we must go the see this aircraft. It’s a very dangerous situation because we get closer from the bogey. To perform that we use two aircraft, one for the VID, and the other one in support. The purpose of VID is to identify the aircraft, so the pilot performing the VID, called eyeball, must recognise the type of aircraft, the camouflage, permitting the identification and the classification as friendly or hostile. The second aircraft called Shooter must be ready to shoot the bogey if this last threaten the eyeball aircraft or fire ground unit or installations. In all these cases, he becomes Hostile and you are cleared to shoot without restrictions. If eyeball see an enemy aircraft, but if this one isn’t threatening or try to flee, you must ask instructions to your authorities. In such a case, DO NOT FIRE WITHOUT EXPLICIT OPERATION CONTROL CLEARANCE ! Special Instructions
17 FreeBirds VFW Restricted Work in FAOR (60x40 Nm): Defence of every high value site or asset. If you are CAP in FAOR, it’s your responsibility to forbidden your airspace to hostile aircraft or to protect high value ground asset. So you have to maintain the FAOR volume, but you are cleared to fire on hostiles inside or outside FAOR if they are in your airspace. You are not allowed to engage hostile over international waters. Rules of engagement Cont’d Special Instructions Offensive Counter Air missions: Destruction of enemy offensive potential and main installations (see target list in Operation Plan). No penetration in Neutraland airspace and/or territory. Use Awacs or GCI for ID. Spike inventory for buddy spike. Engaged all enemy aircraft over Hostland airspace. No engagement over internationals waters. No colateral damages accepted. Imperative respect of : - All time block - Vulnerability time over Hostland - Remember your priority task
18 FreeBirds VFW Restricted Time Sensitive Targets Those targets require immediate response because they pose (or will soon pose) danger to friendly forces or are highly lucrative, fleeting targets of opportunity. During your flight, the ground or air situation can evolve and require a fast change of the objectives of the government. That can result in a change of your initial target to a new one or by addition of a target. These changes will be transmitted to you in various ways. May be by coordinates, bull’s diffusion, grid or guided by a soldier on the ground. These men are called SOF (special ops forces). By radio, SOF will describe the target and help you to identify it visually. At the moment, there are no direct valuable known ground threat considered as TST. Some units or terrorist scientists nuclear specialised are to be identified. Our intelligence services are still working on their identification. An Operation Plan and SPINS update may occur to precise TST list Special Instructions Combat Search And Rescue In case some crew would have to eject or proceed for a forced land over hostile territory, it would become a top priority to recover them ! For mediatic and political reasons, it wouldn't be acceptable to let HostLand forces capture only one of our pilots. In such a situation, a Combat Search And Rescue mission will be prepared and launched. Time preparation, assets assignation and operation launch have to be adapted to the situation in order to make it with a maximum of safety and success insurance. In case a CSAR event occurs, planned missions may be delayed, modified, adapted or canceled. CSAR mission is a top priority !
19 FreeBirds VFW Restricted For all the missions, you have (each team) a defined number of aircafts, fuel tanks and weapons. Aircrafts: - 16 F-16 Block F-16 Block 52 A/A weapons: - 60 AMRAAM (40 AIM-120C + 20 AIM-120B) - 40 SIDEWINDER (16 AIM-9X + 24 AIM-9P) A/G weapons: - 8 AGM AGM65D - 48 MK MK CBU97 Other - 50 pendular tanks - 25 ventral tanks - 25 ALQ (15 ALQ ALQ 184) Special Instructions After action report After each flight, Red team will work on an analyse of the fight according what has been recorded. The more each participant will be able to catch, the better this analyse can be. So, there will be extra points for each material provided by teams like : ACMI Voice recording Debrief screen captures Each detail in the after action report count ! Status of aircrafts, weapons used, weapons result... and the rest. So don't miss it !!! A mission is terminated once the debrief completed, not before.
23 Order Of Battle FreeBirds VFW Restricted NeutraLand: Population : 21,000,000 peoples Armed forces : 500,000 active soldiers and 2,700,000 in reserve -Land forces370,000 soldiers -Air forces120,000 airmen -Navy110,000 marines
24 FreeBirds VFW Restricted Order Of Battle HostLand: Population : 24,000,000 peoples Armed forces : 1,200,000 active soldiers and 500,000 in reserve -Land forces750,000 soldiers -Air forces250,000 airmen -Navy200,000 marines
25 FreeBirds VFW Restricted Order Of Battle CoalitioLand: Population : 27,000,000 peoples Armed forces : 800,000 active soldiers in place -Land forces50,000 soldiers -Air forces150,000 airmen -Navy150,000 marines
26 Air Plan FreeBirds VFW Restricted As a first stage, Pohang squadrons have to be reinforced. Then air superiority has to be maintained over CoalitioLand through HVAA protect and point defense. In the main time some OCA strikes will be conducted as force demonstration, against military objectives and some naval assets. Mission schedule is given in the annex Air Operation Plan.
27 ATO Day 1 FreeBirds VFW Restricted
28 Day 1 – Fly In FreeBirds VFW Restricted THIS MISSION IS SOMEWHAT UNKNOWN. ALL I HAVE BEEN TOLD IS THAT IT WILL BE A FERRY FLIGHT IN BAD WEATHER
29 FreeBirds VFW Restricted ATO - Day 2
30 Day 2 - DCA Overview Task : You have to defend your country, and particularly the 2 ROZ behind, against a Hostland attack. This attack is expected to come from western internationals waters. You have 3 HVAA in flight, in ROZ, and they don’t be destroyed. Target: All enemy aircrafts must be destroyed. We know the Hostland have Mirages 2000, Mig’s 29, 31 and Su’s 27, 33.and a retrofit F16 with slot back radar. Be careful, some friendly aircrafts can come back by the west. Threat: No threat except Hostland aircrafts, of course. ROE’s : You are defensive so: - You can’t: Cross the Flot to engage Fire or destroy an enemy over internationals waters If A/C fly in the corridor without radio contact, you must go VID If A/C is bandit, but no offensive or aggressive, force it to land. Hostile act: Hard spike more than 5 sec Fire on friendly A/C or installations You must destroyed hostile in FAOR, in our airspace Expect much friendly or unknown traffic over Internationals Waters! FreeBirds VFW Restricted COORDINATES All coordinates are calculated from the bull’s (xx°/Nm) FLOT WEST [(030°/40)-(210°/090)-(180°/120)-(150°/150)] FAOR 1 [(030°/40)-(088°/70)-(120°/60)-(000°/00)] Corridor 1 continuous line Chinju nuclear plan – Cheongho (see map) Intersection points with FAOR 1 [(030°/13)- (100°/63)] FAOR 2[(000°/00)-(120°/60)-(155°/70)-(210°/40)] Corridor 2continuous line Honam oil rafinery – Hampyong (see map) Intersection points with FAOR 2 [(140°/60)- (210°/32)] Each flight leader is person in charge of the modification of the file “.ini” by addition of the steerpoint lines for FAOR and corridor. Only appears Neutraland FLOT
31 DCA Mission MAP
32 FreeBirds VFW Restricted VULNERABILITY TIME : 00:30 BE OUT HOSTLAND AREA AT 17:05 ATO - Day 3
33 OCA Overview See next slide to see this map in detail Task: AIR OPERATION AIM AT A STRIKE AGAINST HAMHUNG NUCLEAR PLAN SUPPORTED BY A NEUTRALIZATION OF GCI BY STRIKE NE SECTOR AIR DEFENSE AND OCA SUPPORT - This mission is SWP4 SEAD2 STK2 - The two SEAD aircraft will be able to strike also in secondary task. - Sweep will assure safety of package Target You have to strike Hamhung nuclear plan and NE Sector air defence. This attack must be success. Secondary target is Vinalon complex. See targets list for DMPI. Possible reattack if you can maintain vulnerability time. Threat - Hostland aircrafts MiG-29, MiG-31, Mirage 2000-C - Possible QRA - SAM sites (See intell in OPS PLAN) may be not really updated. Hostile act : Hard spike more than 10 sec Fire on friendly A/C or installations Roe’s You are offensive so : You must cross the FLOT by GATE in the good time window. (See ATO) You must respect vulnerability time over Hostland airspace. No collateral damages accepted Expect much friendly or unknown traffic over International Waters! FreeBirds VFW Restricted Coordinates: NSTR Support: Ground GCI for picture ABCCC for operational contact AAR
34 OCA Mission MAP
35 Day 3 - OCA Strike FreeBirds VFW Restricted All coordinates are given from north bull’s : X = , Y = (ini reference) X = 649, Y = 536 (F4AWACS reference) DMPI 2 : nuclear plant : N E DMPI 3 : nuclear plant : N E DMPI 1 : main plant: N E DMPI 4 : main plant : N E Primary = Hostland Nuclear Pwr Plant: Secondary = Vinalon Complex (bull’s 231/003): DMPI 1 : tall radio tower :N E DMPI 2 : radio tower : N E DMPI 3 : laboratory : N E
36 Appendix BLANK FreeBirds VFW Restricted
37 Brevity Codes - FreeBirds FreeBirds VFW Restricted Continue - Continue present maneuver, but does not imply release authorized Press - Directive to continue the attack; mutual support will be maintained. Supportive role will be assumed. Ops Check – See Ops Check Procedure in FreeBirds Procedures part of Appendix (pg 50) Fence In – Master lights off, master arm on, say fuel Fence Out – Master lights on, master arm safe, say fuel Say Again – Repeat last transmission Alpha Check - Request for/confirmation of bearing and range to described point. Chicks – Friendly aircraft Holding Hands – In formation Tally - Sighting of a target, bandit, bogey, or enemy position; opposite of NOJOY. Visual - Sighting of a friendly aircraft/ground position; opposite of BLIND. No Joy - Aircrew does not have visual contact with the target/bandit/ landmark. Opposite of TALLY. Naked - No RWR indications. No Factor - Not a threat Extend (Direction) - Short term maneuver to gain energy, distance, or separation; normally with the intent of re- engaging. Angels – Altitude in thousands of feet Cherubs – Altitude in hundreds of feet Chainsaw – Fire a AIM 120 and wait for it to go active (pit bull), then break off target to assigned area
38 Brevity Codes - FreeBirds FreeBirds VFW Restricted Bracket - Indicates geometry where friendly aircraft will maneuver to a position on opposing sides, either laterally or vertically from the target. Mark – Last bomb impact, or rockets smoke Dakota – Out of AG ordnance Winchester – No ordnance at all remaining Strobe - Radar indications of noise jamming. Stripped – Out of position (when in formation) Closing up – Coming closer/decreasing distance between you and another aircraft (when rejoining) As Fragged - Unit or element will be performing exactly as stated by the air tasking Bugout – Leave current engagement Birds – Friendly SAM Gate - Directive/Informative call to fly as quickly as possible, using after-burner/max power. Buster - Directive call to fly at maximum continuous speed (military power) Joker - Fuel state above BINGO at which separation/bugout/event termination should begin. Bingo - 1. Fuel state needed for recovery. 2. Proceed/ am proceeding to specified base (field) or carrier. On Station – At the place briefed Sunrise – AWACS available Midnight – AWACS not available Gimbal - Radar target is approaching azimuth or elevation limits
39 Brevity Codes - FreeBirds FreeBirds VFW Restricted Clean - 1. No radar contacts on aircraft of interest. 2. No visible battle damage. 3. Aircraft not carrying external stores. Uniform - UHF Victor - VHF Tied - Positive radar contact with element/aircraft. Blow Through - Directive/informative call that indicates aircraft will continue straight ahead at the merge and not turn with target/targets. Green (Direction) - Direction determined to be clearest of enemy air-to-air activity. Saunter - Fly at best endurance. Anchor(ed) - 1. Orbit about a specific point; refueling track flown by tanker. 2. Informative to indicate a turning engagement about a specific location. Dash (flight #) - Aircraft position within a flight. Use if specific callsign is unknown. Trespassing – Inside SAM threat circle Action - Directive to initiate a briefed attack sequence or maneuver. Throttles - Reduction in power to decrease IR signature. Faker – Friendly aircraft playing hostile Notching – Putting missile on the beam HotDog – Informative/directive call that an aircraft is approaching or at a specified stand-off distance from the sovereign airspace of a nation (as defined by national boundaries or territorial sea and airspace). (COLOR may indicate additional standoff distance.) Follow briefed procedures.
40 Brevity Codes - FreeBirds FreeBirds VFW Restricted Marking - Contrails Grand slam - All hostile a/c are shot down Bogey Dope - Request for targetinfo (type of A/C) Bittersweet - Possible Blue on Blue situation Blank - SEAD aircraft does not detect any emitters of interest
41 1.Call when holding short of your assigned runway. Request a Hot Pit Refuel if lead told you to do so during the briefing. 2.Formation take-offs are only permitted when carrying A-A ordnance, with the exception of Mavericks and HARMS 3.The ATC will be a human, not AI, so follow his instructions and remember to read back what he told you to do -For example: ATC: "Cleared for take-off, 090 to 2,000, winds 110 at 7 knots, approved change to departure" Flight Lead: "Python1, cleared for take-off, 090 up to 2,0000, pushing departure" FreeBirds - Flight Procedures FreeBirds VFW Restricted Step-by-Step Guide Ramp Start 1.Use UHF 6 if you need to communicate before starting your jet. No Teamspeak will be allowed. 2.Do not start your jet until told do so by lead. It is very important you follow your ramp start check list so you don’t miss anything that could cause problems later in the flight. Use the checklists found here: 3.After Engine Start: Make sure your assigned Com1 & Com 2 channels are tuned in to the channel that was briefed for you flight. Once your flight is ready to taxi, check-in with other flights in your package - For example: Lead: “Python 1 check in” (This check-in means Lead is ready to taxi –INS aligned) Wingmen: ““Two checking in” (This means that 2 is ready to taxi – INS aligned) 4.Flight lead will then request permission to taxi from ATC. When Lead is cleared to taxi, he will inform the flight which runway the flight will taxi to for take-off. Taxi
42 1.Call when holding short of your assigned runway. Request a Hot Pit Refuel if lead told you to do so during the briefing. 2.Call, “Python1, taking the active” or “Python 2 taking the active” 3.Formation take-offs are only permitted when carrying A-A ordnance, with the exception of Mavericks and HARMS 4.The ATC will be a human, not AI, so follow his instructions and remember to read back what he told you to do (applicable only for flight leads) -For example: ATC: "Cleared for take-off, 090 to 2,000, winds 110 at 7 knots, approved change to departure" Flight Lead: "Python1, cleared for take-off, 090 up to 2,0000, pushing departure“ 5.The type of take-off does not need to be discussed here because it was already described during the briefing. If you forgot, ask your lead while doing your ramp start, do not wait until you are cleared for take-off. Lead will always line up on the downwind side of the runway. If you do not know which side is downwind, press “5” on ICP to see wind direction. 6. Formation Take-Off - Once you and your #2 are on the active in position, #2 should call “Two in position”. Then lead will tell #2 to set brakes, run ‘em up to 85% RPM, then brakes off, and “good burner” -For example: Lead: “One on the brakes” Wingman: “Two on the brakes” Lead: “Run ‘em up” Wingman: “2” Lead: “Brakes off – ready – now” Wingman: (No need to reply) FreeBirds - Flight Procedures Step-by-Step Guide Take-Off Note: When lead says “Brakes – off – ready – now”, you release the brakes when you hear “now” and go full afterburner. Make sure you are not over-taking lead, but if you can’t help it, you will take lead until you are both airborne. Rotate when he rotates, and put your gear up when his goes up. Lead should call the turn off of runway heading if needed, and wait for his wingman to acknowledge before any turns to avoid collisions. Also, lead’s should not exceed 30 degrees bank when formation flying. Remember, this is not a air show, it’s a combat mission.
43 7.Non-Formation Take-Off: Lead will call taking the active, and line up in position on the downwind side of the runway. His wingman can also take the active even though you are not doing a formation take-off if the runway permits it. Lead will take-off, and his wingman will take-off according to the interval discussed in the briefing. The standard interval while carrying A-G ordnance is 20 seconds, but this can be adjusted by the flight lead during the brief. 8.The wingman should call “Python 2 is on the go”, or “Python 2 is rolling”. 9.Once the wingman is airborne, he should inform lead of his status, and let lead know if he can see Lead visually or if he has Lead single bugged on radar. Use the following radio calls for this: Wingman: “Two’s airborne, visual, re-joining” or “Two’s airborne” then “Two’s tied” (if he has Lead single bugged to get his air speed to rejoin” 10.If there are more then 3 aircrafts in the flight, lead will not turn toward STPT 2 until number 3 is rolling. This will aid the rejoin of the flight. 11.Once everyone in the flight is airborne, Lead will broadcast “Python flight is go” to inform other flights that they are airborne and switching to the appropriate UHF channel discussed in the briefing. FreeBirds - Flight Procedures FreeBirds VFW Restricted Step-by-Step Guide Take-Off Departure/Join-Up/Rejoin 1.Once everyone is airborne, Lead should give power settings, pitch settings, and call the climb in 5,000 increments. 2.Most likely the human ATC will give you departure instructions, or we will be told to follow a specific departure such as POSCO (See Attached Navigational Charts). 3.Always remember to fly the jet. Read back all ATC instructions, and look out for other traffic.
44 FreeBirds - Flight Procedures Step-by-Step Guide Departure/Join-Up/Rejoin Cont’d 4.Flight leaders will maintain 350 KIAS until join-up is accomplished unless mission requirements necessitate a different airspeed. Pilots may delay coming out of AB to help establish a rate of closure on the leader or lead element 5.If a turning join-up is to be accomplished, the flight leader will not normally exceed 30 degrees of bank. 6.Flight members will join in sequence. For a straight ahead rejoin, the number two aircraft will join on the left wing and the element will join on the right wing unless otherwise briefed. For a turning rejoin, the number two aircraft will rejoin on the inside of the turn and the element to the outside. If mission or flight requirements dictate, the flight leader will specifically direct the desired formation positions. 7.Flight/element leads will always consider wingman/element position and ability to safely perform a maneuver before directing it. The flight lead is always responsible for flight actions, regardless of the physical position in which he flies. Wingmen should always be prepared to fly the number one position if, in the judgment of the flight lead, such action is warranted. The term element lead may be used to designate the number three aircraft in a flight of four. 8.In IMC, the maximum flight size is four aircraft except when flying in close formation with a tanker (refer to T.O. 1-1C-1-30). In Flight Nav/Ingress to Target 1.Below are some common radio calls that should be used during navigation: Lead: “Python 1 push three”, check left (which means reference STPT 3 and turn left) Lead: “Python 1 new heading two niner zero” (turn and fly heading 290) Lead: “Python 1 say posit” (which means say position) or “Lead is blind on Two” (which means lead can’t see his number Two) Wingman (Response): “Two is at your 6 o’clock 1 mile, slightly high, no factor” (Which means Two is at leads six o’clock a mile away, slightly above lead. “No factor” is tacked on when Lead is blind. It means it’s OK, I see you and if you maneuver, you won’t crash into me. (Blind = can’t see friendly aircraft – see brevity codes)
45 2. Fence In Procedure: Fence in procedure are used to get the aircraft in fighting status. Do not toggle your Master Arm switch to “Arm” until Lead calls “Fence In”. Once Lead has made the call, you do your Fence In checks, which include: Master Light Switch - Off Master Arm Switch – ARM Check Fuel State & Fuel Selector Set – up weapons if briefed to do so (Follow checklist for further details) Here is an example of a fence in check: Lead: “Python 1 Fence In, 074” (which means run Fence In checklist, and Leads fuel state is 7,400lbs) Wingman: “Two Fenced In, 072” (which means Two has completed his Fence In checklist and gives his fuel state) 3. Ops Check: Lead should accomplish sufficient ops checks to ensure safe mission accomplishment. Additionally, each pilot should monitor the fuel system carefully throughout the flight to identify low fuel, trapped fuel or an out of balance situation as soon as possible. Frequency should be increased during tactical maneuvering at high power settings. The appropriate response is as follows (in this example we will say Leads fuel state is 11,700lbs and Two’s fuel state is 9,500Ibs): For Example:Lead – “Python flight, Ops Check, 1-1-7, tanks feeding” Wingman – “Two is 0-9-5, tanks feeding” Notice that the fuel state is the first three numbers on your fuel gauge. We will respond with our fuel state in the way described above. If Lead says, “Python flight, say fuel”, you are not to respond 4,500lbs, or 4.5, or The appropriate response is ONLY the first three numbers. 5,300lbs = 053. Also, “tanks feeding” means your fuel selector is set to “Norm”. Note: If you have external fuel tanks, you give their fuel state first, then your total fuel state. For example, Lead: “Python Flight, Ops Check, 0-2-5, 1-2-5, tanks feeding” (2,500 in external tanks, 12,500 total fuel, fuel selector “Norm”) Wingman: “Two 0-2-4, 1-1-9, tanks feeding” (2,500 in external tanks, 12,500 total fuel, fuel selector “Norm”) FreeBirds - Flight Procedures Step-by-Step Guide In Flight Nav/Ingress to Target Cont’d
46 4.Lead may request specific tactical formations if the situation warrants it. The following rules apply for flight path deconfliction during tactical maneuvering: -Wingmen/elements must maneuver relative to the flight lead/lead element and maintain sight. -Trailing aircraft/elements are responsible for deconflicting with lead aircraft/elements. - Wingmen/elements will cross above the lead /lead element when deconfliction is required. Note: Loss of Visual. Use the following procedures when one or more flight members loose visual on another: - If any flight member/element calls “Blind,” then the appropriate flight member/element will immediately confirm a “Visual” with an informative call. - If the other flight member/element is also “Blind,” then the flight leader will take action to ensure altitude separation between flight members/elements. The flight lead will specify either AGL or MSL when directing the formation to deconflict. When directed to “deconflict” a minimum of 500 feet altitude separation will be used. Climbs/descents through the deconfliction altitude should be avoide if possible. - If there is no timely acknowledgment of the original “Blind” call, then the flight member/element initiating the call will maneuver away from the last known position of the other flight member/element and alter altitude. - If visual contact is still not regained, the flight leader will take additional positive action to ensure flight path deconfliction within the flight to include a Terminate/Knock-It-Off if necessary. Scenario restrictions such as sanctuary altitudes and/or adversary blocks must be considered. - Aircraft will maintain altitude separation until a visual is regained and, if necessary, will navigate with altitude separation until mutual support is regained. Two Ship Tactical Formation Rules: - Normally, the wingman is responsible for flight path deconfliction. - The flight lead becomes primarily responsible for deconfliction when: - Tactical maneuvering places the leader in the wingman's “blind cone” or forces the wingman's primary attention away from the leader (e.g., wingman becomes engaged fighter). - The wingman calls “padlocked” or “blind” - Primary deconfliction responsibility transfers back to the wingman once the wingman acknowledges a visual on his lead. FreeBirds - Flight Procedures Step-by-Step Guide Tactical Formations
47 1.Example of radio calls during ingress to the target: Lead: “Python 1-1 has the target 010 for 20 miles” (Which means he sees the target heading 010, and he is 10mls away) Wingman: “Two Same” (No need to repeat if your response is same as lead. Simply say “Two Same”) 2.When in a A-G attack profile, make sure you inform your flight when you are rolling in on the target. Lead will have briefed you on how he wants you to attack, but you still need to let him know when you are making your run on the target. Once you are cleared “Weapons Free” in on the target, make sure you inform Lead when you are in hot, and/or if you dropped ordnance or not: Lead: “Python 1-1 in from the southeast” (then) “Bombs away, off target west, hot” (which means bombs came off) What if you don’t drop bombs for whatever reason? Use the following example in that situation. Wingman: “Two’s in from the southeast” (then) “Two’s off target west, dry” (no bombs came off, and usually after this radio call you give a reason if applicable” 3.Also, prior to the IP, Lead may want to change your attack profile if the situation warrants. Do not stick to the plan in the briefing if you fear it won’t be effective for whatever reason. For example, if you planned on attacking from the IP (STPT 4) to the target (STPT 5) in a clockwise motion, but the SEAD Escort didn’t take out the same threat at the IP STPT, then the lead may say something like the following: Lead: “Python flight, correction, STPT 6 is our IP. Repeat STPT 6 is our IP, ingress from 6” Wingman: “Lead, confirm you want us to run counter-clockwise, 6 to 5?” (always confirm any changes to briefed plan) Lead: “Affirmative, check left 45 for 10 miles, push 6 to 5” (lead confirms they will run counter-clockwise, and anchors the flight by giving a new heading) 4.As you all know, it’s a fluid ever-changing environment in combat. Be flexible, but be coordinated. 5.Obviously there are other radio calls, but these are simply the basics FreeBirds - Flight Procedures FreeBirds VFW Restricted Common IP to Target A-G Transmissions
48 1.BVR: Regardless of your flight position (Lead or Wingman), you should always call out radar contacts by including bullseye, altitude, heading, range, number of aircraft, nose hot/cold/beaming (where is radar contacts nose pointing). Lead should be the only one contacting AWACS unless otherwise advised. See exchange below for any example: Wingman: “Radar contact, bull , angels 25, 40 miles, nose hot” Lead: “Tally, standby for words” (Lead is going to contact AWACS to declare, keep comms clear) Lead: “Confirmed hostile. Two check thirty right, bracket, ten mile spacing, your shooter” (Lead has confirmed the bandit is hostile and wants his number two to extend 30 degrees to the right in order to form a bracket on the bandit. Lead has also designated his Two as the shooter, which means, Two will fire and Lead will support.) Wingman: : “Make it a pair” (Two spots another ship with that radar contact, it’s now Leads repsponsibility to sort the bandits, which means assign who will engage what radar contact. When sorting, use the Data Link feature in OF, it’s extremely helpful for sorting targets.) Lead: “Tally. Two sort trail “ (Lead wants his Two to engage the trailing radar contact.) 2.Visual: In a visual fight you want to work together as a team supporting each other. If your wingman is engaged in a dogfight, don’t enter the fight chasing the same bandit. Instead, keep in contact with your wingman and position yourself for a shot. You should only take a shot when the engaged fighter approves it, the shot won’t put the engaged fighter’s safety in jeopardy, and if you won’t put the engaged fighter’s safety in jeopardy (Get the point?) Engaged Fighter: “Python 1 engaged, Two break right” (Engaged fighter immediately establishes roles) Supporting Fighter: “Tally, Visual, out to the east” (He see’s the EF & the bandit, and is extending out to the east) Engaged Fighter: “One, engaged neutral (The fight isn’t going well for the EF, updating SF w/ his status) Supporting Fighter: “Tally, visual, in from the west 10 secs (SF sees both bandit and EF, & can take a shot in 10 secs) Engaged Fighter: “Blind, press” (EF approves SF entering the fight to take a shot) Supporting Fighter: “Two tally visual. One break right” (SF enters fight, and gives deconfliction direction for the EF) FreeBirds - Flight Procedures FreeBirds VFW Restricted Common A-A Transmissions
49 1.In any situation, if you need to rejoin, Lead should anchor the flight by giving instructions for the rejoin Lead: “Python 1-1 is feet wet, pushing 6, 25 miles out, angels18” (Over water, referencing STPT 6, 25 mi out, 18,000ft) Wingman: “Two is pushing 6, 30 miles out, angels 15 closing up” (He is referencing the same STPT, and rejoining) FreeBirds - Flight Procedures FreeBirds VFW Restricted Step-by-Step Guide Rejoin After Action 1.Referencing objects from YOUR aircraft: “At my left ten for 25” (object is at my 10 o’clock 25 miles) “On my nose for thirty” (object is straight ahead 30 miles) 2.Referencing object from WINGMAN’s aircraft: “At your right five o’clock” (obvious) 3.AA Unknown if Hostile: “Python 1 has two bogeys, my 3, 20 miles out” 4.AA Known Hostile: “Python 1 has two bandits, my 3, 20 miles” 5.AA Friendly: “Visual, two chicks holding hands, my 3, 10 miles (Friendly aircraft in formation at 3 o’clock 10 miles out) 6.AA Target heading into you is, “hot” 7.AA Target heading away from you is “cold” 8.AA Target 30 to 60 aspect angle is “flank” 9.AA Target 60 to 120 aspect angles is “beam” 10.AG GM Mode: “Python 1 has ground targets on my nose 30 miles” 11.AG GMT Mode: “Python has ground movers on my nose 30 miles” Referencing Objects Outside The Aircraft
50 1.Recovery procedures will be described in the Tiger Flag brief, since we don’t know how exactly that will work. But below is a brief description Airfield arrival Contacts with tower according Comm Plan. All flights are asked to maintain 2000 ft ground and 350 kt from 30 Nm inbound airfield in case of VMC. If IMC, follow published instrument arrival according human ATS clearance. If no ATS proceed for standalone instrument approach. FreeBirds - Flight Procedures FreeBirds VFW Restricted Step-by-Step Guide Recovery Procedures
51 Fighting Wing This formation, flown as a two-ship, gives the wingman a maneuvering cone from 30º to 70º aft of line abreast and lateral spacing between 500' to 3000‘ Number two maneuvers off lead with cutoff as necessary to maintain position. This formation is employed in situations where maximum maneuvering potential is desired. Arenas for use include holding in a tactical environment or maneuvering around obstacles or clouds. This formation is employed by elements when flying fluid four. Advantages: · The formation allows the element to maintain flight integrity under marginal weather conditions or in rough terrain. · Allows for cockpit heads down time for administrative functions when in a low-threat arena where hard maneuvering is not required. Disadvantages: · Poor to nonexistent six o'clock coverage. · Easy detection of formation by single threat. FreeBirds - Formations Everyone Needs to Know These: Two Ship Formations Wedge Wedge is defined as the wingman positioned from 30º to 60º aft of the leader's 3/9 line, 4000' to 6,000‘ back (Figure 3.6). The advantages of wedge are that the leader is well protected in the 6 o'clock area and is free to maneuver aggressively. The wingman may switch sides as required during turns. He may also switch sides as required to avoid terrain, obstacles or weather but must return to the original side unless cleared by the leader. The flight lead may extend the formation spacing to 12,000' to meet particular situations or requirements. The most significant disadvantage of the wedge is that it provides little to no six o'clock protection for the wingman. Lead changes, if required, are difficult to execute.
52 Two-Ship Line Abreast Line abreast formation is a position 0º - 20º aft, 4000' - 12,000' spacing, with altitude separation. At low altitude, the wingman should fly no lower than lead. Unless further defined by the flight lead, wingmen will fly in the 6000' ' range and strive for the 0º line (Figure 3.5). The 6000' ' position provides optimum visual and firepower mutual support for threats from the beam and six o'clock positions. The flight lead may tailor the parameters of this formation to meet particular situations or requirements. For example, in poor visibility conditions at low altitude, the wingman may be briefed to fly 4000' ' lateral spacing. For certain air-to-air scenarios, the briefed lateral spacing may be 9000' - 12,000' to enhance six o'clock visual coverage while complicating the enemy's visual acquisition of all aircraft in the formation. The wingman needs to maintain a formation position which allows him to perform his other responsibilities and not spend all his time flying formation. Each pilot must be in a position to detect an adversary converting on the wingman's stern prior to that adversary reaching firing parameters. Against an all-aspect, all-weather adversary this may not be possible. F-16 rearward visibility field-of-view (FOV) is not a limiting factor, as it is in most other aircraft. This formation allows element members to be in position to quickly bring ordnance to bear when a threat is detected. A vertical stack of 2000 to 6000 feet, when applicable, minimizes the chance of simultaneous detection by a bandit. FreeBirds - Formations Everyone Needs to Know These: Two Ship Formations Cont’d
53 Four Ship Wedge Elements are in two-ship wedge with the trailing element lead NM back, offset as required to maintain visual Advantages: · Very offensive for air-to-air threats forward of the 3/9 line. · Inexperienced wingmen may find it easier to maintain a visual on lead and stay in formation. · The formation permits four aircraft to maintain flight integrity under marginal weather or extremely rugged terrain conditions. Disadvantages: · Six o'clock lookout may be poor. · Formation easily detected by single threat. · The defensive maneuvering flexibility of the flight is very limited. · Number two must be disciplined and fly no further than 6,000 feet from lead to avoid conflict with trailing element. FreeBirds - Formations Everyone Needs to Know These: Four Ship Formations Cont’d Fluid Four Element leads maintain line abreast formation, while wingmen assume fighting wing. Number three maneuvers off number one as if in line abreast. Number two and number four maneuver off their element leaders to maintain the outside of the formation. Element leads are responsible for deconfliction of elements when crossing the opposing element's six o'clock. Advantages: · Inexperienced wingmen are kept close for ease of maneuvering. · Four-ship maneuverability is good. · Formation provides concentration of force. · Easily converts to three-ship when one aircraft falls out. Disadvantages: · Adversary can acquire all four aircraft. · Defensive maneuvering rapidly becomes confusing due to the proximity of aircraft. · Cumbersome to maneuver at low altitude in rough terrain.
54 Spread Four Element leads maintain the same spacing as for fluid four, but wingmen position themselves 0º to 30º back from their element leads and 6000' to 9000' spread (Figure 3.12). Increased lateral spacing for wingmen facilitates maneuvering. Each element uses fluid maneuvering. Number three flies off number one. The elements are not always required to be line abreast. On some occasions they may be briefly in trail. Advantages: · Spread formation makes it difficult for an adversary to visually acquire the entire flight at once. · Firepower is maximized for BVR weapons employment. Disadvantages: · Maneuvering is difficult if the line abreast position is maintained. · Very difficult for wingmen to fly at low altitude. FreeBirds - Formations Everyone Needs to Know These: Four Ship Formations Cont’d Three Ship Vic There may be occasions when a priority mission requires maximum available aircraft and a three-ship is the only alternative. Mutual support requirements to ensure survivability and recovery are paramount; therefore, a three-ship contingency should be briefed on all four-ship missions. On these occasions, the following three-ship formation discussion is applicable. Responsibilities: · Number One—navigation, then radar and visual lookout. · Number Two—visual and radar lookout, back-up navigation. · Number Three—visual, then radar lookout. Note: Unless described in briefing, please refrain from using formations not described in this power point (w/ the exception of “Spread” or “Trail” which I’m confident every knows
55 Four Ship Offset Box In the box formation, elements use the basic line abreast two- ship maneuvering and lookout principles. The trailing element takes 1.5 to 3 NM separation, depending on terrain and weather. Advantages: · The formation provides excellent mutual support and lookout. · The rear element is positioned to engage an adversary making a stern conversion on the lead element. · It is difficult to visually acquire the entire flight. · Element spacing for an attack is built into the formation. Disadvantages: · The formation is difficult to fly in poor visibility and rugged terrain. · Depending on position, the trailing element may be momentarily mistaken as a threat, especially if staggered too much off to one side. FreeBirds - Formations Everyone Needs to Know These: Four Ship Formations
56 FreeBirds VFW Restricted Appendix Primary Targets Hostland Port: DMPI 1 : doc : N E DMPI 2 : doc : N E DMPI 3 : doc : N E Factory Textil mill (bull’s 289/006) DMPI 1 : assembly building : N E DMPI 2 : factory : N E
57 FreeBirds VFW Restricted NE Sector air defense (bull’s 086/007): Max damages on this site - Admin building : N E Primary Targets Sondok air base (bull’s 226/012) DMPI 1 : RADAR : N E DMPI 2 : runwway (02/20) Appendix
58 FreeBirds VFW Restricted Kumya-up Bridge (225/030) Bridge : N E Appendix Secondary Targets 7th Infantry corps base (bull’s 235/020) DMPI 1 : admin building : N E DMPI 2 : radar : N E