Presentation on theme: "DEVELOPMENT. THE GRADUAL EVOLUTION OF THE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT During the seventeenth century the development concept was born. In this century people."— Presentation transcript:
THE GRADUAL EVOLUTION OF THE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT During the seventeenth century the development concept was born. In this century people thoght that only industrialized countries could be considered developed and that countries that didn’t have industrial structures were underdeveloped. In the eighteenth century instead people began to classify the countries in three classes: FIRST WORLD: developed countries with a capitalist economy SECOND WORLD: industrialized countries with a socialist economy THIRD WORLD: the other countries with fragile economies and they dependend on export of raw materials Today we talk about developed countries and developing countries often replaced by a distinction between north and south of the world
THE UNDERDEVELOPMENT CAUSES There are several causes for which a country may be underdeveloped. We can group them in two categories : NATURAL CAUSES HUMAN CAUSES
Bad climatic conditions Unfavorable morphology Low fertility Unequal distribution of natural resources (like water, wood, minerals and raw materials) Disproportion between population and available resources
Religious belifes Cultural lifestyles Colonial domination
If we want to know exactly a development grade of a country is not enough to analyze only the economical indicators. We must take into account also the quality of the life. It has its effects on demographic indicators. In addition to demographic indicators, we must consider the environmental and health emergencies that anyway may slow the development.
Indicator of human development ( ISU ) The ISU was fonded by ONU for an exact calculation of a country development. ISU calculates the development based on four points: life expectancy literacy rate schooling rate GDP per person ISU expresses this data in decimal numbers: Over 0,800 is high development Between 0,800 and 0,500 is medium development Under 0,500 is low development
A recent calculation shows that the 80% of the resources on earth are used by developed countries. This is that the resources availeble to developing countries are only the 20%. This can easily be deducted that most of pollutants from the use of resources is produced by developed countries. This means that if developed countries don’t degree their resources utilization, the developing countries won’t increase their development grade.
Another problem in developing countries is the parallel growth of the population and the economy because the resources that must be used are for everyone the same. So two ideas were born: In 1970 a group of philosophers said that the development must be stopped. But can we stop the development ? In 1980 an organization introduced the concept of sustainable development
With “sustainable development”, the organization wants to say that the economical growth must be accompained by an increase of the quality of the life. Also there must be an equitable distribution of resources. For example: an increase of energy consumption of developing countries must correspond to a degree of the energy consumption of developed countries. The equitable distribution of resources must also be valid in the future. So we must be sure that the future population will have the same amount of resources that we have had.
Realizzato da Riccardo Battistelli Febbraio 2014 Commento audio STING, Fragile …like the world