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Unit 5 – Chapter 15 The Cultural Geography of Russia.

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1 Unit 5 – Chapter 15 The Cultural Geography of Russia

2 I. Section I Population Patterns

3 A. Russia’s Ethnic Diversity Over a 100 different ethnic groups! Ethnic Regions Over the centuries, Russia took over much of the land in Asia and Europe and took over many different ethnic groups

4 Ethnic Groups (con’t) The Slavs Largest ethnic group Ethnic Russians are part of this group This group also includes: Poles, Serbs, Ukrainians, etc. Slavs have dominated Russia’s culture Russian is the country’s official language

5 Ethnic Groups (con’t) Turkish Peoples 2 nd largest group Mainly Muslims

6 Ethnic Groups (con’t) Caucasian Peoples Live in Caucasus region of SE Russia

7 B. Population Density & Distribution Population & Environment Average Population Density is 22 people per sq. mile (U.S. is 78 per sq. mi.) Most people actually live in the area between the Belarus and Ukraine borders and the Ural Mtns.  120 people per sq. mi. here Major industrial city is Moscow

8 Population Trends Population crisis Poor healthcare movement out of Russia

9 II. Section II History & Government

10 A. Early People and States Roots go back to A.D. 600s – Slavs Kievan Rus City-States In the early 1200s, the Mongol invaders conquered this region & then held control for more than 200 years

11 Early People and States (con’t) The Rise of Russia By the late 1400s, the Slavs drove out the Mongols Prince Ivan III – Ivan the Great In 1533, Ivan the Great’s grandson was crowned the 1 st czar – supreme ruler He was called Ivan the Terrible By 1650 many peasants had become serfs or slaves Ivan the Great Ivan the Terrible

12 B. Romanov Czars While Russia struggled with their harsh rule, W. Europe left them behind (especially in areas of science & technology) In the late 1600s, Czar Peter I (Peter the Great) – was determined to modernize Russia A new capital – St. Petersburg was formed Palace Square—St. Petersburg

13 C. The Russian Revolution Russification Required everyone to speak Russian & follow Eastern Orthodox Christianity

14 Socialism Many Russians were frustrated and attracted to this kind of economy that calls for equality Karl Marx – German philosopher who came up with socialism More hardships continued for Russia and finally in 1917, rule of the czars had ended Last Czar of Russia and family assassinated

15 D. The Soviet Era Russian Revolution (1917) established a representative government Was too weak Bolsheviks – revolutionary group – led by Vladimir Lenin – seized control  They believed in communism – based on Karl Marx’s ideas  Bolsheviks led a civil war against their opposition

16 The Soviet Union In 1921, the Bolsheviks (now known as communists) won the civil war Established the USSR – Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

17 After Lenin’s death in 1924, Joseph Stalin took over reign He led with fear and killed those in opposition Lenin’s Grave

18 A Superpower During WWII, more than 27 million Russians died At the war’s end. Russia controlled most of E. Europe E. Europe countries became satellites – countries controlled by the Soviet Union For the next four decades, the U.S. & the Soviet Union were locked in a Cold War

19 COLD WAR MILITARY BUILD-UP

20 Hard Times in the USSR

21 E. The Soviet Breakup 1985 – Mikhail Gorbachev assumes power of the Soviet Union Begins reform Perestroika & Glasnost Many soviet republics gained independence In 1991, Gorbachev’s presidency ended and the Soviet Union ceased to exist Reagan & Gorbechev

22 F. A New Russia Boris Yeltsin (was leader of Russia during Soviet Union) – leader of devastated Russia Economy was in bad shape Many ethnic conflicts A Market Economy Russia began moving from a command economy to a market economy Separatist Movement Still lots of ethnic conflict

23 G. Russia Timeline - for the “History Challenged” Slavs – original group Kievan Rus – loose union of city states Mongols – conquered many Slavs Ivan the Great & Slavs overthrew Mongols Ivan the Terrible – 1 st Czar Russian Revolution – WWI Russians attracted to socialism – Karl Marx

24 G. Timeline Continued Bolsheviks & Lenin – start communism Bolsheviks won the civil war – formed USSR Lenin died – Stalin in power – rules by fear WWII – USSR takes control of E. Europe Cold War Begins – U.S. & Russia Mikhail Gorbachev assumes power & begins reform Boris Yeltsin assumes leadership Vladimir Putin – current leader Vladimir LeninJoseph Stalin GorbachevVladimir Putin

25 Section III Cultures & Lifestyles

26 A. Religion in Russia Christianity in Russia Eastern Orthodox Church had been central prior to communist rule During communism – religion was strongly discouraged – Why? Promoted Atheism The Orthodox Church regained following after communism Patriarch and icons Islam 2 nd largest religion Judaism Have long been persecuted in Russia Pogroms – organized massacres Buddhism 2 Republics in Russia are mostly Buddhist

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28 B. Education Soviet Rule Free but mandatory education Focused mostly on military, science, and engineering studies Very little language, history, and literature Intelligentsia – intellectual elite Today Choice of type of high school Current economy hurts their school funding Moscow University

29 C. Health Care Disease, lifestyle choices (smoking, drinking, bad foods), insufficient health care all threaten the well- being of Russians The medical facilities still owned by the government are inefficient

30 D. The Arts Russia’s Artistic Golden Age Artists found inspiration in religion Russian artists have risked much to express themselves

31 Culture & the Soviets Social realism – people had to glorify communism in their works or they were punished Post-Soviet Arts In the mid 1980s, activity in the arts renewed

32 E. Life & Leisure Daily life has always been difficult for ordinary people in Russia Overcrowded Apartments Long lines and expensive prices for things as simple as a loaf of bread Holidays In 1991, Christmas became a national holiday in Russia


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