2 Swing KidsThe Swing Kids (German: Swingjugend) were a group of jazz and Swing lovers in Germany of the 1930s, mainly in Hamburg (St. Pauli) and Berlin. They were composed of 14- to 18-year old boys and girls in high school, most of them middle- or upper-class students, but some apprentice workers as well. They sought the British and American way of life, defining themselves in Swing music, and opposing the National-Socialist ideology, especially the Hitlerjugend.ContentsThe name "Swing kids" (Swing Kinder) is a rough translation of the German "Swingjugend" ("Swing Youth"), which was a sort of parody of the numerous "youth" groups which flourished under the National-Socialists. They also referred to themselves as "Swings" or "Swingheinis" ("Swingity"); the members were called "Swing-Boy", "Swing-Girl" or "Old-Hot-Boy"
3 Swing KidsJazz music was offensive to Nazi ideology because it was often performed by African American and a number of Jewish musicians. They called it "negro music" or "degenerate music"—coined in parallel to "entartete Kunst" (degenerate art). Moreover, song texts defied Nazi ideology, going as far as to promote sexual permissiveness or free love.The Swing kids were initially basically apolitical, similar to their zoot suiter counterparts in North America. A popular term that the Swing subculture used to define itself was Lottern, roughly translated as something between "laziness" and "sleaziness," indicating contempt for the pressure to do "useful work" and the repressive sexual mores of the time. Reports by Hitler Youth observers of Swing parties and jitterbug went into careful detail about the overtly sexual nature of both. One report describes as "moral depravity" the fact that Swing youth took pleasure in their sexuality.The Swing Kids were defining a counter-culture, shown by their clothing and music. Their behavior, described by many Nazis as "effete," ran counter to the spartan militarism that the regime was trying to inculcate in its youth. They organized dance festivals and contests, and invited jazz bands. These events were occasions to mock the Nazis, the military and the Hitlerjugend -- hence the famous "Swing heil!", mocking the infamous "Sieg Heil!". Swing kids wore long hair and hats, carried umbrellas and met in cafés and clubs. They developed a jargon mostly made of Anglicisms.Despite this, not all jazz was forbidden in Germany at the time. Due to the popularity of this type of music, they permitted a milder, slower, "Germanized" version under strict regulations. Swing was tolerated to some degree at least until 1940, when a Swing festival, held in Hamburg, attracted over 500 youths. These youths were arrested for "degeneracy" for attending this festival.
4 YuppieThe term Yuppie (short for "young urban professional" or "young upwardly-mobile professional") refers to an 1980s and early 1990s term for financially secure, upper-middle class young people in their 20s and early 30s looking to advance economicallyAlthough the term yuppies had not appeared until the early 1980s, there was discussion about young urban professionals as early as 1968.Critics believe that the demand for "instant executives" has led some young climbers to confuse change with growth. One New York consultant comments, "Many executives in their 20s and 30s have been so busy job-hopping that they've never developed their skills. They're apt to suffer a sudden loss of career impetus and go into a power stall."Joseph Epstein is sometimes credited for coining the term in However, an early printed appearance of the word is in a May 1980 Chicago magazine article by Dan Rottenberg. In 1983, the term gained currency in United States when syndicated newspaper columnist Bob Greene published a story about a business networking group founded in 1982 by the former radical leader Jerry Rubin, formerly of the Youth International Party (whose members were called yippies); Greene said he had heard people at the networking group (which met at Studio 54 to soft classical music) joke that Rubin had "gone from being a yippie to being a yuppie". The headline of Greene's story was From Yippie to Yuppie.] The proliferation of the word was effected by the publication of The Yuppie Handbook in January 1983, followed by Senator Gary Hart's 1984 candidacy as a "yuppie candidate" for President of the United States. The term was then used to describe a political demographic group of socially liberal but fiscally conservative voters favoring his candidacy. Newsweek magazine declared 1984 "The Year of the Yuppie", characterizing the salary range, occupations, and politics of yuppies as "demographically hazy".In a 1985 issue of The Wall Street Journal, Theressa Kersten at SRI International described a "yuppie backlash" by people who fit the demographic profile yet express resentment of the label: "You're talking about a class of people who put off having families so they can make payments on the BMWs ... To be a Yuppie is to be a loathsome undesirable creature". Leo Shapiro, a market researcher in Chicago, responded, "Stereotyping always winds up being derogatory. It doesn't matter whether you are trying to advertise to farmers, Hispanics or Yuppies, no one likes to be neatly lumped into some group".Later, the word lost its political connotations and, particularly after the 1987 stock market crash, gained the negative socio-economic connotations it enjoys today. By 1991, TIME proclaimed the death of the yuppie in a mock obituary.