Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Considerations of public health and commercialism in the Cuban biotech sector and vaccine industry. First.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Considerations of public health and commercialism in the Cuban biotech sector and vaccine industry. First."— Presentation transcript:

1 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Considerations of public health and commercialism in the Cuban biotech sector and vaccine industry. First Annual Latin America Research Conference: Contributing to a better future? The role of Norway based Latin America research Oslo, 12–13 November 2009 Lecture by Jens Plahte, cand. philol., Research Fellow, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture University of Oslo Visiting Researcher, Centre for Health and Welfare Studies University of Havana

2 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Outline of presentation Doctoral dissertation The Cuban biotech sector and vaccine industry Two paradoxes

3 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Ph.D. dissertation “Vaccine innovation for public health or profits – The Cuban vaccine industry in a national and global context ” Funded by the Research Council of Norway Papers: –A decision centered vaccine innovation model (with Lisbeth Meyer Næss, NIPH) –Tiered prices of vaccines: not a subsidy, but a win-win-win situation (Lancet Inf Dis 5(1), 2005) –The pneumococcal vaccine Advance Market Commitment may create a market, but seems to fail as ‘market-pull’ –Strategic evaluations and techno-economic networks. Vaccine innovation in the Cuban biotech sector: for public health – or profits? –Development, organization and management of techno-economic networks: the Cuban biotech sector and vaccine industry

4 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture The Cuban biotech sector An industrial district of western Havana ≈ workers ≈ 10 research and production centres Biopharmaceuticals are the second most important foreign currency earner of Cuba Diagnostics, therapeutics, vaccines Massive investments since 1981 Long term focus on science, education and health since 1959

5 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture The Cuban vaccine industry Main centres –Centro de Ingeniería Genética y Biotechnología –Centro de Inmunología Molecular –Instituto Finlay Main products –Meningococcal group B vaccine –Hepatitis B vaccine (hepB) –Haemophilus B vaccine (HiB), synthetic –Pentavalent DTP-HiB-hepB Vaccines are important in the total biotech product portfolio

6 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Two paradoxes High priorities of the Castro Government are public health, medical diplomacy, as well as export revenues generation … but … … Cuban vaccines are not sold on the global public sector markets The initial rationale of the biotech initiative was to target ’modern’ diseases (cancer, cardiov. and cong. dis.) … but … … vaccines target ’traditional’ infectious diseases Why?

7 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Strategic and techno-economic evaluations Adapted from Callon (1992) Health transition required ’modern’ measures (products)

8 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Economic revenues as rationale: Two sides of the same coin Use domestic supplies to legitimate creating an export oriented sector Finance domestic supply by commercial exports

9 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Late 1970s: Morbidity and mortality transition Patterns: Traditional –Infectious diseases –Malnutrition –Neonatal and maternal mortality Modern –Cardiovascular conditions –Congenital disorders –Cancer Interventions: –Immunization –Sanitation –Primary health care –Essential drugs –Secondary and tertiary health care –Prenatal diagnosis –Advanced biopharmaceuticals Depletion of traditional measures  Need for modern measures

10 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture The meningococcal epidemic National emergency No vaccine available Domestic vaccine innovation project 1983  Group B meningococal disease eliminated in 1991 Finlay Institute founded in 1991 –Vaccine innovation capabilities –Based on traditional bacteria fermentation technologies

11 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Endemic hepatitis B Recombinant vaccine developed by Merck in 1986 Creation of a platform technology: Yeast based expression system CIGB founded in 1986 –Vaccine innovation capabilities –Based on single cell organism recombinant technologies Cuban recombinant hepatitis B vaccine licensed in 1992

12 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Altered strategic evaluations Vaccine innovation capabilities were developed –National meningococcal epidemic –Endemic hepatitis B –Platform technology development, technological window of opportunity  Vaccine innovation became important because capabilities had been developed

13 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Strategic and techno-economic evaluations Adapted from Callon (1992) Health transition required ’modern’ measures (products)Strategic evaluations were altered (menB and hepB vaccines)Established capabilities facilitated further vaccine innovation

14 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Two paradoxes The Castro Government has public health and medical diplomacy as a high priority, as well as a commercial motivation … but … … Cuban vaccines are not sold on the global public sector markets The initial rationale of the biotech initiative was to target ’modern’ diseases (cancer, cardiov. and cong. dis.) … but … … vaccines target ’traditional’ infectious diseases

15 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Markets for Cuban vaccines Middle income countries: Argentina, Venezuela, China, Russia, South Africa, South Korea Global public sector markets Least developed countries in Africa, Asia and Latin- America Procurement services by UNICEF and PAHO

16 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Price discrimination Plahte 2005, Lancet Inf. Dis., Vol. 5, No. 1: Tiered prices of vaccines: not a subsidy, but a win-win-win situation Low price market High price market Single market

17 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture The Cuban health system Top national priority (with education and science) Medical diplomacy: Medicine as an instrument of foreign policies Foreign currency generation by exportation –of medical services –of biopharmaceuticals

18 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Possible explanations The Cubans are unaware of the price discrimination mechanism???? Political considerations???? Lack of commercial motivation????? Cost ???? –Embargo raises production costs Explanation: Philanthropy sometimes requires a competitive edge!

19 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Conclusions 1) Despite the transition towards ’modern’ public health challenges, ’traditional’ products became important. One important reason is that vaccine innovation capabilities were established because –a national emergency had to be countered –of the need and opportunity for technology platform creation Once established, these capabilities opened windows of opportunity for further vaccine innovation

20 Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Conclusions 2) Despite it being profitable to do so, … and despite its focus on public health and medical diplomacy, … and despite being a self declared socialist state, … Cuba does not sells vaccines on the global public sector markets Most probable reason: Uncompetitive production costs


Download ppt "Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture Considerations of public health and commercialism in the Cuban biotech sector and vaccine industry. First."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google