Presentation on theme: "Chapter 26 The United States During the Second World War."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 26 The United States During the Second World War
1. Overview 2. Rise of Aggressor States 3. Isolationism 4. Interventionist Sentiment 5. Japan and China 6. Europe 7. US Response 8. US and UK 9. December 7, 1941 – Pearl Harbor 10. War in Europe 11. War in the Pacific 12. War at Home: Economic 13. War at Home: Social i. Propaganda ii. Gender iii. Racial 14. Consequences
2. Rise of Aggressor States 1920s – 1930s: worldwide economic instability ultranationalistic Japan1931 Manchuria / Manchuko Germany1933 National Socialist Party Italy1935 - 1939 Ethiopia – October 1935 Albania – April 1939
3. Isolationism Literature and Films Senate hearings 1934 – 1936 - WWI Neutrality Act 1935 Neutrality Act 1936 Neutrality Act 1937 America First Committee - opposed U. S. involvement. Cash and Carry Policy 1936 – Rhineland
4. Interventionist Sentiment Spain Germany and Italy sent weapons and soldiers United States, Britain, and France - policy of noninvolvement. FDR’s attempts to quarantine belligerents – 1937 September 1941, Senator Burton K. Wheeler – Hollywood movies
5. Japan and China 1936 – alliance between Germany, Italy, Japan 1937 – Japan China, Beijing Nanking US gunboat 1939 – US attempts to halt Japanese aggression
6. Europe March 1938 - Austria - desire to annex the Sudetenland Sept 1938 – Tea Party: Chamberlain and Daladier meet Hitler. March 1939– Czech. Aug 1939 – non-aggression pact / Soviets Sept 1939 – Poland. Sept 3, 1939– Declaration of war April 1940 - German blitzkrieg Luftwaffe. June 1940 – Germany to the Atlantic. 6 weeks “There will be peace in our time"
7. US Response 1939 – 1941: FDR tries and fails. Americans NOT interested 1939 – Congress, lift ban on Neutrality – Cash and Carry Selective Training and Service Act 1940 1940, US began to supply arms to Britain 1940 – Battle of Britain Sept 1940 – Lend Lease / Destroyers for bases Continuing isolationism Election of 1940 - Wendell Willkie
8. US and UK Britain – bankrupt Lend Lease – Arsenal for Democracy US agreement – enter war in Europe – defeat Germany March 1941 – USSR US extended Lend Lease to Soviets Senate hearings on influence of films on public sentiment Aug 1941 – FDR and Churchill - Atlantic Charter OCT 1941 – Germans sink US Destroyer Reuben James
9. December 7, 1941 – Pearl Harbor US aid to China 1939 - US terminated treaty of commerce and navigation with Japan. 1940 – ban on sale of fuel and iron to Japan. Mid 1941 – Japanese assets in US frozen. Nearly entire US fleet in Pearl Harbor Japanese analysis Warnings
December 8, 1941, Congress declared war against Japan. Germany, Italy declared war on the US, Dec 11, 1941 Hitler’s mistake
10. War in Europe Peacetime to war footing Soviets Churchill US entered war Stalin not happy North Africa OPERATION OVERLORD Paris.
11. War in the Pacific 6 months – success goes to Japan Battle of Coral Sea May 1942 Racial prejudices reinforced brutality Chinese: Mao Zedong and Chiang Kai Shek (Jiang Jieshi) 1944-1945 – US would accept ONLY unconditional surrender July 16, 1945 – 1st atomic weapon tested in New Mexico. Fire bombing of Tokyo and other major cities – most deadly Land invasion, Soviets planning to enter Pacific war. Hiroshima (Aug 6, Fat Man ) and Nagasaki (Aug 9, Little Boy)
12. War at Home: Economic Federal bureaucracy Women – workforce GNP rose more than 15% each year of war Average weekly earnings rose by nearly 70 % Govt subsidies for new industries - War Production Board Smith-Connally Act - seize plants or mines if strikes interrupted war production Govt spending rose from 9 billion in 1940 to 98 billion in 1944. National debt in 1941 was $48 billion. In 1945 - $280 billion Personal savings increased (up to 25% of income) Consumer goods became scarce because of war Social programs withered Minorities were hired, Unions strengthened due to scarcity of workers
13. War at Home: Social i. Propaganda WWI – a more democratic world and permanent peace. WWII- the American way of life Hollywood – WHY WE FIGHT Print advertising – freedoms … 1942 – Office of War Information Films, posters, radio broadcasts
ii. Gender Women took male roles -raised children 350,000 women joined the military, 1000 were civilian pilots. “Women can do anything if she knows she looks beautiful doing it” (ad) femininity and masculinity
iii. Racial Racial segregation – Mexican and Black Ethnic segregation – Italians, English, Irish African-Americans: Disenfranchised in South, early stages of making gains in North Nazism – racial inequality biological Migration northward – many. A. Philip Randolph – March on Washington, 1941 Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) Segregation in military units
Mexican: LA – Zoot Suit riots 1943. American Indians: Approx 25,000 served in military Navajo Japanese Americans Feb 1942 – Exec Order 9066 – relocating and internment of 1st and 2nd generation Japanese / Japanese Americans. Nearly 130,000. 100th Battalion – many Japanese and Hawaiian – nearly wiped out in battle. 442nd Regimental Combat team – 57% killed or wounded. Urban v Rural.
14. Consequences Truman took over for FDR – despite being poorly prepared for the office, having seldom met with Roosevelt or been included in the decision-making process War ended Great Depression. US became international power with a more powerful national government. Cooperation between government and private companies Shaped debate over liberty and equality Return of troops after war