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Animal Rights and Human Progress: Aspects of the History of Animal Rights Concepts, with Special Regard to Their Links with the Ideas of Non-violence and.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Rights and Human Progress: Aspects of the History of Animal Rights Concepts, with Special Regard to Their Links with the Ideas of Non-violence and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Rights and Human Progress: Aspects of the History of Animal Rights Concepts, with Special Regard to Their Links with the Ideas of Non-violence and the Peace Movement.

2 AHIMSA Buddha (~ 560 – 480 B.C. ): “All creatures shall be happy.” Mahavira (died in 477 or 467 B.C., founder of Jainism) “No violence against man, animal, plant.”

3 Reincarnation Pythagoras (~ 560 – 480 B.C. ) and scholars Empedokles (~ 483 – 420 B.C. ) Killing animals for sacrifice is disgusting, probably cannibalism (reincarnation). Respect and compassion for animals is fundamental.

4 Relationship Theophrast (~ 372 – 287 B.C. ), scholar and friend of Aristotle: “Animals are mens’ relatives (oikeiotes) similar in sensations, affects, feelings and even reasonings (logismoi), they can be treated justly or unjustly by man, killing them is unjustly.”

5 Natural Right Ulpian (170 – 228) „Jus naturale est, quod natura omnia animalia docuit; nam ius istud non solum humani generis proprium, sed omnium animalium, quae in terra, quae in mari nascuntur, avium quoque commune est.“ („ The Natural Right is that which nature has taught all living beings that exist in the air, on the land or in the water.“)

6 Positive Law Augustinus Leyser (1683 – 1752) First demand for animals to be considered in the positive law. Animal cruelty is forbidden in the Godly law, but not in the positive law.

7 Demands for Penal Reforms/ Against Death Punishment/ Sensibility for Men and Animals 1764 Cesare Beccaria, On crimes and punishments. Karl Ferdinand Hommel (1722-1781) (“The German Beccaria”) Animal cruelty was penally sanctioned 1765/66

8 Against “Compassionate Sensibility” Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804): Confirming Death Punishment Animals have no Rights Against a “Compassionate Empfindelei” Opponents: David Hume, Jeremy Bentham, Lauritz Smith, J. G. Herder

9 Vegetarianism Eduard Balzer, Free Church Minister, Revolutionary of 1848, Founder of the first Vegetarian Society in Germany 1867 Gustav von Struve, Lawyer, Revolutionary of 1848 liberal politician, fighter in the Badenian liberty war together with his wife author of the article “Rights of Man” in the Rotteck-Welcker Dictionary Author of the vegetarian novel “Mandaras Wanderung” (Mandaras journey), founder of the Vegetarian Society Stuttgart 1868

10 Peace and non violence “As long as there are slaughterhouses there will be battlefields” Magnus Schwantje Johannes Ude Bertha von Suttner Walter Hammer Hans Paasche Leonard Nelson Ludwig Quidde Clara Wichmann

11 Magnus Schwantje ( 1877 – 1959) 1907 “Society for the Empowerment of Animal Protection and Related Issues” 1912 – 1915 Monthly Review “Ethische Rundschau” 1919 - 1934 “Federation for Radical Ethics” Sept. 1933 Columbia House, Flight to Switzerland

12 Reverence for life Schwantje 1902 Animal Protection/ Antivivisection/ Vegetarianism Peace/ War Resistance/ Non-Violence/ English-German Understanding/ Against Antisemitism Punishment Law Reform/ Against Death Punishment Child Protection and Youth Protection Sexual Morals/ Women’s Issues/ Women’s Vote Antialcoholism/ Housing and Living/ School Reform/ Freedom of Arts/ Against Debasing Handicapped Persons Protection of Nature

13 Authors of the “Ethische Rundschau Friedrich Bloh Richard Feldhaus Friedrich Wilhelm Förster Pfr. H. Franke Alfred Hermann Fried Ludwig Gurlitt Walter von Gizycki Lida Gustava Heymann Leopold Katscher Hans Paasche Adolf Richter Fritz Röttcher Sister Adele Schreiber Walter Schücking Rosina Schwimmer Hans Wehberg Alix Westerkamp Otto Umfried

14 Some Donators and Supporters of “Ethische Rundschau” Emil Julius Gumbel Ludwig and Margarethe Quidde Theodor Lessing Paul Geheeb Hans Paasche Peace Societies of several towns

15 Magnus Schwantje Peace Activities: Peace editions of the “Ethical Review” “God bless all peoples” 1919 Cofounder of Federation of Opponents to Military Service (Bund der Kriegsdienstgegner - BdK) Member of the DFK (Deutsches Friedenskartell) Publications (“The Right to Apply Violence”)

16 Ludwig Quidde (1858 – 1941) 1893 DVP/ Essay on militarism 1894 Caligula 1896 Founder of a Society for Animal Protection and Against Vivisection 1898 Essay concerning vivisection 1909 (or earlier) World Federation for the Protection of Animals and Against Vivisection 1912 (Zürich) – 1925 (Paris) Leading functions in Congresses of the Federation 1927 Nobel Prize for Peace

17 Hans Paasche (1881-1920) 1908 Paasche left the German Army 1912-1917 Writings in “Vortrupp” against Animal Cruelty, especially films about hunting and bird-protection 1917 Imprisoned because of “High Treason” 1919 Cofounder of the “Bund Neues Vaterland”, friend of Magnus Schwantje 1920 Murdered by Free-Corps

18 Leonard Nelson (1882-1927) Animal do have rights! (Kant confounds subject/ object of rights) Unity of Oppression of men and animals Socialism has to include animals 1917 Founder of the “International Youth Federation”, later “Federation for Internationalist Socialist Struggle”, and “Landerziehungsheim Walkemühle” with vegetarian lifestyle.

19 Clara Wichmann (1885-1922) 1913 Lawyer 1914 Central Office of Statistics Den Haag Until 1917 Chair of the Society for Women’s Right to Vote 1917 -1917 “Bond van Christen-Socialisten” 1919 “Bond van Revolutionnair Socialistische Intellectueelen” 1920 “Bond van Religieuze Anarcho- Communisten”

20 Clara Wichmann 1919 Oprichtingsmanifest van het comite van actie tegen de bestaande opvattingen omtrent misdaad en straf (C.M.S.) 1919 Anti-militarisme en geweld 1920 Over de beteekenis van het middel voor het doel 1920 De rechtspositie der huisdieren.

21 Clara Wichmann “…het gaat om een grondige en innerlijke omzetting van der menschen verhouding tot de dieren. Om een om-wenteling van die oude gewoonte, de dieren te beschouwen als een zaak, aan Adam gegeven opdat hij er profijt en gemak van hebben zou.”

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