Presentation on theme: "The Institution of Comunism in Eastern Europe. After World War II the world was divided according to Jdanov in two camps: the comunist camp and the capitalist."— Presentation transcript:
After World War II the world was divided according to Jdanov in two camps: the comunist camp and the capitalist camp. In each camp there was one super-power: the USA and the USSR. It`s inaccurate to consider the conference from Yalta the exact moment of the word`s division in influential zones.”The spirit of Yalta” existed even before Yalta. It first appeared in Teheran where the concept of military occupation was defined, a concept stipulating the zone of influence; Churchill and Stalin came up with the idea in May 1944, which was confirmed on the 12th of October 1944 simultaneously with the “arangement” between the two parts. The conference took place before the end of the war and in a time when military opperations were favorable to the Soviets. The Red Army was marching through Poland towards Oder at aproximately 100 km from Berlin and at the same time was occupying Budapest. Lord Gladwyn Jebb was declaring: Yalta was the USSR`s opportunity to swallow up Eastern Europe; “they swallowed it up but they didn`t chew it ”.
POLAND In Poland, ever since December 1944, there ruled a people`s democratic government brought about by the Soviet tanks but which wasn`t acknowledged by the Western powers. In June 1945 a national union government was formed through the entrance of a part of the government from London. However the majority was formed by the Communists. In 1947 elections took place which were won by the Democratic Party Coalition dominated by the Communists. As president of the new parliament (Seim) was elected the comunist leader Boleslaw Bierut, and the people`s democratic government was led by Josef Cyrankiewicz.
In Czechoslovakia the government with which president Edward Benis returned in May 1945 was formed at Moscow even though it was composed of neo-comunist ministers. The results of the elections which were held on the 26th of May 1946 were favorable to the Communists but not enough to govern on their own. The position of Prime Minister would be taken by the comunist Klement Gottwald. Aware of their modest influence in the Czechoslovak society in the autumn of 1947, on the basis of shortage supplies in the country and of some East-West international pressure, the Communists deployed an attack against all those suspected of disagreeing with the Communist way of evolution. The elections were to take place in May 1948. The whole world was expecting a return of the extreme left. The Comunists, aided by Moscow, moved on the offensive. Based on some social disturbances led by the Kremlin, prime minister Gottwald summoned president Bernes to accept the resign of neo-comunists ministers and to form a government without reactionaries. On the 30th of May the elections based on the nominal system were held. On the 8th of June 1947 Bernes, whose fragile health had been forever marked by drama, would resign. He would die in September that year. Thus, the Czechoslovak Communists who had seemed to be the most harmless in Central and Eastern Europe, would reveal themselves in the 1950s as probably the most “stalinist” party. CZECHOSLOVAKIA
ROMANIA In ROMANIA, the political forces coalition which overthrew admiral Antonescu`s regime could not survive for more than a few months. The National Democratic Front was created, a catalyst for the Comunists to take over with the help of Moscow. Following other scenarios that were successful in other countries under Moscow`s tutelage, at the end of February, the Communists organised violent streets manifestations. The blow to N. Radescu`s government was lead by Vîşinski who unexpectadly arrived in Bucharest on the 27th of February. At the begining of March, A.J. Vîşinski forced King Michael I to accept the forming of a new government lead by Peter Groza dominated by the F.N. D. The forming of Groza`s government brought about the total subordonation of authorities to the Communists, a fact which facilitated the elimination of opponents from political life especially after it had been acknowledged by the Western powers. The elections which took place on the 19th of November 1946 were won through fraudulent means by the Communists. On the 30th of December 1947 through the abolishment of monarchy the last obstacle which stood in front of Soviet domination in Romania was removed.
BULGARY In BULGARY, the day after the Red Army`s invasion, a Communist insurection took place. After these events, a cabinet consisting of Communists as well as members of other political structures, was formed. To insure their positions regarding the setting up of a totalitarian “stalinist” regime, the communists rushed to organize elections (18th November 1945 ) which they won. Afterwards, a long line of activities intiated by B.C.P. were organized to harden the new regime. On the 8th of September, after a referendum, the monarchy was abolished in Bulgary too, and the country was proclaimed a people`s republic. On the 22nd of November 1946, after new elections, a cabinet lead by Gheorghi Dimitrov is formed and on the 4th of December 1947 a constitution was adopted which legislated the formation of the proletariat`s dictatorship regime.
EASTERN GERMANY The decision of the European Consultative Comision from 1944 in defining the occupation zones, placed Berlin deep in the eastern- Soviet area. Although in the spring of 1945, the Anglo-Americans had the posibility of reaching Berlin before the Russians, they didn’t. Western allied troops crossed the Rhyne and invaded Germany. Churchill wanted to besiege and capture Berlin before the Russians. However, Eisenhower refused to due to the priority of the agreements between the Allies (regarding the future occupation areas) for Berlin. The transgression of these agreements could have led to political accidents. Even though the British Prime Minister tried to persuade Truman to modify Roosevelt`s decision, the president refused to reconsider the matter. As a result, Berlin, the Prague and Vienna fell in the hands of the Soviets. Imediately after Germany`s defeat, the USSR began to isolate the eastern area and transform it into a satellite region, economicaly speaking. The Soviet Union wished to obtain swift and maximum advantages from its own occupation area.
The USSR began controlling Eastern Germany before the Potsdam conference, concentrating its resources on the continuation of the Communist Party and in establishing a centralised union, under Communist control. Created on the 9th of June, the Soviet military administration authorised, under the direct leadership of adminar G.K.Jukov, the formation of four antifascist “democratic parties”. The German Comunist Party (G.C.P), Democratic-Social Party (D.S.P), Christian-Democratic Party (C.D.P) and the Liberal Party (L.P.). A German Comunist Party was formed almost immediately in Berlin, but the organising was anything but easy. The Soviets rapidly placed the German Communists in key positions in Berlin and the entire East area. However the German Communist Party encountered difficulties in becoming a national party holding the majority because the Germans hated the Russians whom they saw as their occupants. A fusion between Germans and Social-Democrats was arranged, and the United Socialist Party,an asociate of the Soviet military administration, was created at the begining of 1946. At the end of 1946, the Soviets intensly prepaired the taking over of all the governments in the East by the United Socialist Party.
YUGOSLAVIA The communist regime in Yugoslavia had the best positions of all the socialist governments in Eastern Europe. Partisan forces which counted up to 800.000 people, had total military control. There was no Soviet or Allied occupation, so no foreign interference. Apart from the fact that the central government was in the hands of AVNOJ, an efficient administrative structure which covered the whole country had been fromed ever since the time of the war. The sole limitation of its power consisted in the arangement between Tito and Subarnic regarding the inclusion of his government and some exiled members of the government from London. On the 1st of November 1944, right after the occupation of Belgrad, a second agreement was made between these two men which defined in detail the future arangements. It was agreed that King Peter should not return in the country.
HUNGARY In Hungary, in December 1944, the National Front of Independence (formed from reprezentatives of small ownerships was formed, from national-conservatives, socialists, and comunists) which on the 21st of Decembre nominates a temporary government under the control of a military comision run by soviet marshall Voroşilov. On the 1 st of February 1946,Hungary was proclained a republic with Tildi Zoltan as president and Nagy Ferenc, head of government. In the general elections of the 31 st of August 1947, through fraud and deceit, the comunists in the Front of Independence gained the parlamentary majority. A coalition government was formed in which the comunists had the majority.
ALBANIA In Albania partisans skillfully used the catastrophic defeates suffered by the Natzy forces in the Balcans and on the 23rd – 24th of October 1944 Barat decides the setting up of a new government lead by Enver Hodja. On the 1st of December 1944 elections took place for the Constituent Assembly; without opponents, the Communists obtained 93.88 % of the total suffrages. Their new leader proclaimed Albania, on the 11th of February 1946, as a people’s republic with a Constitution borrowed from Iugoslavia.
In conclusion, the main actor of the setting up of Comunism was the USSR. The regime they applied was a totalitarian one in which all the areas were led by a group of people often members of a Communist party. The measures applied by the Russians in Eastern Europe differ from one country to another, the result being the instalation of a totalitarian communist regime, dominated by the Soviet Union, in each one of them.
Bibliography: Nicolas V. Riasanervesky, “O istorie a Rusiei”, Iasi, Ed. Institutului European.2000, traducere de Arta Voronciuc Jean-Francois Soulet, “Istoria comparata a statelor comuniste din 1945 pana in zilele noastre”, Iasi, Editura Polirom 1998, traducerea de Silvia Albisteanu si Ana Zbarcea. Bibliografie: Maria C. Brateanu, “Acordul Churchill-Stalin din 1944” Bucuresti -Editura Corint,2002.