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The Indian Constitution An Overview www. empower career.com.

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1 The Indian Constitution An Overview www. empower career.com

2 The Indian Constitution Disclaimer The presentation that follows is true and updated to the best of our knowledge. However, viewers are requested to verify details from authentic sources. www. empower career.com

3 The Indian Constitution Pre-independence: : The coming of the Britishers and their establishment : The British East India Company’s rule in India : Rule of the British Monarchy www. empower career.com

4 The Indian Constitution Predecessors to the Indian Constitution: The Charter Act 1813, 1833, 1853 Indian Councils Act 1892, 1909 The Government of India Act 1919, 1935 The Indian Independence Act 1947 www. empower career.com

5 The Indian Constitution Evolution: British legacy visible in… Bi-cameral Parliamentary system The administrative system, including the Civil Services Central Secretariat managing the admin of the central government Military and Judicial system, and so on… www. empower career.com

6 The Indian Constitution Comparative study The Indian Constitution was formed after a careful study of numerous constitutions, apart from the British laws. We may proudly say that our constitution uses some of the best concepts from all over the world. www. empower career.com

7 The Indian Constitution Basic Source The Indian Constitution bears a strong resemblance to the Govt of India Act, Approximately 250 clauses have been taken either verbatim or with minor changes. www. empower career.com

8 The Indian Constitution Concepts inspired by: British Laws: –Law making procedure –Rule of law –Single citizenship –Parliamentary System www. empower career.com

9 The Indian Constitution Concepts inspired by: US Constitution –Independence of the Judiciary –Fundamental Rights –President as the Executive Head www. empower career.com

10 The Indian Constitution Concepts inspired by: Canada – Federal system with a strong centre Ireland –Directive Principles www. empower career.com

11 The Indian Constitution Concepts inspired by: Germany –Emergency Provisions Erstwhile USSR –Fundamental duties www. empower career.com

12 The Indian Constitution Concepts inspired by: France –Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Union of South Africa –Amendment of the Constitution and so on… www. empower career.com

13 The Indian Constitution Historical Facts Chairman of the Drafting Committee: Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar, rightly called the Father of the Indian Constitution. Committee took nearly 3 years for completion of the Constitution Adopted on November 26, 1949 Enacted on January 26, 1950 www. empower career.com

14 The Indian Constitution Numbers: The Draft Constitution had 315 Articles & 8 Schedules, while… The Constitution, when adopted on Nov 26, 1949, had 395 Articles, divided in 22 parts with 8 Schedules. www. empower career.com

15 The Indian Constitution The Indian Constitution has… Preamble Articles Chapters Schedules Appendices Indian Penal Codes Amendments www. empower career.com

16 The Indian Constitution The Preamble It lists the Intentions and Spirit of the Constitution. Key words: “…resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR, DEMOCRATIC, REPUBLIC….JUSTICE, LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY…” www. empower career.com

17 The Indian Constitution The Preamble Legally speaking, it was as late as 1973 that the Preamble was acknowledged as the integral part of the Indian Constitution. ( Keshavanand Bharti case) by the Supreme court. www. empower career.com

18 The Indian Constitution Key Words SOVEREIGN: Independent of any external powers. SOCIALIST: Welfare state SECULAR: Rising above religious differences for the welfare of citizens DEMOCRATIC: Fair elections REPUBLIC: Power not hereditary. www. empower career.com

19 The Indian Constitution 448 Articles; some of the important ones.. Article 12 –35 Specify the Fundamental Rights available Article Specify the Directive Principles of state policy Article 51A Specifies the Fundamental Duties of every citizen www. empower career.com

20 The Indian Constitution 448 Articles; some of the important ones.. Article 80 Specifies the number of seats for the Rajya Sabha Article 81 Specifies the number of seats for the Lok Sabha Article 343 Hindi as official language www. empower career.com

21 The Indian Constitution 448 Articles; some of the important ones.. Article 356 Imposition of President’s Rule in states Article 370 Special status to Kashmir Article 395 Repeals India Independence Act and Government of India Act, 1935 www. empower career.com

22 The Indian Constitution Schedules: Total 12 Schedules covering: The territories of States and Union Territories (UTs) Oaths to be taken by officials Division of Power between centre and state Regional languages Rajya Sabha seat allotment… etc. www. empower career.com

23 The Indian Constitution 12 Schedules: Schedule 1: State and UTs territories Schedule 2: Salaries of top officials Schedule 3: Oaths for Officials Schedule 4: Rajya Sabha seat allotment Schedule 5: Admin of Scheduled Areas Schedule 6: Admin of Tribal Areas www. empower career.com

24 The Indian Constitution 12 Schedules: Schedule 7: List of laws of State-Centre Schedule 8: List of languages Schedule 9: Acts of Land Reforms Schedule 10: Defection Provisions Schedule 11: Panchayat Admin Schedule 12: Municipalities Admin www. empower career.com

25 The Indian Constitution 5 Appendices Appendix I—The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, Appendix II— Re-statement, with reference to the present text of the Constitution, of the exceptions and modifications subject to which the Constitution applies to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. www. empower career.com

26 The Indian Constitution 5 Appendices Appendix III—Extracts from the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, Appendix IV—The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, Appendix V— The Constitution (Eighty- eighth Amendment) Act, www. empower career.com

27 The Indian Constitution Indian Penal Code The main criminal code Spread over 23 Chapters, covering every admissible offense Among them 309 (Suicide), 310 (punishment of death) and 420 (cheating) are some that are commonly known. www. empower career.com

28 The Indian Constitution Amendments …means Modification in the Constitution by way of addition, deletion or correction A total of 98 Amendments have been made till now (i.e. 2014), averaging about 1.5 Amendments every year in about 60 yrs ….compared to about 27 Amendments in the US constitution over 230 years. www. empower career.com

29 The Indian Constitution List of some Major Amendments (Am’s) The 4 th Am: Authorised state to nationalize any trade The 10 th Am: Incorporated Dadra and Nagar Haveli in the Indian Union The 12 th Am: Incorporated Goa, Daman and Diu in the Indian Union The 14 th Am: Incorporated Pondichery (now Puduchery) in the Indian Union www. empower career.com

30 The Indian Constitution List of some Major Amendments (Am’s) The 16 th Am: Restrictions on Fundamental Rights The 24 th Am: Affirmed the right of the Parliament to amend any part of the Constitution, including Fundamental Rights www. empower career.com

31 The Indian Constitution List of some Major Amendments (Am’s) The 42 nd Am: Most comprehensive –Added the words SOCIALIST and SECULAR to the Preamble –Added 10 Fundamental Duties –Authorized Parliament to make laws to deal with anti-national activities (later deprived by the 43 rd Am) www. empower career.com

32 The Indian Constitution List of some Major Amendments (Am’s) The 44 th Am: Deleted Right to Property from Fundamental Rights The 61 st Am: Reduced voting age from 21 to 18 The 85 th Am: Allows accelerated promotions to government employees, belonging to SC or ST community www. empower career.com

33 The Indian Constitution List of some Major Amendments (Am’s) The 86 th Am: Made free and compulsory primary education a Fundamental Right The 86 th Am: Empowered Centre to levy Service Tax The 93 rd Am: Made provisions for SC, ST and OBCs in unaided educational institutions www. empower career.com

34 The Indian Constitution Some Landmark cases Golaknath v/s State of Punjab 1967 (key words: Fundamental rights) Keshavanand Bharti v/s State of Kerala 1973 (key words: Fundamental rights) Mohd. Ahmed Khan v. Shah Bano Begum 1985 (key words: alimony, common Civil code) Madhav Jiwaji Rao Scindia Vs Union of India 1970 (key words: abolition of privy purses and titles of erstwhile Indian rulers) www. empower career.com

35 The Indian Constitution Did you know? The Constitution of India was handwritten and calligraphed in both English and Hindi – not typeset or printed. The original copies are kept in special helium-filled cases in the Library of the Parliament of India. www. empower career.com

36 The Indian Constitution Thank you. www. empower career.com


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