Presentation on theme: "GAINING FROM MIGRATION: CASE STUDY ON GREECE PART I Presented by: Jennifer Cavounidis 1.MIGRATION TRENDS 2.MIGRANT EMPLOYMENT 3.POLICIES."— Presentation transcript:
GAINING FROM MIGRATION: CASE STUDY ON GREECE PART I Presented by: Jennifer Cavounidis 1.MIGRATION TRENDS 2.MIGRANT EMPLOYMENT 3.POLICIES
MIGRATION TRENDS Abrupt increase of immigration from end of 1980’s. Sources - Most important source countries: Albania accounts for 58% of all foreigners, Bulgaria 5% Georgia 3% Rumania 3% - Collapsed socialist regimes account for 75% of all foreigners. Transition economies- development implications
MIGRATION TRENDS Legality/ illegality –Substantial proportion of migrants either entered illegally or overstayed. –According to most estimates, the majority of migrants present in Greece today was unauthorised at some point. –Three regularisation programmes to date. –Lapse into irregularity is a serious problem. Patterns of flows –Length of stay in Greece varies greatly according to nationality. Albanians vs. Bulgarians, Georgians, Romanians, Russians, Ukrainians. –Differences in gender and family composition by nationality may provide clues as to intentions. –Extent of circular migration unknown.
MIGRANT EMPLOYMENT –Economic activity, employment, unemployment Contrary to the case in most EU countries, economic activity and employment rates of migrants are higher than those of natives while their unemployment rates are slightly lower. –Occupations and Sectors of employment –Formal/informal employment Employment in the informal sector is not exclusive to migrants but they face greater difficulties in accessing formal employment than natives.
Table: Population by labour force status and nationality, 2nd trimester 2006 Labour force statusGreek nationals Nationals EU 15 Nationals EU 10 Nationals 3rd countries TOTALTOTAL Activity rate66.6%46.2%73.7%76.3% Employment rate60.6%39.0%73.7%70.6% Unemployment rate9.0%15.5%0%7.4% MENMEN Activity rate78.4%63.1%91.0%91.2% Employment rate73.9%57.8%91.0%87.6% Unemployment rate5.8%8.3%0%3.9% WOMENWOMEN Activity rate54.8%35.1%63.9%60.4% Employment rate47.3%26.7%63.9%52.5% Unemployment rate13.5%24.0%0%13.1%
POLICIES Migration policies –Lack of development of pro-active migration policies. Legal channels for migration remain narrow, with unauthorised migration remaining substantial. –Attempts to compensate for failures of migration policy through policy of regularisation, rather than overhaul of system. Three programmes to date. –No innovation with respect to directions increasingly under discussion in international policy circles- flexible visa systems that facilitate mobility, for example through multi- annual or multi-entry visas.
POLICIES Integration policies –Improvement of terms for long-term stay. Important implications for integration: greater incentives for migrants to invest time and effort in integration and especially country-specific skills such as language acquisition. –2005 Greek law provided for a “Comprehensive Action Programme” for the integration of migrants in Greece but implementation has not yet begun. –The great differences in labour market outcomes of migrants and natives indicate the size of the challenge. –Challenge of integration of second generation.