Theodore Roosevelt …see that each is given a square deal, because he is entitled to no more and should receive no less.”
The Modern President Youngest ever to be president (42) Influenced the media and shaped legislation. (bully pulpit) Square Deal” The “Square Deal” was targeted towards the middle class.
First to invite an African American to a White House dinner First to have Secret Service protection First to win Nobel Peace Prize for his work towards ending the Russo- Japanese War First to take trip outside the United States Presidential Firsts
First to be: submerged in a submarine to own a car to have a telephone in his home to be allowed to operate the light switches in the White House Presidential Firsts
Work to curb the power of trusts "within reasonable limits“ Roosevelt the “Trust Buster” Attack on Laissez- Faire
Controlling Corporations Trustbuster Coal Strike of 1902 Hepburn Act Bureau of Corporations (Gentleman’s Agreement)
By 1900, Trusts – legal bodies created to hold stock in many companies – controlled 80% of U.S. industries. Roosevelt filed 44 antitrust suits under the Sherman Antitrust Act. The Railroad industry regulated by the government in both the Elkins Act and the Hepburn Act. TrustbustingTrustbusting
In 1902, 140,000 coal miners in Pennsylvania went on strike for:In 1902, 140,000 coal miners in Pennsylvania went on strike for: 1.increased wages 2.a 9-hour work day 3.the right to unionize Mine owners refused to bargain.Mine owners refused to bargain. Roosevelt called in both sides and settled the dispute.Roosevelt called in both sides and settled the dispute. After that, when a strike threatened public welfare, the federal government was expected to step in and help.After that, when a strike threatened public welfare, the federal government was expected to step in and help. 1902 Coal Strike
Regulating the Railroads The Elkins Act Passed in 1903Passed in 1903 Prohibited railroads from accepting rebatesProhibited railroads from accepting rebates Ensured that all customers paid the same rates for shipping their productsEnsured that all customers paid the same rates for shipping their products The Hepburn Act Passed in 1906Passed in 1906 Strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), giving it the power to set maximum railroad ratesStrengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), giving it the power to set maximum railroad rates Gave the ICC power to regulate other companies engaged in interstate commerceGave the ICC power to regulate other companies engaged in interstate commerce Another way to ensure businesses competed fairly was through regulation. Railroads often granted rebates to their best customers, which meant large corporations paid much less for shipping than small farmers or small businesses. To alleviate this problem, Congress passed two acts.
Meat Inspection Act Pure Food and Drug Act Consumer Protection
Highlighted all of the unclean and/or unsafe practices of the meat packaging industry.Highlighted all of the unclean and/or unsafe practices of the meat packaging industry. Roosevelt pushed for passage of the Meat Inspection Act of 1906.Roosevelt pushed for passage of the Meat Inspection Act of 1906. Mandated cleaner conditions for meatpacking plants.Mandated cleaner conditions for meatpacking plants. Impact of “The Jungle”
In response to unregulated claims and unhealthy products.In response to unregulated claims and unhealthy products. The Act stopped the sale of contaminated foods and medicines.The Act stopped the sale of contaminated foods and medicines. It also called for truth in labeling.It also called for truth in labeling. Created the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).Created the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Pure Food and Drug Act took medicines with cocaine and other harmful ingredients off the market. Pure Food and Drug Act
Before Roosevelt’s presidency, the federal government paid very little attention to the nation’s natural resources.Before Roosevelt’s presidency, the federal government paid very little attention to the nation’s natural resources. Roosevelt made conservation a primary concern of his administration.Roosevelt made conservation a primary concern of his administration. Roosevelt, left, was an avid outdoorsman – here he is with author John Muir at Yosemite Park. Roosevelt and the Environment
Environmental Conservation Roosevelt’s Solution The Newlands Reclamation Act of 1902 reflected Roosevelt’s beliefs. The law allowed federal government to create irrigation projects to make dry lands productive. The projects would be funded from money raised by selling off public lands. During Roosevelt’s presidency, 24 reclamation projects were launched. In the late 1800s natural resources were used at an alarming rate, and foresting, plowing, polluting, and overgrazing were common. Roosevelt’s Thoughts Recognized that natural resources were limited and that government should regulate resources Disagreed with naturalist John Muir, who helped protect Yosemite Park and thought the entire wilderness should be preserved Believed that conservation involved the active management of public land for varied uses: some preservation, some economical
Roosevelt set aside 150 million acres of forest reserves.Roosevelt set aside 150 million acres of forest reserves. He also set aside 1.5 million acres of water-power sites.He also set aside 1.5 million acres of water-power sites. He established 51 wildlife refugesHe established 51 wildlife refuges 5 national parks.5 national parks. Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming Environmental Accomplishments
Roosevelt failed to support Civil Rights.Roosevelt failed to support Civil Rights. He did, however, support a few individuals such as Booker T. Washington.He did, however, support a few individuals such as Booker T. Washington. Roosevelt and Civil Rights
Taft’s Progressive Reforms Details: A federal agency that investigated and published problems with Child labor Increased the power of the ICC to regulate telephone and telegraph industries Monitored the activities of mining companies Filed 90 anti- trust lawsuits to break-up trusts Children’s Bureau Mann- Elkins Act Bureau of Mines Trustbusting
Taft as President Taft was “trustbuster Taft was “trustbuster Weak leadership Weak leadership Not as popular as Roosevelt Not as popular as Roosevelt Unable to control the two parts of the Republican party Unable to control the two parts of the Republican party Taft called the Presidency, “The loneliest job in the world.”
Payne-Aldrich Tariff Taft wants to lower tariffs Taft wants to lower tariffs Taft supports Cannon for Speaker of the House Taft supports Cannon for Speaker of the House Senate changes tariff bill. Senate changes tariff bill. Compromise tariff accepted Compromise tariff accepted Small reduction in some tariffs Small reduction in some tariffs Increased tariffs on some products Increased tariffs on some products
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair Ballinger replaces Garfield as Sec. of Interior Ballinger replaces Garfield as Sec. of Interior Sec. of Interior opened millions of acres of protected land. Sec. of Interior opened millions of acres of protected land. Pinchot charged Ballinger with corruption Pinchot charged Ballinger with corruption Charges dismissed by Taft Administration Charges dismissed by Taft Administration Pinchot leaks charges to the Press Pinchot leaks charges to the Press Pinchot is fired for insubordination Pinchot is fired for insubordination
The Republican Party & President William H. Taft
Keep the Whistle Blowin g Taft was determined to defeat TR and preserve the conservative heart of the Republican Party.
Republican Party Platform High import tariffs. Put limitations on female and child labor. Workman’s Compensation Laws. Against initiative, referendum, and recall. Against “bad” trusts. Creation of a Federal Trade Commission. Stay on the gold standard. Conservation of natural resources because they are finite.
The GOP After the Circus TR The Republican Party must stand for the rights of humanity, or else it must stand for special privilege.
The Progressive Party & Former President Theodore Roosevelt People should rise above their sectarian interests to promote the general good.
Theodore Roosevelt at Osawatomie, KS: New Nationalism Big business requires big government.
Progressive Party Platform Women’s suffrage. Graduated income tax. Inheritance tax for the rich. Lower tariffs. Limits on campaign spending. Currency reform. Minimum wage laws. Social insurance. Abolition of child labor. Workmen’s compensation. NewNationalismNewNationalismNewNationalismNewNationalism
The Socialist Party & Eugene V. Debs The issue is Socialism versus Capitalism. I am for Socialism because I am for humanity.
“The Working Class Candidates” Eugene V. Debs Emil Seigel for President for Vice-President
Growth of the Socialist Vote Year Socialist Party Socialist Labor PartyTotal 1888 2,068 1890 13,704 1892 21,512 1894 30,020 1896 36,27536,274 1898 82,204 190096,93133,405130,336 1902223,49453,763277,257 1904408,23033,546441,776 1906331,04320,265351,308 1908424,48814,021438,509 1910607,67434,115641,789 1912901,873
Socialist Party Platform Government ownership of railroads and utilities. Guaranteed income tax. No tariffs. 8-hour work day. Better housing. Government inspection of factories. Women’s suffrage.
The Democratic Party & Governor Woodrow Wilson (NJ) Could he rescue the Democratic Party from “Bryanism”??
Democratic Party Platform Government control of the monopolies trusts in general were bad eliminate them!! Tariff reduction. One-term President. Direct election of Senators. Create a Department of Labor. Strengthen the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. Did NOT support women’s suffrage. Opposed to a central bank. NewFreedomNewFreedomNewFreedomNewFreedom
The “Seas” [of Opportunity] Open Up for the Democrats
WILSON’S NEW FREEDOM triple wall of privilege: –trusts –tariffs –banks W. Wilson U.S. President 1912-1920
CLAYTON ANTI-TRUST ACT Strengthened the Sherman Anti-trust Act.Strengthened the Sherman Anti-trust Act. The Clayton Act prevented companies from acquiring stock from another company.The Clayton Act prevented companies from acquiring stock from another company. Supported union workers.Supported union workers.
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION FORMED The FTC was formed in 1914 to serve as a “watchdog” agency to end unfair business practices.The FTC was formed in 1914 to serve as a “watchdog” agency to end unfair business practices. “cease and desist” orders (400 by Wilson)“cease and desist” orders (400 by Wilson) The FTC protects consumers from business fraud.The FTC protects consumers from business fraud.
Tariff Reform Underwood TariffUnderwood Tariff lowered tariffs meant lost revenuelowered tariffs meant lost revenue The 16 th Amendment was ratified in 1916.The 16 th Amendment was ratified in 1916. It legalized a graduated federal income tax.It legalized a graduated federal income tax.
The Federal Reserve Act Created 12 regional banksCreated 12 regional banks lend money to banks at a set interest rate.lend money to banks at a set interest rate. Established federal regulation of currency through interest rates.Established federal regulation of currency through interest rates. Established a Federal Reserve Board to oversee the system of banksEstablished a Federal Reserve Board to oversee the system of banks