Presentation on theme: "Border disputes, ethnic rivalries, militarism, harsh treaty, revenge, weak League ofNations, isolationism, economic crises & rise of extremists."— Presentation transcript:
border disputes, ethnic rivalries, militarism, harsh treaty, revenge, weak League ofNations, isolationism, economic crises & rise of extremists.
Germany unable to make reparations payment. France sent troops to occupy the Ruhr Valley to take German wealth from this industrial & mining center. Germany paid workers NOT to work for French and used newly printed currency runaway inflation.)
(1 dollar = 4, 200, 000, 000, 000 marks! Money carried in wheelbarrows!)
How does inflation hurt people even if they have saved a lot of money over their lives?
Dawes Plan reduced reparations- smaller payments French left German Territory Treaty of Locarno = Cooperation between Germany & France. Germany joined League of Nations in Kellogg-Briand Pact = agreement among 63 nations to “outlaw” war, but had no enforcement provisions.
started in the mid-1920s with the worldwide overproduction of farm products and the lower prices and profits for farmers. Then in October, 1929 the U.S. stock market “crashed,” investors panicked, pulled their money out of Europe, sold their U.S. stocks at cut-rate prices, banks closed, industry declined, unemployment & numbers of homeless rose throughout the western world.
1. Which agreement outlawedWar? 2. Which agreement made it easier for germans to pay back debt?
RISE OF DICTATORS Discouraged masses began following dictatorial political leaders who offered “simple solutions” to problems. The democratic Weimar Republic of Germany faced numerous problems = no outstanding leaders, runawayinflation, and the Great Depression, led to rise of extremists.
What 3 dictators rose and from what country were they?
Govts. lowerd wages and raising protective tariffs, made economies worse. protective tariffs-tax on imports so people buy local goods Govts. Spent more money to help give people jobs The countries became more in debt
Renewed interest among workers and intellectuals in Marxist (i.e. Bolshevik, Communist) doctrines, whichpredicted the collapse of capitalism.
Great Britain’s economic problems led Britons to vote out Labour Party & vote in the Conservative Party, used balanced budgets & protective tariffs, so depression continued. Did not spend money or go into debt to help create jobs for the poor Conservatives rejected the doctrines of economist John Maynard Keynes. Deficit Spending “spend their way out of depressions” by putting people to work in public works programs, People would have jobs and start to buy goods increasing the economy Problem is the nations would be in debt
The conservative Herbert Hoover was voted out of office and Franklin D. Roosevelt became president
New Deal Public works programs to give people jobs Welfare system to give poor money to buy food Social Security act to give elderly pay once they retire Programs do bring US into debt but more people had money in pocket economy didn’t fully recover until WWII demand increased production of goods
How did Germany suffer after WWI and what things were done to try to help them out? What differences were there in how the US and GB dealt with the great depression?
Benito Mussolini became dictator of Italy as head of the Fascist Party (anti-individualism, pro-totalitarianism, pro- militarism, one-party rule, single leader)
faced severe economic difficulties and middle class feared a Communist takeover. Mussolini formed armed Fascists (squadristi, Blackshirts) to attack Socialist offices & newspapersand to break up strikes. Business & large landowners supported Mussolini.(wealthy)
Why did a bad economy bring an increase of socialism and communism? Why would people of the middle class and the elite fear communism?
Italians were angry that they didn’t receive more land after WWI Mussolini demanded more land for Italy with his patriotic and nationalistic speeches.
Fascists threatened to march on Rome, so King Victor Emmanual III made Mussolini the prime minister. “Il Duce” created a dictatorship Ended Freedom of the press, made laws by decree, had one-party rule, gave police unrestricted authority and created the OVRA (secret police.)
Why did the king give power to Mussolini?
Fascism blind faith in leader, country, & a clear class system Fascist youth group goal to create a new generation fit, disciplined and militaristic. School texts were re-written w. Fascist propaganda. Fascists held onto traditional roles of women as homemakers and mothers. Mussolini however, was unable to create a true totalitarian state like Hitler or Stalin
What was the point of starting fascist youth groups?
Lateran Accords = Mussolini’s compromise agreement w. the Catholic Church He granted the sovereignty of Vatican City, money to the church and the recognition of Catholicism as theofficial state religion. In return the pope urged Italians to support the Fascists.
Soviet Union (Russia) = lost World War I, suffered civil war & communism, famine & industrial collapse.
In a communist country who controls business and how is money distributed?
New Economic. Policy (N.E.P.) Capitalism-People could start small business for profits(without Gov Control) Communism-heavy industry, banks, and mines remained in hands of govt.
Lenin Died in Stalin and Leon Trotsky fight each other for power
Trotsky’s group wanted to end the NEP & push for rapid industrialization & worldwide communist revolution. Stalin’s group wanted to continue NEP, slower industrialization, build socialist state at home. Stalin was the General Secretary of the Communists, who appointed party officials. Stalin Appointed those who favored him into government. Trotsky was expelled from the party and murdered while in exile in Mexico.
How dis Stalin's position help him take power
Joseph Stalin’s real name = Dzhugashvili, adopted name “Stalin” (man of steel.) Robbed bank for Bolshevikparty. He was a good organizer In 1928 he launched his first Five- Year Plan (economic goals for five-year periods.) It emphasized maximum production of arms, capital goods, oil & steel production.
Urban workers lived in crowded gov apartments Propaganda stressed need for individuals to sacrifice for the socialist state. Collectivization of agriculture = private farms eliminated, govt. took land, people work for the state. Hoarding of food and slaughter of livestock led famines of 1932 & 33 (10 million peasants died.)
List one similarity between Fascism and Communism and one difference
Stalin’s quest for power and paranoid personality led him to remove all opponents (imaginedor real.) Old Bolsheviks targeted. Eight million Russians were arrested, subjected to mock trials andforced “confessions”, sent to labor camps (gulags) in Siberia and/or executed.
¼ page- Assess how Mussolini took power and what changes did he bring. ¼ page- Assess how Stalin took power and what changes did he bring.
General Francisco Franco overthrew the republican govt. w. the help of the fascistregimes of Italy & Germany and set up a dictatorship which supported clergy and the rich. The Soviets and international volunteers unsuccessfully aided the republicans.
Spain became testing ground for new weapons & strategies of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force.) PabloPicasso’s painting of “Guernica” reflected the suffering caused by the bombings.
Adolf Hitler born in Austria, failed secondary school, rejected by art school in Vienna. He was an ultra-nationalist (German “master race of Aryans”), anti-Semitic racist, anti-communist, militaristand expansionist Gifted orator who effectively used the political party, propaganda and terror.
Why can Nationalism be bad?
He fought for four years on the western front, was wounded believed that the surrender of Germany had been a “stab in the back” by liberals.
joined a right-wing extremist party in Munich took complete control and renamed Nazi party. Its militia, known as the Storm Troops or Brown shirts, used brutal force vs. opponents. Uprising crushed Hitler was imprisoned, where he wrote Mein Kampf, Wrote of German Superiority and need for more living space(Lebensraum)
realized that Nazis would have to come to power through legal means. After prison, he greatly expanded his party’s membership throughout Germany. By 1932, the Nazis were largestpolitical party in the Reichstag.
What group in the US makes Laws like the Reichstag did in Germany
Unemployment and depression made extremists more popular. Right-wing elites looked to Hitler. He was a charismatic orator, “When the speech was over, there was roaring enthusiasm and applause…menlook up to him… as their helper, their savior, their deliverer from unbearable distress.”
In 1933, President Hindenburg appointed Hitler as chancellor. The Reichstag building was burned and a communist was arrested. Hitler responded with the “legal seizure”of govt. with Enabling Act. It allowed Hitler to ignore the constitution for 4 years. Government jobs were purged of Jews and democrats. Concentration camps created for opponents. all other political parties made illegal.
Why is it said that Hitler did not break the rules to take power
Hindenburg died in 1934, presidency was abolished & Hitler became dictator. Public officials and soldiers required to pledge total loyalty to him as “Fuhrer.” Nazi goal was create a totalitarian Aryan racial state of the Third Reich, which was to rule for 1,000 yrs!
Then every activity and every need of every individual will be regulated… by the party… there areno longer any free realms in which the individual belongs to himself… The time of personalhappiness is over.” (Hitler)
The Schutzstaffeln (S.S.) was an elite force under the direction of Heinrich Himmler that used terror and ideology to coerce, repress, persecute and murder millions. Massive public works and government rearmament programs solved unemployment problem. Mass demonstrations and rallies (as in Nuremberg) used propaganda and emotional frenzy to stir upfanaticism among youth, women, soldiers, workers, & professionals.
Nazis had traditional views towards the role of women as wives & mothers to raise “good Nazi families.” Nuremberg Laws excluded Jews from German citizenship, from marriage to Gentiles and were required towear yellow Stars of David.
What are some forms of Nazi propoganda?
Kristallnacht burned synagogues, destroyed Jewish businesses, killed many and sent 30,000 to “camps.” Jews were barred from public transportation, buildings, schools, hospitals & prohibited from owningor working in stores. Forced to clean up the damage of Kristallnacht and encouraged to “emigrate.”
All German youth expected to join Hitler Youth. “I swear to devote all my energies and my strength to the savior of our country, Adolf Hitler. I am willing & ready to give up my life for him, so help me God.” Male activities were competitions to encourage values such as: duty, obedience, strength & violence. Uniforms, military drills and weapons training were expected of boys ages League of German Girls also had uniforms & physical training, but also taught domestic skills.
What would communist women be trained to do in the USSR?
Media was also used for govt. propaganda. Joseph Goebbels headed Nazi Propaganda Ministry. “Triumphof the Will” was a documentary of 1934 Nuremberg Nazi rally produced by Leni Riefenstahl.
technologies led the way in creating a “Mass Culture” in communications and entertainment. Broadcasting facilities, mass production of radios & popularity of movies allowed the masses to listen to or watch these programs and share in same cultural experiences.
= shortened work-days & work-weeks, creation of the “weekend” and holidays allowed peoplefrom all classes more free time. Professional sports at large stadiums, vacation resorts, beaches andnew transportation methods became popular. Kraft durch Freude (Strength through Joy) was a Nazi program that controlled peoples’ leisure activities.
WWI, Great Depression and rise of fascism left many Europeans w. a sense of despair & uncertainty. The Lost Generation of writers, musicians and painters (eg. Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Gertrude Stein) moved frantically from one European city to another, trying to find meaning in life (new info!)
The world does not make sense, so why should art?” = & surrealism. Surrealistic art was inspired by the unconscious world, portraying fantasies, dreams & nightmares. Salvador Dali of Spain painted everyday objects separated from their normal contexts
Hitler & Nazis rejected “modern” art as degenerate, “shameless arrogance or of a simply shocking lack ofskill (modern art) might have been produced by untalented children…” Nazi art glorified the strong, healthy and heroic values of the “Aryan race.”
*Revolution in physics = Contrary to Isaac Newton’s theory that the universe was certain, predictable and orderly, later physicists described an uncertain universe. *Marie Curie (radium gives off energy, atoms not solid but active), Albert Einstein (theory of relativity, matteris a form of atomic energy), Ernest Rutherford (atoms can split) and Werner Heisenberg (uncertainty principle = behavior of subatomic particles is unpredictable & random.)
Compare and contrast Nazi Germany under Hitler to the Soviet Union under Stalin. In your opinion which nation was more successful in their distinctive goals?