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Presentation on theme: "CH 28 – RUSSIAN REVOLUTION CH 29 - NATIONALISM AND REVOLUTION CH 30 – CRISIS OF DEMOCRACIES Between The Wars."— Presentation transcript:


2 Russian Revolution March Revolution  Czars made reforms  Duma created but no power  Nicholas II blocked anything to take his power  Marxists tried to ignite the proletariat  WWI strained Russia  Nicholas went to front to lead, knew nothing  Left domestic affairs to czarina, Alexandra (German)

3 Rasputin Alexandra relied on Gregory Rasputin for advice Illiterate peasant, self-proclaimed holy man Personality made him popular healer Helped son with hemophilia Rasputin became powerful gov. advisor to Alexandra Nobles disliked him, killed him Poisoned, shot, ran, shot, clubbed, thrown in river Cause of death: drowned

4 Collapse of the Monarchy March 1917 – everything was bad Food, fuel shortages Czar abdicated New government set up, continued war Troops began to desert Cities set up soviets: councils of workers & soldiers Bolsheviks: radical socialist group V.I. Lenin becomes leader

5 The November Revolution Lenin and Leon Trotsky: Peace, Land, and Bread November 1917 – Red Guards attacked government Fell without a struggle Bolsheviks made Moscow the capital Ended private ownership of land, gave to poor Workers got control of factories New flag Bolsheviks became Communists

6 Russian Civil War Signed treaty with Germany, out of WWI 3 years: Reds (communists) vs. Whites (czarists) Allies of WWI sent troops to Whites Brutality and reign of terror

7 Czar, Czarina, 5 kids killed War Communism: gov. takes everything Trotsky made Red Army strong Poor unit: every 1oth man shot 1921: Over, millions dead, chaos among people

8 Building Communist Soviet Union 1922 – wrote constitution Political power, resources and production belonged to the workers Became Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Communists reigned supreme Army and secret police used for any bidding Set up NEP – capitalist ideas Small businesses, private profit By 1928, back to normal

9 Stalin’s Five Year Plans Wanted Modern industrial power Several “Five Year Plans” All economic activity under gov. control Set high production goals: rewards and punishments Standard of living was low Took animals, tools, land = Set up farm collectives Peasants killed animals, ruined land & tools Famine and death followed

10 The Great Purge Stalin feared being overthrown 1934 – started Great Purge Crimes: counterrevolutionary to failing to meet quota Public “Show Trials” – confessions of former officials Killed or sent to Siberia Showed consequences of disloyalty Mistake: Killing military officials

11 Soviet Foreign Policy Wanted to start worldwide revolution Started “Red Scare” in US Tried to join League of Nations West was skeptical of USSR Didn’t like threat of revolution

12 Life in a Totalitarian State Terror Complained = labor camp Propaganda to create extreme nationalism Only allowed atheism – all religions banned Built schools to create workers Censorship of news, books, movies, paintings

13 Revolutions Around the World

14 Mexican Revolution 1910 – Porfirio Diaz was dictator for 35 years Prosperity only for wealthy, poor suffered Reformer, Francisco Madero demanded elections Revolution began Groups of rebels grew and waged war on Diaz 1917 – Venustiano Carranza voted in Wrote a constitution

15 Mexican Reforms Nationalization – government takeover Took land, divided up large estates and church land Set minimum wage Gave women rights 1929 – PRI or Institutional Revolutionary Party Economic Nationalism – emphasis on domestic goods Cultural nationalism – pride in ones culture Good Neighbor Policy  Pres. Roosevelt vowed to work with LA, not against it

16 Africa and Colonialism Africans resented colonization Protested over loss of land, taxes, ID cards South Africa imposed apartheid Legal separation of blacks and whites Pan-Africanism created united front to Europeans Created set of rights for Africans Ignored by Western powers

17 Turkey and Iran Ottoman Empire collapsed after WWI Turks overthrew sultan, set up nation Reforms  Western calendar, western clothes, no veils, polygamy banned Iran  Resented Russia and British rulers  Overthrew the shah  Similar reforms to Turkey

18 European Mandates Arab nations helped in war, promised independence Instead were carved up to European nations Zionists wanted Jewish homeland British promised Palestine to Jews Arabs wanted to keep Palestine Anti-Semitism erupts in Europe

19 India India owned by British since 1885 Wanted independence Mohandas Gandhi lead revolts in South Africa Used non-violent protests and civil disobedience

20 Salt March British banned Indians from using salt from sea, only buy it Gandhi & 78 followers marched 240 miles to sea People joined, 1000s reached sea Jailed for picking up salt World saw Brits use force on peaceful people Became independent in 1947

21 China 1900s – China in chaos Japan wanted to annex China May 4 th Movement  Students in Beijing began boycott of Japan  Marches and protests  Like the idea of communism

22 Jiang and Mao Zedong Jiang took over Guomindang (Nationalist) Party Mao - communist leader Fought constantly Jiang gathered Mao and 100,000 on Long March 6000 miles in 1 year Mao forced discipline that gained them followers 20,000 survived Set up new base

23 Japanese Invasion 1931 – Japan invades Manchuria Jiang had to join with communists to fight back December 13, 1937 Japan enters Nanjing City surrendered Competition between 2 Japanese generals to kill Troops killed hundreds of thousands “Rape of Nanjing”

24 Empire of the Rising Sun Japan grew powerful in 1920s Seemed peaceful and good economy Problems with peasants, low wages Youth revolted against old ways Great Depression caused high unemployment

25 Nationalism in Japan Ultranationalists rioted US shut out Japanese immigrants Attacked Manchuria without orders League of Nations angered, Japan left Government pushed tradition in schools Students taught “absolute obedience to empire”

26 Crisis of Democracy in the West

27 Post War Issues Problems in Big Three countries No jobs for vets, debt, lack of leaders 1920s – Europe signed “Ban War Forever” Treaty Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 = Outlawed War All nations promised to disarm Key: Dark green - original signatories Light green- later adherents Light Blue - territories of parties Dark blue - League of Nations mandates of parties

28 The Great Depression Overproduction of goods People had too much debt November 29, 1929 – US Stock Market Crashed Effected every nation in the world Communists gloated about capitalism’s collapse Rebounded in 1932 with Pres. Roosevelt’s New Deal All countries began to come back

29 Fascism in Italy 1919 Benito Mussolini took power Black Shirts – private, socialist police 10,000 Fascists marched on Rome to take power Became Il Duce = the leader Used terror to rule, censor Strong, stable government but little personal freedom

30 The Weimar Republic 1919 German Constitution set up Chancellor Government wasn’t very strong Inflation hurt everyone July 1922 – 100 marks, August 1923 – 944,000 marks By 1924, West helped slow inflation Stabilized but then Great Depression hit

31 Adolf Hitler Born in Austria Rejected from Art School Fought in WWI Joined National Socialist German Workers (Nazis) Became leader 1923 – Wrote Mein Kampf = goals and ideas Extreme nationalism, racism, anti-Semitism Urged Germans to unite Gain Lebensraum, living space

32 Road to Power Jailed for attempting to over throw Chancellor Used Depression to give speeches Gained followers easily Promised jobs and defy Versailles Treaty Nazis won seats in government Elected Chancellor in 1933 legally

33 The Third Reich Totalitarian state Efficient but brutal, terror, repression Gestapo = secret police Launched public works to combat depression Began to rearm the country Believed “Extremes must be fought by extremes” Created “Hitler Youth” to recruit children Wanted “Pure-blooded Aryan” people

34 Campaign against the Jews Wanted to drive the Jews from Germany Nuremberg Laws – restricted Jews  No school or teaching  No marrying Germans  No government jobs  Couldn’t be doctor or lawyer  No publishing books  Jews fled, like Einstein

35 Kristallnacht November 7, 1938 Night of Broken Glass Gestapo destroyed all Jewish businesses and synagogues Began to look for “Final Solution” for Jews 1000s of Jews sent to concentration camps


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