10“America’s Playground” Longest Boardwalk in U.S. (7 miles)First Ferris WheelSalt Water TaffyRooming Houses, summer houses, hotels,Crime, corruption (“Get out of jail free”)Miss America ContestsShow business (Frank Sinatra and others)Economic troubles—1960s and 1970sGambling and casinos started in 1976Donald Trump developments—1980s
11The Gilded AgeCircaIndustrialization, Monopolization, Immigration, Urbanization,Unionization(and Political Corruption!)
12I. Background What does “gilded” mean? Who referred to this time period as “The Gilded Age”?Why is this period called this?
13“ISMs”Capitalism—economic practice of private ownership of goods, resources and services—U.S. has thisSocialism—economic practice of private ownership of most goods and services and state ownership of major resources and services—Canada has thisCommunism—economic practice of state ownership of all goods, resources and services—Cuba has this
14So…The Gilded Age was a time when American capitalism was illustrated in extreme ways“Gilded Age” implies pretty but cheap—it has a negative connotation (“superficial glitter”)Our Gilded Age corresponds with England’s Victorian Age circa
15II. Consider: Appearance vs. Reality Economic success IndustrializationSocial consciencePolitical involvementPatriotism“The New American”UrbanizationGlobalizationNote: realism in literature andart is a response to the phoniness in politics and society
17Film: Industrialization and Urbanization What part of the country saw the rise of large cities? (North, South, North East, Southwest?)List three technological advances (new inventions).By 1900, the U.S. produced ___ of the world’s goods (half, one-third, one tenth).The new “captains of industry” exploited what or whom?(exploited means used for own purposes)5. How did the rise of industries in the U.S. lead to a rise of European immigration?
18III. Industrialization and Mass Production 35% of world’s goods were U.S. madeFactories had: Standardization of parts, assembly line, labor-saving machinery, division of labor, pieceworkGrowth of major eastern citiesAs cities became crowded, some middle class people fled to suburbs and commuted to cities by streetcars and trains
19IV. New Inventions—showcased at the Exposition of 1876 in Philadelphia Oil well, drill, pumpElectric powerLight bulbAlternating current and transformersTelegraphy and transatlantic cableTelephoneBessemer Process (steel)Plumbing systemsPhonographBicycleTypewriterAdding machineSteam engineLinoleumCamerasElevator
20Inventors Bell—telephone Westinghouse—alternating electrical currents Edison—phonograph, movie camera, electric light bulb, and many more!Firestone--tires
21V. Retailing Techniques Specialty shopsChain storesDepartment storesMail OrderAdvertising and packaging(A &P, Woolworth)(Marshall Fields)(Sears and Roebuck, Montgomery Ward)
22VI. Law of Supply and Demand High supply + low demand = low priceLow supply + high demand = high price
23VII. Rise of Millionaires: Captains of Industry or Robber Barons? (Old money)(New money)AstorRockefellerCarnegieVanderbiltHarrimanMellonMorganSwiftArmourDupontDukeForbesGettyHeinzKennedyHuntBuffetGatesPerotWaltonJobsWinfreyBushTrump
24VIII. Philosophies Gilded Age Response to Gilded Age Social Darwinism Gospel of WealthProtestant work EthicMarket economyPhilanthropyMonopolyTrustsStock marketLaissez-faireExploitation?Regulation?Populism?Progressivism?Unionization?
25“Taylorism”System of scientific management developed by Frederick W. TaylorDevelopment of a disciplined labor force by eliminating wasted motionTime management techniques used in factories (with assembly line etc.)
26Vertical IntegrationWhen a company controls both the production and distribution of its productUsed by Carnegie to gain control over U.S. steel industryLed to monopoly by eliminating the “middle man”
27Horizontal Integration When one company gains control over other companies that produce the same productUsed by Rockefeller in the oil refining businessLed to monopoly by eliminating competition
28Laissez-faire Economics Philosophy stating that economic activities should be largely free of governmental interference, regulations and restraint.Laissez-faire economics was supported by leaders who, ironically, also supported protective tariffs
29Horatio Alger Wrote “rags to riches” stories Very popular books on the idealization of the “self-made man”
30World’s Fair of 1893— Columbian Exposition Showcased American industrial developmentand architectural style
31President Grover Cleveland Hosted the Opening of The World’s Fair New ProductsIdeasCream of Wheat and Shredded Wheat cerealsPabst Blue Ribbon BeerAunt Jemima SyrupJuicy Fruit GumCracker JacksCarbonated SodasHamburgersThe Electric ChairWalt Disney’s dad worked there and was impressed by the Giant Ferris WheelThe Pledge of Allegiance was written for the fairColumbus Day started in honor of 400th anniversary in 1892Fair was besieged by bad luck including fatal accidents, storms, fire, and a serial killer in the city of Chicago
33IX. Immigration Push Factors: poverty, pogroms, political corruption Pull Factors: factories, opportunities in West, ideals of freedom6 million from S. and E. Europe23 million totalMost were Roman Catholic, Jewish, Greek/Russian OrthodoxMost lived and worked in NE cities
34X. Ellis IslandNew York--Immigration Welcome Center—many were quarantined or had a name changeNote: Chinese and other immigrants who entered on the west coast came through Angel Island in San Francisco.
35XI. Statue of Liberty New York Harbor Gift from France, 1886 Poem, “The New Colossus” by Emma Lazarus
36“Give me your tired……your poor, your huddled masses, yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse from your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me. I lift my lamp beside the golden door.”
37Memorize the poem. A quiz will follow. It will be fill-in-the-blank. “Give me your ____, your ____, your huddled masses yearning to ________ free. The wretched ______from your teeming shore. Send these, the _____, tempest tossed to ______. I lift my ______ beside the golden _______.”HOMELESSREFUSETIREDMELAMPPOORBREATHEDOOR
38XII. Immigrant Life Ghetto (ethnic neighborhood) Tenements (apartments)Assimilation (more name changes!)
39NativismEthnocentrismXenophobia (fear of foreigners)(Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882)“Melting Pot” vs. “Tossed Salad”(assimilation vs. cultural autonomy)
40Naturalization—process of becoming a U.S. citizen To apply, file Form N-400
44Industrialization and Immigration also led to Unionization. Why?
45XIII. Labor—Key TrendsLabor force was much larger due to immigrants, women, children…Machines increasingly replaced skilled artisansLarge bureaucratic corporations dominated the American economyNational and international markets
46What is a labor union?A labor union is an organization of workers who can negotiate with employers over wages, hours, and benefits.Unions who are unhappy with the terms of a contract can go on strike, which means to stop work, and form a picket line with signs.
47XIV. Knights of Labor Led by Terence Powderly—750,000 members by 1886 Open membership (including women, African-Americans, immigrants)Semi-skilled and unskilled workersIdealistic—believed in cooperation between labor and managementWanted eventual ownership of companies by labor
48XV. Major Labor Unions (skilled vs. unskilled) Knights of LaborAmerican Federation of LaborIndustrial Workers of the WorldAmerican Railway Union (led by Eugene Debs)United Mine WorkersInternational Ladies Garment Workers Union (later)
49IWW— “Wobblies” Led by “Mother Jones” Inclusive (anybody could join) “An injury to one is an injury to all”Wanted one big unionEncouraged class conflict and violencePegged as socialist and anarchist
50American Federation of Labor (AF of L) Replaced Knights of LaborLed by Samuel Gompers, leader of Cigar Makers UnionAlliance of skilled workers in craft unionsFocused on “bread and butter” issues: higher wages, shorter hours, better working conditions
51XVI. StrikesHaymarket Square Riot—1886--Chicago—McCormick Harvesting Company (blamed on Knights of Labor)
52Homestead Steel—1892—Carnegie Steel plant in Pittsburgh—Pinkerton detectives used
53Pullman Railway—wages cut due to 1893 depression--led to national strike led by Eugene Debs—1894—halted commerce—Debs arrested when President Cleveland ordered mail delivery
54Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire—1911 (146 people died within 18 minutes)
55XVII. Labor Terms Union Boycott Closed shop Collective bargaining Fringe benefitsInjunctionStrikeLockoutMediationWorking conditionsBlacklistOpen shopPicketScabSeniorityUnion shopYellow dog contractSit down strikeArbitrationMinimum wagesweatshop
56XVIII. Socialism“Reds”—favored ideas of Karl Marx—a “classless society”Wanted control of businesses in hands of workersPromoted unions
59XIX. Entertainment Ragtime music by Scott Joplin Political rallies NickelodeonsFlickers (1903—The Great Train Robbery)Amusement parks (Coney Island)Resorts (Atlantic City)Dance hallsVaudevilleMinstrelSports (baseball, football, boxing, horse races)
60XX. Politics Republicans Democrats Northerners African-Americans Small business owners favoring government interventionRural ProtestantsSouthern whitesNorthern political machinesImmigrants (naturalized)Big businessmen who favored laissez-faire economic policies
61What is a political machine? An unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular party or group in power, and usually headed by a single, powerful boss.Note: the most famous boss and machine was Boss William Tweed and Tammany Hall in New York City
62XXI. Political Corruption Political machineSpoils systemGraft, bribes, favors, money launderingElection fraudTammany Hall—NYC—Tweed Ring
63XXII. IssuesCivil Service Reform—Pendleton Act passed after Garfield assassinationWomen’s suffrageCivil rightsDistribution of public landsLevel of government regulation in business—Sherman Anti-trust Act passed but not enforced until after 1901Exposing injustice and corruption—Thomas Nast (cartoons) and Jacob Riis (journalism), Lewis Hine (photography)
64View Film on Labor and Answer Name three unions.Why were wages being driven down?List five potential hazards of a job.How many people were killed and injured on the job in 1913?Strikes were justified in that “they were fighting for the ___ of the U.S.”How long did the Homestead Strike last?How did the Railway Strike end?Define Populism.What was the Progressive Movement ?Name one more random fact from the film.
105Andrew Carnegie and The Age of Steel List three details about Carnegie’s early life.2. How did the steel industry get started?3. How did Carnegie gain wealth and the title of Captain of Industry?4. What was a major setback for The Carnegie Steel industry?5. What is Carnegie’s legacy as an entrepreneur and philanthropist?