Today’s Agenda Finish German Empire (1871-1912) Return and Go over Test
German Empire 18701871187318781883188818901912 Pope Pius IX declares Dogma of Papal Infallibility -German Empire Declared -Kulturkampf begins Wilhelm II ascends to throne -Kulturkampf ends -Bismarck allies with Catholic Center Party Bismarck begins national social security system with sickness and accident insurance Social Democratic party legalized Wilhelm Drops the Pilot Worldwide financial Panic leads to protectionism Social Democratic becomes largest party in Reichstag
Bismarck and the German Empire, 1871 – 1890 German Empire – federation of 25 German monarchies under the Prussian Kaiser Bismarck’ Foreign Policy (Post 1871) – Avoided war & sought to build German Empire into strong nation- state – consolidated power by “dressing himself” as a liberal, a socialist, a republican, a free trader, a protectionist, anti-Catholic, pro Catholic IE. Realpolitik policies of manipulation in domestic and foreign policy & adulation of militarism led to an arrested development of constitutionalism & democracy in Germany with catastrophic results Bismarck dragging Alsace & Lorraine into German Empire
German Culture (1871) German nationalism (after 1871) took Prussian tone Liberalism of Frankfurt Assembly crushed by Blood and Iron “Better pointed bullets than pointed speeches” Bismarck Order = first duty of all citizens Education characterized by drilling, discipline Uniforms = mark of status, honor Wilhelm Voigt- The Captain of Kopernick – German drifter/ impostor Honour German students formed fraternities of dueling – Used sabers to prevent being labeled der innere schweinehund (coward) Proudly displayed schmisse (scars) Captain of Köpenick
Kulturkampf Syllabus of Errors (1864) – Denounced gov.t encroachment in church affairs Dogma of Papal Infallibility (1870) – Declared Pope to be infallible in matters of faith & morals Center Party – Catholic-grounded political party based in southern Germany – Supported mostly by peasants Bismarck and Pope Pius IX in a chess match In 1871 Bismarck launched Kulturkampf –Battle for civilization or culture –Series of Anti Catholic laws –Bis motivation was to gain support of liberals –They were anticlerical and disapproved of the Church influence in public and private life –Restrictions Some Jesuits/bishops were expelled, Banned religious teachers in schools Banned priests discussing politics from pulpit, Diplomatic ties broken with Vatican (1872), 50% seminaries closed Bismarck, a conservative dressed in liberal clothing!
Kulturkampf Worldwide agricultural depression after 1873 Bismarck wanted to raise taxes & looked for new way to do it Abandoned the liberals (free trade, Kulturkampf) Appealed to the Catholic Center Party & Protectionists – resulted in the policy of economic protectionism in Germany – established protective tariffs (1879) – Supported by Junkers, some industrialists, and Catholic peasants Pope Pius died in 1878 Kulturkampf ended in 1878 Bismarck, a conservative dressed in conservative, Catholic, protectionist clothing
Repression of Socialism German Social Democratic party founded (1875) – fusion of Marxian socialists and reformist of Ferdinand Lassalle Basically a moderate socialism – Willing to work with existing government thru democratic means Bismarck still equated it with violence 2 assassination attempts on the emperor (neither by SDP) gave him an excuse Bismarck set out to end socialism Carrot and Stick Approach – meetings forbidden, newspapers closed – socialism was driven underground (1878-1890) – initiates a national social security system (1880) 1883 Sickness Insurance 1884 Accident Insurance 1889 Old Age Pension Insurance Didn’t end SD Party but made overthrow of government less attractive (already had universal male suffrage since 1866) Bismarck, a conservative dressed in socialist clothing!
The German Empire after 1890: William II William I died in 1888 Frederick III (his son) died (of cancer) three months after coming to the throne William II (Fred’s son) 1888-1918 came to the throne – Grandson of Queen Victoria – He was 29 and full of ideas about his personal power – uncomfortable in presence of elder statesmen (Bismarck) whom he saw respectfully as an old fogy – argued with Bis about anti socialist legislation, foreign affairs Bis ordered ministers not to meet with him unless he was present Dropping the Pilot (1890) – William “retired” Bismarck – Known as “dropping the pilot” Replaced Bismarck as the dominant political figure (and led Germany to WWI)
A New Course Wilhelm I led Germany on New Course Colonial expansion Naval expansion – GB won’t like this Aggressive diplomatic policy Wanted Germany to have – A PLACE IN THE SUN dropped the antisocialist laws expanded the social welfare system Social Democrats elected 110 members to the Reichstag – 1912 largest party in Reichstag – Retained none of the highest government offices Imperial Germany was moving toward a conflict with constitutional interests and democracy