Why it Matters WWI and the Great Depression impacted almost every corner of the globe. Dictatorship and totalitarianism were able to grasp many states (nations)
Focus Question: Why did totalitarian states rise after World War I, and what did they do?
A Bitter Peace Unravels With the end of WWI and the Treaty of Versailles nations again were divided over the terms of peace. During the 1920’s many nations moved toward democracy and others in the opposite direction of totalitarianism Totalitarianism – a theory of government in which a single party or leader controls the economic, social, and cultural lives of its people
Checkpoint: What legacy did World War I leave behind?
Characteristics of a Totalitarian State Single-Party dictatorship Strong, charismatic leader often at head of government State control of the economy Use of police, spies, and terror to enforce the will of the state Government control of the media and use of propaganda to indoctrinate citizens Use of schools and youth organizations to spread ideology Strict censorship of artists, intellectuals, and political rivals
Repression in the Soviet Union and Italy The 1917 Russian Revolution was the first totalitarian state (Lenin) His programs resulted in civil war, starvation,famine, and death of millions of Russians
Stalin’s Grip on the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin (man of steal) - took Lenin’s place as the head of the Communist Party His attempts to transform the Soviet Union into an industrial power caused millions of deaths (purges)
Mussolini’s Fascist Party Controls Italy Italian totalitarianism was in many ways a result of the war, peace treaties, and economic depression. Benito Mussolini – Fascist Party, trumpeted nationalism and promised to make Italy great again.
Checkpoint: How did Stalin and Mussolini maintain their power?
Aggressive Leaders in Germany and Japan After WWI Germany became a democracy (Weimar Republic) Economic woes and runaway inflation plagued the young government
The Nazis Rise The National Socialist German Workers’ Party, or Nazi began to threaten the republic They were not socialists or communist or any ism that promoted class interests or workers’ rights above German ethnic solidarity
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler – led the Nazi Party, failed artist, wounded and decorated WWI soldier Wrote Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”) stated the problems facing Germany His most piercing criticisms were of the communists and Jews
Anti-Semitic Anti-Semitic – prejudice against Jewish people Anti-Semitism had troubled Europe for centuries, motivated by religious intolerance and economic resentment
Hitler Seizes Power Recognizing the power of Hitler’s party president of the Weimar Republic appointed Hitler chancellor of Germany in 1933 Over two years he became chancellor and president then consolidated his power This was a totalitarian regime (secret police) pgs. 438, 440
Militarists Gain Power in Japan Reasserting power, military leaders argued that expansion through out Asia would solve Japan’s economic troubles Japan did not become a totalitarian state, but remained a constitutional monarchy
The Japanese Expand Their Empire In 1931 Japan attacked Manchuria 1937 Japan moved against China, gaining control over major Chinese railroad links and coastal areas The “Rape of Nanjing” 200,000
Checkpoint: How did the Great Depression affect political life in Germany and Japan?
Dictators Turn to Aggression Germany and Italy resorted to acts of aggression similar to those of Japan in Asia The League of Nations was powerless to do anything
Hitler and Mussolini Threaten the Peace Hitler focused on restoring Germany’s economy, army, navy, and air force in direct defiance of the Treaty of Versailles Hitler spoke of the need to gain Lebensraum, living space Mussolini invaded Ethiopia with many pleas and little response for the League of Nations
Fighting Breaks out in Spain Spanish Civil War – bloody conflict that raged from 1936 until 1939. Fascist rebels fought against Spain's democratic Republic aided by Hitler and Mussolini
Checkpoint: Why did the League of Nations fail to halt German and Italian aggressions?
Aggression Goes Unchecked Appeasement – policy of granting concessions to a potential enemy in the hope that it will maintain peace French and British policy in the 1930s’
Cont. Anschluss (AHN shloos) – in the spring of 1938 Austria’s entrance into the Reich Munich Pact – the agreement Chamberlain reached at conference with Germany declaring “peace for our time,” this only delayed WWII for 11 months
Checkpoint: Why did Britain, France, and the U.S. not stop fascist aggression in the 1930’s?
Why it Matters Roosevelt condemned aggression in Asia but did little to stop it, while Britain and France continued appeasement in Germany
Focus Question: How did Americans react to events in Europe and Asia in the early years of WWII?
Roosevelt Opposes Aggression Roosevelt criticized Japan’s aggression by calling it “reign of terror and international lawlessness” Roosevelt suggested that no part of the world was truly isolated (pg. 444)
War Erupts in Europe Hitler Launches a Blitzkrieg Against Poland Blitzkrieg – sudden attack (lighting war) France Falls to the Axis Powers Axis Powers – Germany, Italy, Japan Allied Powers – Britain, France, Soviet Union, U.S., China Winston Churchill – British Prime Minister The Battle of Britain is fought in the air. (pg. 446)
Checkpoint: Which side seemed to be winning the war at the end of 1940?
Americans Debate Involvement America Favors Isolation Theories behind why the U.S. became involved in WWI Interventionists Urge Support for the Allies Neutrality Act of 1939 – cash and carry provisions
Cont. Isolationists Argue for Neutrality Trade would automatically involve the U.S., argued The America First Committee Roosevelt inches toward involvement with the Tripartite Pact – making allies of Germany, Italy, and Japan
Should the U.S. Enter World War II Isolationist Viewpoint - Interventionist Viewpoint - Make a list of both viewpoints using your text.
Checkpoint: According to interventionists, how would aiding the Allies actually keep the United States out of war?
America Takes Steps Toward War Lend-Lease Act – authorized Roosevelt to “sell transfer title to, exchange, lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of, to any such government any defense article”
Cont. Atlantic Charter – document that endorsed national self-determination and an international system of “general security” U.S. Navy Battles German U-Boats
Checkpoint: How did the United States support the Allies after Roosevelt’s reelection?