3Why it MattersWWI and the Great Depression impacted almost every corner of the globe.Dictatorship and totalitarianism were able to grasp many states (nations)
4Focus Question: Why did totalitarian states rise after World War I, and what did they do?
5A Bitter Peace Unravels With the end of WWI and the Treaty of Versailles nations again were divided over the terms of peace.During the 1920’s many nations moved toward democracy and others in the opposite direction of totalitarianismTotalitarianism – a theory of government in which a single party or leader controls the economic, social, and cultural lives of its people
6Checkpoint: What legacy did World War I leave behind?
7Characteristics of a Totalitarian State Single-Party dictatorshipStrong, charismatic leader often at head of governmentState control of the economyUse of police, spies, and terror to enforce the will of the stateGovernment control of the media and use of propaganda to indoctrinate citizensUse of schools and youth organizations to spread ideologyStrict censorship of artists, intellectuals, and political rivals
8Repression in the Soviet Union and Italy The 1917 Russian Revolution was the first totalitarian state (Lenin)His programs resulted in civil war, starvation ,famine, and death of millions of Russians
9Stalin’s Grip on the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin (man of steal) - took Lenin’s place as the head of the Communist PartyHis attempts to transform the Soviet Union into an industrial power caused millions of deaths (purges)
10Mussolini’s Fascist Party Controls Italy Italian totalitarianism was in many ways a result of the war, peace treaties, and economic depression.Benito Mussolini – Fascist Party, trumpeted nationalism and promised to make Italy great again.
11Checkpoint: How did Stalin and Mussolini maintain their power?
12Aggressive Leaders in Germany and Japan After WWI Germany became a democracy (Weimar Republic)Economic woes and runaway inflation plagued the young government
13The Nazis RiseThe National Socialist German Workers’ Party, or Nazi began to threaten the republicThey were not socialists or communist or any ism that promoted class interests or workers’ rights above German ethnic solidarity
14Adolf HitlerAdolf Hitler – led the Nazi Party, failed artist, wounded and decorated WWI soldierWrote Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”) stated the problems facing GermanyHis most piercing criticisms were of the communists and Jews
15Anti-Semitic Anti-Semitic – prejudice against Jewish people Anti-Semitism had troubled Europe for centuries, motivated by religious intolerance and economic resentment
16Hitler Seizes PowerRecognizing the power of Hitler’s party president of the Weimar Republic appointed Hitler chancellor of Germany in 1933Over two years he became chancellor and president then consolidated his powerThis was a totalitarian regime (secret police) pgs. 438, 440
17Militarists Gain Power in Japan Reasserting power, military leaders argued that expansion through out Asia would solve Japan’s economic troublesJapan did not become a totalitarian state, but remained a constitutional monarchy
18The Japanese Expand Their Empire In 1931 Japan attacked Manchuria1937 Japan moved against China, gaining control over major Chinese railroad links and coastal areasThe “Rape of Nanjing” 200,000
19Checkpoint: How did the Great Depression affect political life in Germany and Japan?
20Dictators Turn to Aggression Germany and Italy resorted to acts of aggression similar to those of Japan in AsiaThe League of Nations was powerless to do anything
21Hitler and Mussolini Threaten the Peace Hitler focused on restoring Germany’s economy, army, navy, and air force in direct defiance of the Treaty of VersaillesHitler spoke of the need to gain Lebensraum, living spaceMussolini invaded Ethiopia with many pleas and little response for the League of Nations
22Fighting Breaks out in Spain Spanish Civil War – bloody conflict that raged from 1936 until 1939.Fascist rebels fought against Spain's democratic Republic aided by Hitler and Mussolini
23Checkpoint: Why did the League of Nations fail to halt German and Italian aggressions?
24Aggression Goes Unchecked Appeasement – policy of granting concessions to a potential enemy in the hope that it will maintain peaceFrench and British policy in the 1930s’
25Cont.Anschluss (AHN shloos) – in the spring of 1938 Austria’s entrance into the ReichMunich Pact – the agreement Chamberlain reached at conference with Germany declaring “peace for our time,” this only delayed WWII for 11 months
26Checkpoint: Why did Britain, France, and the U. S Checkpoint: Why did Britain, France, and the U.S. not stop fascist aggression in the 1930’s?
28Why it MattersRoosevelt condemned aggression in Asia but did little to stop it, while Britain and France continued appeasement in Germany
29Focus Question: How did Americans react to events in Europe and Asia in the early years of WWII?
30Roosevelt Opposes Aggression Roosevelt criticized Japan’s aggression by calling it “reign of terror and international lawlessness”Roosevelt suggested that no part of the world was truly isolated (pg. 444)
31War Erupts in Europe Hitler Launches a Blitzkrieg Against Poland Blitzkrieg – sudden attack (lighting war)France Falls to the Axis PowersAxis Powers – Germany, Italy, JapanAllied Powers – Britain, France, Soviet Union, U.S., ChinaWinston Churchill – British Prime MinisterThe Battle of Britain is fought in the air. (pg. 446)
32Checkpoint: Which side seemed to be winning the war at the end of 1940?
33Americans Debate Involvement America Favors IsolationTheories behind why the U.S. became involved in WWIInterventionists Urge Support for the AlliesNeutrality Act of 1939 – cash and carry provisions
34Cont. Isolationists Argue for Neutrality Trade would automatically involve the U.S., argued The America First CommitteeRoosevelt inches toward involvement with the Tripartite Pact – making allies of Germany, Italy, and Japan
35Should the U.S. Enter World War II Isolationist Viewpoint -Interventionist Viewpoint - Make a list of both viewpoints using your text.
36Checkpoint: According to interventionists, how would aiding the Allies actually keep the United States out of war?
37America Takes Steps Toward War Lend-Lease Act – authorized Roosevelt to “sell transfer title to, exchange, lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of, to any such government any defense article”
38Cont.Atlantic Charter – document that endorsed national self-determination and an international system of “general security”U.S. Navy Battles German U-Boats
39Checkpoint: How did the United States support the Allies after Roosevelt’s reelection?