Leads to Nuclear Test Ban treaty in 1963 Bans aboveground testing and development of nuclear weapons
American veterans of World War II returned home and created the “baby boom.” 1946 – 1964
Conservative middle class values and consumerism dominated postwar era. Large families standard – aided by improved medical care and diet. Mass consumerism for necessities and luxury goods became the norm. Americans borrowed, while Europeans saved, to buy consumer durables such as televisions and refrigerators. The G.I. bill enabled many veterans to go to college.
Tupperware typifies the new consumer era: Americans had food surpluses to store and large families to feed.
Middle class life gender segregated by work (men) and home (women).
American pop culture dominated world, due to radio, television, and movies. American music, from blues, jazz, to rock and roll standard worldwide.
In Europe, existentialism offered an alternative to American materialist modernism. Martin Heidegger – Influenced French intellectuals such as – Sartre and Camus. Sartre viewed communist socialism as egalitarian. Camus was anti-communist who thought engagement was the only way to escape the absurdity of modern existence.
Existentialism – Philosophical thinking begins with the individual – The individual is disoriented and confused – The world is absurd
Literature, film, and art explored themes of: – Individualism – Conformity – Alienations – Mass murder – Gender – Race – Political persecution
American authors explored the complexity of modernism in the postwar period. – William Faulkner – Tennessee Williams – Elizabeth Bishop British writers wrote about personal struggles with modernity: – W. H. Auden – Dylan Thomas
German writers focused on identity, guilt, and truth in language: – Max Frisch – Günter Grass Latin American writers explored the ambiguities of modernity. – Jorge Luis Borges – Pablo Neruda – Octavio Paz
Erich von Stroheim and Jean Renoir pioneered the “art film” which included: – Neorealist Bicycle Thieves La strada The Hustler The French Connection – New Wave film Breathless Jules and Jim
Painting: abstract expressionism. Rothko and Pollock’s
Populism and Industrialization in Latin America Latin American stayed out of World War II, and remained economically stagnant. – Depression of the 1930s reduced Latin America’s exports in commodities. – Leaders tried to industrialize by import substitution, making goods domestically.
Latin American slowly urbanized after 1945 but led to more income disparity. – Landless migratory workers settled in shantytowns in the cities. – “Informal sector” of peddling, repairing, and recycling developed. – Living in cities did provide educational and health opportunities. – Industrial labor force small, most Latin Americans worked on farms. Only Mexico and Brazil developed basic industrial goods: steel and chemicals.
Latin American states chose populism rather than capitalism or communism. – Emphasis on appealing to the ordinary people and their interests. – Venezuela, Colombia, and Costa Rica tried democracy in the 1950s. – Eight nations had populist regimes, including Argentina and Brazil. – Remaining Latin American states had authoritarian dictatorships.
Populism typified by “Peronism” – The rule of Argentina by. Perón was part of a military junta that seized Argentina in 1943.
Sympathized with urban workers, informal sector, and traditional crafts. Negotiated with unions for higher and minimum wages, and pensions.
Married Eva Duarte, who managed charitable social organizations.
Perón elected president of Argentina in 1946 and begins to industrialize and nationalize utilities and transportation. Perón also nationalized iron, steel, and construction industries. Machinery had to be imported and Truman refused to send Marshall Plan aid. Perón would serve a third term as president, 1973 – 1974 – His second wife Isabel Martínez de Perón would be president from 1974 – 1976
The End of Colonialism and the Rise of New Nations
Chinese communists won control of China in 1949, after a ten-year civil war. Mao Zedong adapted Marxism for peasants, communal farms, and decentralized village industrialization.
Land reform took land from landlords and distributed it to peasants. As many as 2 million landlords who resisted were killed. Began slow collectivization, using incentives to get peasants to share tools and machinery.
Mao’s “Let A Hundred Flowers Bloom” asked intellectuals for suggestions for reform. – Intellectuals complained more than expected and tried to start a second party. – By 1957 Mao is concerned that the intellectuals had gone too far. – Intellectuals were arrested and sent off for “reeducation.”
Mao launches Great Leap Forward, 1958– 1961 to speed up farm collectivization. – Farms were collectivized, with people living in barracks. – Small backyard steel furnaces were built, and farm implements melted down. – Peasants resisted seizure of land and farming tools. By 1962 some 30 million had died from famine.
Palestine Israel Britain handed the problem of Palestine over the United Nations. Created the state of Israel, which declared its independence in 1947. – Soviet Union allowed 200,000 Jews to immigrate to Israel. – Soviets sent weapons and planes, helped Israel to fight Arabs. The United States and Britain placed embargo on weapons to Arabs to help Israel. Palestinians fled from Israel and Jews were expelled from Arab lands.
Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser seized control of Egypt in a coup in 1952 and set up a military state. Led the “Free Officers” in land reform, to break up large estates Opposed by Muslim Brotherhood, who tried to create an Islamic state. Nasser outlawed the Muslim Brotherhood in 1954.
Once in office (as president) Nasser promoted Arab nationalism. Supported by Soviets with weapons and in building the Aswan Dam. Nationalized the Suez Canal from Britain and France. Closed Straits of Tiran in 1956, a major shipping lane for Israel, but forced to reopen it after the Suez War.
Britain and France no longer a player in Middle East politics. The United States inherits British interests in the area, to protect oil. Nasser part of Non-Aligned Movement in 1961, independent of superpowers (Bandung Conf.). – Nasser of Egypt – Sukarno of Indonesia – Tito of Yugoslavia
India Before and during the World War III three groups had vied for control of Indian subcontinent. – Indian National Congress wanted a secularized state modeled on Britain. – Muslim League wanted a separate religious state for Muslims – Hindu religious nationalists wanted Indian identity tied to Hinduism.
1947 British divided subcontinent into independent Pakistan and India. – Nearly two million people crossed the borders, and hundreds of thousands died in the exchange. – Pakistan divided in 1971, when Bangladesh declared its independence.
First war between India and Pakistan in 1947 over the Kashmir. – Region led by a Hindu prince but had a Muslim majority. – India conquered most of it, but still a source of dispute.
New nation of India adopted a British parliamentary and court system. Led by Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first prime minister. Adopted five-year plans from Soviets to increase agricultural output. Most pressing problem was poverty and overpopulation.
India was a hybrid capitalist-socialist state with private property and socialist state investments. State socialism focused on nationalizing heavy industry with loans and hampered by poor tax collection and food shortages.
The French Empire France wanted to restore its empire after World War II
The United States aided Vietnamese communists to fight Japanese in World War II. Ho Chi Minh, leader of communists, declared Vietnam independent in 1945. French convinced the United States to help, to prevent victory for communists. Geneva Conference, 1954 – French defeated in Vietnam – Negotiated a division of Indochina into: Two Vietnams Laos Cambodia.
The United States sent military aid to South Vietnam, first advisors then ground troops soldiers. Communist guerillas fought in South Vietnam and in Laos. In 1963 the South Vietnamese Army assassinated Ngo Dinh Diem United States continues to support the military government in the South.
Europe began to pull away from sub-Saharan African colonies in 1950s, as the cost of holding on to them became too high. Europe tried to influence new governments to be friendly with former colonial powers.
Europe had not developed African colonies, which needed large investments to build up industries. – Continued to rely on commodities exports. Ghana (Gold Coast), under Kwame Nkrumah, became independent of Britain in 1957. – Had a strong economy based on cocoa, and strong middle class. – Nkrumah overthrew the British inspired constitution in 1959 and – Eventually turned Ghana into a one-party state. Overthrown by a military coup, aided by the United States, in 1966.
Belgian Congo became a Cold War battlefield in the 1960. National elections were held in 1960, and nationalist Patrice Lumumba won. Lumumba became prime minister on a centrist platform.
Lumumba alienated the Belgians and the Congolese Army (which had Belgian officers). Order began to break down. Katanga province tried to break free, with Belgian support.
Lumumba brought in U.N. peacekeepers to restore order, but also took aid from Soviets to force Katanga to rejoin Congo. Divisions in government allowed Mobuto to stage a coup and have Lumumba killed, with the collusion of – Belgian – Britain – The U.S.