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FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT.  Political ideologies  Distribution of wealth  Changing class boundaries  Natural and man-made disasters  Impact of.

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Presentation on theme: "FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT.  Political ideologies  Distribution of wealth  Changing class boundaries  Natural and man-made disasters  Impact of."— Presentation transcript:

1 FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT

2  Political ideologies  Distribution of wealth  Changing class boundaries  Natural and man-made disasters  Impact of productive sector  Tourism

3  Ideologies are the sets of basic beliefs about the political, economic, social and cultural affairs held by the majority of people within as society.  An ideology is a collection of ideas. Typically, each ideology contains certain ideas on what it considers to be the best form of government and the best economic system (e.g. capitalism, socialism, etc.).

4  A political ideology largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and to what ends it should be used.  Political ideologies have two dimensions: ◦ Goals: How society should function or be organized. ◦ Methods: The most appropriate way to achieve this goal.

5  Ideologies also identify themselves by their position on the political spectrum (such as the left, the centre or the right), though this is very often controversial.  THE LEFT / LEFT-WING ◦ liberty. The freedom of speech and the right to dissent. ◦ equality. A classless society with the redistribution of wealth through a welfare state. ◦ fraternity. The communal brotherhood, working and living as one.

6  THE RIGHT/ RIGHT-WING ◦ authority. The preservation of order through an evolved authority. ◦ hierarchy. The continuation of the existing social order. ◦ property. The right to private ownership.

7  absolutism. System where the rulers have unlimited control.  anarchism. Society without government, laws, police or other authority. System of self-control.  aristocracy. The privilege of social class whose members possess disproportionately large percentage of society's wealth, prestige and political influence.  autocracy. Supreme political power is in the hands of one person whose decision are unregulated..  capitalism. Right-wing political system where the principle means of production and distribution are in private hands.  communism. Extreme left-wing ideology based on the revolutionary socialist teachings of Marx. Collective ownership and a planned economy. Each should work to their capability and receive according to their needs.

8  conservatism. Governmental system where the existing institution are maintained, emphasizing free-enterprise and minimal governmental intervention.  democracy. Government by the people usually through elected representatives.  dictatorship. Government by a single person with absolute control over the resources of the state.  egalitaranism. Belief where all citizens have equal rights and privileges.  fascism. Extreme right-wing ideology where the existing social order is protected by the forcible suppression of the working class.  imperialism. The extension of power and rule beyond established geographical boundaries.

9  liberalism. Representative government, free-speech, abolition of class privilege and state protection of the individual.  Marxism. Developed by Marx and Engles, it proposes that all is subject to change and resistance to change necessitates the overthrow of the system through class struggle.  Maoism. Interpretation of Marxist communism emphasizing the development of agriculture.  Monarchy. A form of rule in which the head of state is a King or Queen.  nationalism. The unification of the state and release from foreign rule.  oligarchy. A system of government in which virtually all power is held a small number of wealthy people who shape policy to benefit themselves.

10  populism. Collective noun for the ideologies which demand the redistribution of political power and economic leadership to the 'common people'.  socialism. Left-wing political system where the principle means of production, distribution and exchange are in common ownership.  theocracy. Rule by the church.  totalitarianism. Government control of all activities.  Trotskyism. Form of Marxism incorporating the concept of permanent revolution.

11  Promote ◦ Capitalist or free state/enterprise- dominant political ideology of the Caribbean  Hinder ◦ Marxist-type revolutions- attempts at increasing human equity (Grenada, 1979; Cuba,1959; Guyana, ’s)

12  Promote ◦ Social Mobility: the movement of a person from one status to another, either between generations or within a person's adult career. ◦ Measure: index of social and economic equalization  Hinder ◦ Poverty:- unable to provide basic needs If human development is about enlarging choices, poverty means that most basic opportunities and choices to human development are denied. From a human development perspective, poverty means more than the lack of what is necessary for material well-being. Recognising the poverty of choices and opportunities implies that poverty must be addressed in all its dimensions, not income alone.

13 ◦ Inequality:- ◦ Measure:  Levels of income  Human poverty Index: a measurement system based on what is lacking in different areas of the world. and it gathers data in developing countries and in those with higher incomes so a basis for comparison  Gini Index-The Gini index is defined as a ratio of the areas on the Lorenz curve diagram.  The Gini Index is a measure of the inequality of a distribution, a value of 0 expressing total equality and a value of 100 maximal inequality.

14  Gini Index Values (2004) ◦ Haiti -65 ◦ St. Vincent & the Grenadines- 60 ◦ U.S. – 36  High levels of poverty can coincide with a high Gini Index e.g. St. Vincent & the Grenadines  Low levels of poverty can coincide with a high Gini Index e.g. Antigua & Barbuda

15  Promote ◦ Social Mobility: the movement of a person from one status to another, either between generations or within a person's adult career.

16  Hinder ◦ Social Stratification: a hierarchy of positions with regard to economic production which influences the social rewards to those in the positions. ◦ Social Exclusion “Social exclusion is a broader concept than poverty, encompassing not only low material means but the inability to participate effectively in economic, social, political and cultural life and in some characterisations alienation and distance from mainstream society” (Duffy, 1995).

17  Promote ◦ Employment generated ◦ Increased planning: social, physical ◦ Infrastructural development: roads, bridges etc.  Hinder ◦ Destruction of the environment  Man-made, Natural ◦ Changes in developmental plans  Immediate aid  Diversion of funds and resources

18  Promote ◦ Reduced dependency on imports ◦ Increased foreign exchange earnings ◦ Employment generated  Hinder ◦ Increased environmental degradation  Pollution  Toxicity  Global warming / Carbon footprint

19  Promote ◦ Human resources development; skills ◦ Economic Development: jobs, foreign exchange ◦ Increased Linkages: agricultural development  Hinder ◦ Increased environmental degradation  Pollution/Toxicity  Beach erosion, Habitat Destruction ◦ Resentment among locals/Racial tensions ◦ Leakage: profits leave country

20  The three indicators of the human poverty index (HPI) ◦ The first deprivation relates to survival: the likeliness of death at a relatively early age and is represented by the probability of not surviving to ages 40 and 60 respectively for the HPI-1 and HPI-2. ◦ The second dimension relates to knowledge: being excluded from the world of reading and communication and is measured by the percentage of adults who are illiterate. ◦ The third aspect relates to a decent standard of living, in particular, overall economic provisioning.

21  s/ideologies.html  ideologies  ocial-stratification.php  MDG-Social/ _egm_avatthi.pdf (all rights reserved by relevant authors)


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