Presentation on theme: "FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT CARIBBEAN STUDIESFACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT
2FACTORS Political ideologies Distribution of wealth Changing class boundariesNatural and man-made disastersImpact of productive sectorTourism
3Political ideologies- Definition Ideologies are the sets of basic beliefs about the political, economic, social and cultural affairs held by the majority of people within as society.An ideology is a collection of ideas. Typically, each ideology contains certain ideas on what it considers to be the best form of government and the best economic system (e.g. capitalism, socialism, etc.).
4Political ideologiesA political ideology largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and to what ends it should be used.Political ideologies have two dimensions:Goals: How society should function or be organized.Methods: The most appropriate way to achieve this goal.
5Political ideologiesIdeologies also identify themselves by their position on the political spectrum (such as the left, the centre or the right), though this is very often controversial.THE LEFT / LEFT-WINGliberty. The freedom of speech and the right to dissent.equality. A classless society with the redistribution of wealth through a welfare state.fraternity. The communal brotherhood, working and living as one.
6Political ideologies THE RIGHT/ RIGHT-WING authority. The preservation of order through an evolved authority.hierarchy. The continuation of the existing social order.property. The right to private ownership.
7Political ideologies - Types absolutism. System where the rulers have unlimited control.anarchism. Society without government, laws, police or other authority. System of self-control.aristocracy. The privilege of social class whose members possess disproportionately large percentage of society's wealth, prestige and political influence.autocracy. Supreme political power is in the hands of one person whose decision are unregulated..capitalism. Right-wing political system where the principle means of production and distribution are in private hands.communism. Extreme left-wing ideology based on the revolutionary socialist teachings of Marx. Collective ownership and a planned economy. Each should work to their capability and receive according to their needs.
8Political ideologies - Types conservatism. Governmental system where the existing institution are maintained, emphasizing free-enterprise and minimal governmental intervention.democracy. Government by the people usually through elected representatives.dictatorship. Government by a single person with absolute control over the resources of the state.egalitaranism. Belief where all citizens have equal rights and privileges.fascism. Extreme right-wing ideology where the existing social order is protected by the forcible suppression of the working class.imperialism. The extension of power and rule beyond established geographical boundaries.
9Political ideologies - Types liberalism. Representative government, free-speech, abolition of class privilege and state protection of the individual.Marxism. Developed by Marx and Engles, it proposes that all is subject to change and resistance to change necessitates the overthrow of the system through class struggle.Maoism. Interpretation of Marxist communism emphasizing the development of agriculture.Monarchy. A form of rule in which the head of state is a King or Queen.nationalism. The unification of the state and release from foreign rule.oligarchy. A system of government in which virtually all power is held a small number of wealthy people who shape policy to benefit themselves.
10Political ideologies - Types populism. Collective noun for the ideologies which demand the redistribution of political power and economic leadership to the 'common people'.socialism. Left-wing political system where the principle means of production, distribution and exchange are in common ownership.theocracy. Rule by the church.totalitarianism. Government control of all activities.Trotskyism. Form of Marxism incorporating the concept of permanent revolution.
11Political ideologies - Caribbean PromoteCapitalist or free state/enterprise- dominant political ideology of the CaribbeanHinderMarxist-type revolutions- attempts at increasing human equity (Grenada, 1979; Cuba,1959; Guyana, ’s)
12Distribution of wealth PromoteSocial Mobility: the movement of a person from one status to another, either between generations or within a person's adult career.Measure: index of social and economic equalizationHinderPoverty:- unable to provide basic needsIf human development is about enlarging choices, poverty means that most basic opportunities and choices to human development are denied. From a human development perspective, poverty means more than the lack of what is necessary for material well-being. Recognising the poverty of choices and opportunities implies that poverty must be addressed in all its dimensions, not income alone.
13Distribution of wealth Inequality:-Measure:Levels of incomeHuman poverty Index: a measurement system based on what is lacking in different areas of the world. and it gathers data in developing countries and in those with higher incomes so a basis for comparisonGini Index-The Gini index is defined as a ratio of the areas on the Lorenz curve diagram.The Gini Index is a measure of the inequality of a distribution, a value of 0 expressing total equality and a value of 100 maximal inequality.
14Distribution of wealth- Caribbean Gini Index Values (2004)Haiti -65St. Vincent & the Grenadines- 60U.S. – 36High levels of poverty can coincide with a high Gini Index e.g. St. Vincent & the GrenadinesLow levels of poverty can coincide with a high Gini Index e.g. Antigua & Barbuda
15Changing class boundaries PromoteSocial Mobility: the movement of a person from one status to another, either between generations or within a person's adult career.
16Changing class boundaries HinderSocial Stratification: a hierarchy of positions with regard to economic production which influences the social rewards to those in the positions.Social Exclusion“Social exclusion is a broader concept than poverty,encompassing not only low material means but theinability to participate effectively in economic, social,political and cultural life and in some characterisationsalienation and distance from mainstream society” (Duffy,1995).
17Natural and man-made disasters PromoteEmployment generatedIncreased planning: social, physicalInfrastructural development: roads, bridges etc.HinderDestruction of the environmentMan-made, NaturalChanges in developmental plansImmediate aidDiversion of funds and resources
18Impact of Productive Sector PromoteReduced dependency on importsIncreased foreign exchange earningsEmployment generatedHinderIncreased environmental degradationPollutionToxicityGlobal warming / Carbon footprint
19Tourism Promote Hinder Human resources development; skills Economic Development: jobs, foreign exchangeIncreased Linkages: agricultural developmentHinderIncreased environmental degradationPollution/ToxicityBeach erosion, Habitat DestructionResentment among locals/Racial tensionsLeakage: profits leave country
20Appendix The three indicators of the human poverty index (HPI) The first deprivation relates to survival: the likeliness of death at a relatively early age and is represented by the probability of not surviving to ages 40 and 60 respectively for the HPI-1 and HPI-2.The second dimension relates to knowledge: being excluded from the world of reading and communication and is measured by the percentage of adults who are illiterate.The third aspect relates to a decent standard of living, in particular, overall economic provisioning.
21Sources http://www.fisicx.com/quickreference/politic s/ideologies.html ocial-stratification.phpMDG-Social/ _egm_avatthi.pdf(all rights reserved by relevant authors)