Presentation on theme: "IDs and Definitions Duce/Fuehrer (definition) Stalin"— Presentation transcript:
1IDs and Definitions Duce/Fuehrer (definition) Stalin Dawes Plan / Young PlanMein KampfDuce/Fuehrer- Absolute leaderStalin- Dictator of the USSR after Lenin and Bolshevik revolution. Instituted rapid military and industrial reform in order to match power of Western countries. Ran a repressive and brutal dictatorship. All sectors of soviet society put into motion by force for modernization. Eliminated all political opponents.Dawes Plan/Young Plan- American financial assistance and loan to Germany after World War I in order to rebuild the country. The Young Plan came in light of the Great Depression to make it easier on the Germans to repay the loans.Mein Kampf- My struggle. Adolf Hitler’s memoirs. His struggle to take over political positions in the early 1920’s.
2Questions and Imperatives Describe a “totalitarian regime,” giving examples from the regimes of Hitler and Stalin.Discuss the changes in Italy following WWI.Describe the 3 phases of the Weimar Republic.How did Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin come to power in their respective nations?Can personal liberty be maintained under conditions of material hardship? (Class discussion)Leadership by a charismatic and intolerant leader, in this case Hitler and Stalin specifically. Leader was above the law and his will became the focus of the nation. Stalin enacting the modernization programs at the expense of his people’s well being was an example. Also, Hitler’s Nazi regime destroyed many of the civil liberties of the American people under the Weimar republic. All opponents were considered traitors and often executed. They also privileged one group of people over another, in Stalin’s case the socialists that had his same political view and in Hitler’s case the Arian race.After a period of unrest and instability in Italian leadership, Benito Mussolini and his fascist party rose to power. The Fascist party eliminated all opposition. Mussolini formed a sort of agreement with the RCC and made it religion of the nation. The image of an absolutely powerful Italian state was different than the reality, many of the people did not catch on with the Fascist state.Hitler- Hitler attempted to overthrow the Bavarian government in the 1920’s. He eventually rose to power in the Nazi party as their leader. Once the great depression hit, Hitler’s Nazi party increased in popularity amongst Germans with his promises such as restoring the economy and ridding the Germans of the Versailles Treaty. Once the Nazi party gained a majority in the legislature he was assigned chancellor. Coupled with the Nazi majority and Hindenburg’s death Hitler was granted supreme dictatorship. Mussolini- Mussolini started the Fascist movement in Italy and marched on Rome to secure power. The King refused to use force against him and the liberal government resigned. The King then appointed Mussolini prime minister. Through a new election law the Fascist party was able to gain control and grant Mussolini the supreme power over Italy as Il Duce. Stalin- Stalin was already the General Secretary of the Communist party and used several tactics to gain power. With Lenin’s death the opportunity was open for him to assume party. He made himself seem as Lenin’s closest associate and killed his two opponents Trotsky and Bukharin. He also built support within the party because of his position he had more control.
3Modern Totalitarianabsolute control by the state or centralized governmentmonopoly in power by the partymonopoly over the arts (use aesthetic environment to glorify ruling party)a one man leadership, over all means of the communityCensorshipsuppression of individualism and initiativePropagandano existence of other partiesterroristic police & secret institutions instigate terrorism to carry out directives = (gangsterism)future looking toward utopia and universalism (spread to world)psychology of hatred of the enemymilitarism (rearming receives top economic priority)collectivism (weaken family and individual identity)...state run nurseries, youth groups, uniformscoercion, keep population in permanent state of fearpossible genocide when political violence pushed beyond limits
4Stalin had been party secretary, paper pusher, had kept membership listTrotsky had no party following and therefore wasleft out on a limbat first Stalin laid low untiltried to break the backs of the Kulak classthe Kulaks protested by burning their stuff and they were sent to the Gulagnow there was forced collectivization, Stalin’s personal rulehe formulated a five-year plan to command the economy by party expropriations from the factoriesHe ruled the economy with an iron hand, telling what should be produced (there was no private market)He weeded out the Jews of the Bolshevik leadership...he was an anti-SemitePurges of 1934:removal of party members, secret police would arrest and denounce them, torture them and force them to sign, saying they were guilty2/3 of the generals of the soviet army were shot for conspiring with the Germans, imprisonment in gulags and forced labor killed millions
6Italy Italy felt like a defeated power after WWI, not victorious Italy came into the war a year after it began; during thatyear deciding which side would benefit herfelt betrayed by the English and Americansno fulfillment of the Treaty of Versailles for Italyhad been promised huge territories in the pact of London, April 1915 if they came into the war on the side of the alliesWilson’s “self-determination” caused Italy’s inability to fulfill territorial ambition (i.e. Italy lost in formation of Yugoslavia)Italy felt estranged, wanted to avenge the mutilated victorythey emerged as a battered country and the people blamed the governmenthad hardly any resources to begin with, a miracle they got through the warafterward, there was high inflation and unemployment, a rise of social violence, strikes, social and economic chaos (manipulation)soldiers came back to menial jobs, their minds barbarized by war
8Unified Italy??Many in Italy never wanted a unified country; they regarding Rome as an enemywhere Germans were law abiding, Italians rose upjails filled with many Italianswe will revoke your sentences if you join the special fighting forcesthey were armed with knives and grenades to fight Austria during warnow they came home and followed Mussolini, became his squadthey were born and breed in violence
9MUSSOLINI (1883-1945) born in NE Italy, father was an active socialist Mussolini was a tough kidbelieved Italy should involve herself in the War on the side of the allies) it would spark revolution)fought and was injured in the War, returned home to politicsjoined the socialist party like his father and started to make a name for himself as a young mana powerful orator and writerone of the most outspoken critics of the government and spokesman for veteranshis socialist ideas changed to ideas of nationalismin the year following War, Italy experienced social unrest from political instabilityMussolini hated liberalism and it was then Fascism was bornMussolini became the Duce (leader)
11FascismMussolini founded the movement (1919), consisted of nationalist intellectuals and war veterans, starting with about 100 followersfrom Latin word fasces (“sticks bound around an ax handle, used in ancient Rome as a symbol of unity” or from Italian “union of forces”)Fascists were mostly from lower middle class with many veterans (blamed government for battered country)the Fascist program was a combination of Socialist and nationalist demandsthey wanted territorial expansion, land reform for peasants, and benefits for workersMussolini spoke out against other socialist parties and started to grow support from the middle classes and conservatives, but he did not become their puppet
13How Mussolini got support Fascist thugs went out at night and beat up members of socialist gatheringsfear of Communism spread over Italy in (as it would in Germany)Mussolini secured financial support from the rich (who feared communism)big landowners financed Mussolini against the Bolshevik threatBlackshirts were sent out to the countryside as security for the landowners# of fascists grew quicklyItalian government began to break down in 1922 from all the chaosMussolini enjoyed the support of the lower middle class
14Mussolini comes to power Mussolini came into power 11 yrs before HitlerKing Victor Emmanuel called on Mussolini to form a cabinet, become Prime MinisterOn October 28, 1922, Mussolini was appointed to resolve the crisisMussolini seized all power legally after widespread violence and uprisingshe was granted dictatorial power for 1 year by the King and parliamentin 1924, the Fascists party had the majority of representatives in parliamentthat same year, the leader of the socialist opposition in Parliament (Matteotti who had exposed the fascists illegal activities in election) was murderedopposition demanded Mussolini’s armed guards be disbanded and violence bannedMussolini chose to move ahead
15A Fascist State imposed repressive measures made known his desire to make nation a fascist stateimposed repressive measures- freedom of the press was abolished- elections were fixed- arrested his political opponents- disbanded labor unions- fascists controlled the schools- created a fascists youth movement (see pg. 1064, text)Mussolini’s famous slogan in 1926“Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state”Mussolini gained support from the Catholic Church- Lateran Agreement of 1929 recognized the Vatican as a tiny independent state- he gave the Church financial support- the Pope urged Italians to support MussoliniMussolini abolished divorce and told women to stay home and produce children
16Germany after the warWeimar Republic formed by the provisional government (Social Democratic Party) in Germany following the Warother parties (Marxists and right-wing radicals) saw an opportunity and tried to take controlBetween January 6 and January 15, 1919, Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht attempted a coup in Berlincalled Sparticus week as the group led by the two were called Sparticistsgovernment troops and Freikorps put down the coup, much bloodshedLuxemburg and Liebknecht were arrested and killed on the way to jail
17ROSA LUXEMBURG a brilliant writer leader of radical socialists stressed the revolutionary character of MarxismLenin was willing to sign the Brest-Litovsk Treaty with the hope that Luxemburg and Liebknecht would start revolution in GermanyLuxemburg canonized as a communist saint
19Continued Problems Weimar Republic was compromise that no one wanted, therefore constant coup attemptsSparticus Week, 1920 Kapp PutschAllies had pronounced Germany guilty of starting the war and many Germans could not accept that, “stab in the back” well received!economic difficulties plagued Germany undermining the Republicunemployment was widespreadgovernment printed millions of dollars worth of paper moneygovernment issued new currency in 1923 and the economy stabilized
20America helps Germany – Why? America realized the problems Germany had paying war reparations, introduced 2 plansDawes Plan in 1924delay payments for 2 years$200,000,000 loan with regular paymentson an increasing scaleGermany, with economy restored, was then able to borrow abroad for public works projects and rebuild industryYoung Plan in 1929revised the reparation paymentsloan of $300,000,000 with payments over 59 years
21Origins of Nazi PartyNSDAP, National Socialist German Workers Party, founded as German Workers Partyanti-Semitism characterized its meetingsAdolf Hitler joined the party in fall 1919, was his job to find out what was going on in the meetings, any extremist parties, Ernst Roehm had recruited him as a civilian investigatorhe was taken with the group and became its leader in 1921Nazi party based on leadership principle of a fuhrer (leader)Ernst Roehm formed the Brown Shirts (SA), a paramilitary group and the swastika appeared and would be used as the symbol for the Nazi party
22Nazis SA seemed mostly to be thugs, watched out for party leaders but then the SS was found by Himmler, an elite version of the SA, brutal, but in a refined sort of way, became Hitler’s guardHitler gave talks at rallies, tried to get people to believe in the “stab in the back”1923 putsch in Munich (putsch is an uprising), party attempted to take over the government, Hitler was arrested and spent about 9 months in prison, writing Mein KampfWhen it came to punishment...right wingers got a slap on the wrist whereas the Communists were jailed
23Hitler realizes… The way to take power in Germany LEGALLY Get into the governmentNazis in the ReichstagHitler sends Goebbels to BerlinLittle comes of it until…?
24Phases of the Weimar Republic EARLYMIDDLELATEWas the Weimar Republic doomed from the start?
25DISCUSSION QUESTION: Similarity in polarity? – Fascism versus Communism?