2ORIGINS OF PROGRESSIVISM As America entered into the 20th century, middle class reformers addressed many social problems: work conditions, rights for women and children, economic reform, environmental issues, and social welfare were a few of these issues
3FOUR GOALS OF REFORMERS 1) Protect Social Welfare2) Promote Moral Improvement3) Create Economic Reform4) Foster Efficiency
4PROTECT SOCIAL WELFARE Industrialization in the late 19th century was largely unregulatedEmployers felt little responsibility toward their workersAs a result Settlement homes and churches served the communityAlso the YMCA and Salvation Army took on service roles
5PROMOTE MORAL DEVELOPMENT Some reformers felt that the answer to societies problems was personal behaviorThey proposed such reforms as prohibitionGroups wishing to ban alcohol included the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
6CREATE ECONOMIC REFORM The Panic of prompted some Americans to question the capitalist economic systemAs a result some workers embraced socialismEugene Debs organized the American Socialist Party in 1901Debs encouraged workers to reject American Capitalism
7FOSTERING EFFICIENCYMany Progressive leaders put their faith in scientific principles to make society betterIn Industry, Frederick Taylor began using time & motion studies to improve factory efficiencyTaylorism became an Industry fad as factories sought to complete each task quickly
8CLEANING UP LOCAL GOVERNMENT Efforts at reforming local government stemmed from the desire to make government more efficient and responsive to citizensSome believe it also was meant to limit immigrants influence in local governments
9REGULATING BIG BUSINESS Under the progressive Republican leadership of Robert La Follette, Wisconsin led the way in regulating big businessRobert La Follette
10PROTECTING WORKING CHILDREN As the number of child workers rose, reformers worked to end child laborChildren were more prone to accidents caused by fatigueNearly every state limited or banned child labor by 1918
11EFFORTS TO LIMIT HOURSThe Supreme Court and the states enacted or strengthened laws reducing women’s hours of workProgressives also succeeded in winning worker’s compensation to aid families of injured workers
12ELECTION REFORMCitizens fought for, and won, such measures as secret ballots, referendum votes, and the recallCitizens could petition and get initiatives on the ballotIn 1899, Minnesota passed the first statewide primary system
13DIRECT ELECTION OF SENATORS Before 1913, each state’s legislature had chosen its own U.S. senatorsTo force senators to be more responsive to the public, progressives pushed for the popular election of senatorsAs a result, Congress passed the th Amendment (1913)
15The Election of 1900McKinley defeats William Jennings Bryan in the Election of Theodore Roosevelt ran as McKinley’s Vice-President.
16President William McKinley President McKinley was shot by anarchistLeon Czolgosz as he shook hands and met people at the Pan American Exposition held in Buffalo, NY, during the summer of His wounds were not considered life-threatening, and although it appeared McKinley was recovering, gangrene developed which eventually caused McKinley to die. McKinley died on September 14, Vice President Theodore Roosevelt became the new President.
17Immigration1. Between 1870 and million immigrants came to live in the United States. 2. After 1900, most came from southern and eastern Europe.Italian Immigrants Eastern Europe
18ImmigrationReasons so many immigrants came to America include political, economic, and religious reasonsFactory jobs were plentiful during America’s Industrial RevolutionMany Irish immigrated because of a potato faminePolitical turmoil in Germany caused thousands of Germans to immigrate300,000 Chinese came to work on the railroads or to seek gold in California90,000 Japanese also immigrated to the West coastCanada, Sweden, and France sent thousands of immigrantsIn big cities, many immigrants ended up in ramshackle conditions or tenementsThe U.S. has a history of racism anddiscrimination against numerous groups ofpeople.
19Chinese exclusion actBe it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,That from and after the expiration of ninety days next after the passage of this act, and until the expiration of ten years next after the passage of this act, the coming of Chinese laborers to the United States be, and the same is hereby, suspended; and during such suspension it shall not be lawful for any Chinese laborer to come, or, having so come after the expiration of said ninety days, to remain within the United States.Preamble. Whereas, in the opinion of the Government of the United States the coming of Chinese laborers to this country endangers the good order of certain localities within the territory thereof:
20Standard Oil3. Standard Oil owned by John D. Rockefeller controlled 95% of oil refining in the United States. 4. It appeared that industrialization was threatening the future of the nation.Companies like Standard Oil squeezed out allits competition and became monopolies.
21Sherman anti-trust act of 1890 This law was the first measure passed by the U.S. Congress to prohibit abusive monopoliesA monopoly is a situation in which there is a single supplier or seller of a good or service for which there are no close substitutesMonopolies control prices of goods and servicesPrices stay higher with no competition-Corporations get biggerNo President enforced this law until Theodore Roosevelt became PresidentThe Government is cutting down trusts andcorporations that form monopolies
22Women Take the Lead5. The most well-known woman reformer was Jane Addams who tried to bring the poor and the rich, the immigrant and the native born all under one roof. She established Hull House which provided new comers with English lessons, employment advice, and child care. 6. Progressivism simply meant the quest for progress in problems that were plaguing American society in politics and the economy.
23A Clash of cultures7. Often, the nation’s poor, especially immigrants, wanted no part in the nation’s progressive reform. 8. Progressives wanted parks and playgrounds to be built while immigrants and workers preferred ball fields and sandlots. 9. Many immigrants also worried that progressive reformers wanted to destroy their ethnic cultures.
24WOMEN IN PUBLIC LIFEBefore the Civil War, American women were expected to devote their time to home and family.By the late 19th and early 20th century, women were visible in the workforce.
25DOMESTIC WORKERSBefore the turn-of-the- century, women without formal education contributed to the economic welfare of their families by doing domestic work.Altogether, 70% of women employed in 1870 were servants.
26WOMEN IN THE WORK FORCEOpportunities for women increased especially in the citiesBy 1900, one out of five women workedThe garment trade was popular as was office work, department stores, and classrooms
27Colleges like Vassar and Smith allowed women to excel WOMEN LEAD REFORMMany of the leading progressive reformers were womenMiddle and upper class women also entered the public sphere as reformersMany of these women had graduated from new women’s collegesColleges like Vassar and Smith allowed women to excel
28WOMEN AND REFORMWomen reformers strove to improve conditions at work and homeIn 1896, black women formed the National Association of Colored Women (NACW)Suffrage was another important issue for women
29THREE-PART STRATEGY FOR WINNING SUFFRAGE Suffragists tried three approaches to winning the vote:1) Convince state legislatures to adopt vote (Succeeded in Wyoming, Utah, Idaho, Colorado)2) Pursue court cases to test 14th Amendment3) Push for national constitutional Amendment
32Jane addamsJane Addams is remembered primarily as a founder of the Settlement House Movement. She and her friend Ellen Starr founded Hull House in the slums of Chicago in She is also remembered as the first American Woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize.
33Hull House A nursery at Hull House Hull House, located on Chicago’s west side helped thousands of immigrantsand poor live decent lives.
34TEDDY ROOSEVELT’S SQUARE DEAL When President William McKinley was assassinated 6 months into his second term, Theodore Roosevelt became the nation’s 26th president. He promised a “square deal” for all Americans.McKinley was assassinated by an anarchist in Buffalo in September of 1901
35THE MODERN PRESIDENTWhen Roosevelt was thrust into the presidency in 1901, he became the youngest president ever at age 42.He quickly established himself as a modern president who could influence the media and shape legislation.
36ROOSEVELT AND THE ROUGH RIDERS Roosevelt grabbed national attention by advocating war with Spain in 1898His volunteer cavalry brigade, the Rough Riders, won public acclaim for its role in the battle at San Juan Hill in CubaRoosevelt returned a hero and was soon elected governor of NY and later McKinley’s vice-president
381902 COAL STRIKEIn ,000 coal miners in Pennsylvania went on strike for increased wages, a 9-hour work day, and the right to unionizeMine owners refused to bargainRoosevelt called in both sides and settled the disputeThereafter, when a strike threatened public welfare, the federal government was expected to step in and help
39Muckrakers & Bosses10. Muckrakers were journalists who exposed the waste and greed of the modern United States. 11. Their investigations began in the slums and led upward to urban political bosses who took bribes for city construction contracts or awarded them to their friends.
40Famous muckrakersUpton Sinclair wrote the book The Jungle, exposing the underbelly of theMeatpacking industry of early 1900’s America. This book led to thePassage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.Ida Tarbell published The Rise of the Standard Oil Company in 1902, providing insight into the manipulation of trusts.
41Election of 1904In the election of 1904, Theodore Roosevelt promised the American people that henever run for re-election again. That was a promise he would regret in 1912.
42Political Bosses12. Bosses also provided valuable services to immigrants. In turn, the immigrant was expected to vote for the boss and his party. 13. Progressives attempted to limit the power of bosses but failed to oust them; however, it did lead to laws about how elections should be handled. The secret ballot was introduced to keep bosses from knowing who voted for them. 14. Voter registration laws prevented bosses from stuffing ballot boxes with invented names or paying people to vote multiple times. New laws required cities to award police, fire, and teaching jobs according to merit.
43Political BossesA person who wields the power over a particular political region or constituencyMay dictate voting patternsMay dictate appointmentsWield influence over the regionMay not hold political office
44TRUSTBUSTINGBy 1900, Trusts – legal bodies created to hold stock in many companies – controlled 80% of U.S. industriesRoosevelt filed 44 antitrust suits under the Sherman Antitrust Act
45Fighting the Trusts15. A trust is a large business working in one sector of the economy. People wanted to bust trusts because they were causing prices to go up.Examples of TrustsStandard Oil Company (95% of oil industry)American Sugar Refining Company (98% of sugar industryNorthern Securities Company (Railroad company)A trust is a legal body that has stock in many companies, often in 1 industry
46Workman’s compensation 17. Another progressive reform for workers was Workers’ Compensation to help workers who were injured on the job.Workman’s Comp helps peoplewho have been hurt while on the job.
47The Jungle16. Upton Sinclair’s novel, The Jungle, exposed the gruesome filth in the meat-packing industry in the United States.
48THE JUNGLE LEADS TO FOOD REGULATION After reading The Jungle by Upton Sinclair, Roosevelt pushed for passage of the Meat Inspection Act of 1906The Act mandated cleaner conditions for meatpacking plants
49Meat Inspection Act18. President Roosevelt backed two important reform bills in The Meat Inspection Act which required refrigeration and other health precautions in the meat industry and the Pure Food and Drug Act which banned false labeling on packages.After President Theodore Roosevelt read Upton Sinclair’s Book The Jungle,he immediately began legislation to regulate and purify America’s food supply.
50PURE FOOD AND DRUG ACTIn response to unregulated claims and unhealthy products, Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906The Act halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines and called for truth in labelingThe Pure Food and Drug Act took medicines with cocaine and other harmful ingredients off the market
51Roosevelt, the conservationist 19. Roosevelt also added more than 100 million acres to the national forest system.
52ROOSEVELT AND THE ENVIRONMENT Before Roosevelt’s presidency, the federal government paid very little attention to the nation’s natural resourcesRoosevelt made conservation a primary concern of his administrationRoosevelt, left, was an avid outdoorsman – here he is with author John Muir at Yosemite Park
53ROOSEVELT’S ENVIROMENTAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS Roosevelt set aside 148 million acres of forest reservesHe also set aside 1.5 million acres of water- power sites and he established 50 wildlife sanctuaries and several national parksYellowstone National Park, Wyoming
58First Wildlife Refuge in U.S. Pelican Island, FL
59Roosevelt and Wilson20. Roosevelt’s handpicked successor to the White House, William Howard Taft broke up more trusts than Roosevelt.
60William Howard Taft (1909-13) Taft busted up more trusts thanRoosevelt, but he failed to carryout all of Roosevelt’s progressivepolicies which created a rift betweenthe two once good friends. As a result,Roosevelt went back on his promiseto never run for President again. Hemade that pledge to the Americanpeople when he ran for his own termof office in 1904.Taft is the only Presidentwho later became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
61PROGRESSIVISM UNDER PRESIDENT TAFT Republican William Howard Taft easily defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan to win the 1908 presidential electionAmong his accomplishments, Taft “busted” 90 trusts during his 4 years in officeTaft, right, was Roosevelt’s War Secretary
62Taft and His tubTaft once got stuck in the White House bathtub and had to have a specially made tub. It was large enough for 4 men to sit in it.
64Taft called the Presidency, “The lonesomest job in the world” TAFT LOSES POWER21. Roosevelt felt betrayed by Taft when he failed to support certain progressive programs, resulting in Roosevelt’s decision to recapture the White House in Roosevelt ran under the Progressive Party.Taft was not popular with the American public nor reform minded Republicans.By 1910, Democrats had regained control of the House of Representatives.Taft called the Presidency, “The lonesomest job in the world”
651912 ELECTIONRepublicans split in between Taft and Teddy Roosevelt (who returned after a long trip to Africa)Convention delegates nominated TaftSome Republicans formed a third party – The Bull Moose Party and nominated RooseveltThe Democrats put forward a reform - minded New Jersey Governor, Woodrow WilsonRepublicans split in 1912
66Election of 191222. Although it was a three person race for the 1912 election, the real race was between Theodore Roosevelt and the Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson. 23. Wilson promised to free the nation of trusts and bring back the nation of small businesses.Woodrow Theodore Wm. HowardWilson Roosevelt Taft
67Woodrow Wilson ( )Set up a federal banking system through the Federal Reserve ActPassed the Clayton Anti- Trust Act to reign in big businessSet up Federal Trade Commission to stop unfair trade practicesWas President when the 16 Amendment place an income tax on AmericansLed the United States through World War I
68WILSON’S NEW FREEDOMAs America’s newly elected president, Wilson moved to enact his program, the “New Freedom”He planned his attack on what he called the triple wall of privilege: trusts, tariffs, and high financeW. Wilson U.S. President
69Freedom? Whose Freedom?24. Wilson ordered the segregation of black Americans in federal buildings.Many historians consider Wilson a racistHe put segregationist white southerners in charge of many executive departmentsHe reduced the number of African-American appointees to political positionsHe segregated Federal buildingsHe imposed full segregation in the nation’s capital
70Violence continues25. Between , more Americans were lynched in the US than were legally executed, most of whom were black.The Tuskegee Institute has recorded 3,446 blacks and 1,297 whites were lynched between 1882 and 1968.
71Washington and dubois26. Two black Americans, Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois, viewed America’s race problem in different ways: Washington, President of Tuskegee Institute, believed that blacks should develop vocational skills. Du Bois demanded immediate and equal rights for African Americans in schools, housing, and employment.
72Booker T. WashingtonHe was the dominant leader in the African-American community in the United States from 1890 to 1915He was born into slavery and not highly educatedIn 1881 he became the first leader of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama which was a school for African-Americans to learn different tradesWashington believed if black people could learn a trade or a skill that they could live peacefully in mostly segregated America
73W.E.B. DuboisGraduated from Harvard where he was the first African-American to earn a doctorateHe became a professor of history, sociology, and economics at Atlanta UniversityHe founded the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)Fought for full equal rights for blacks
74NAACP FORMED TO PROMOTE RIGHTS In 1909 a number of African Americans and prominent white reformers formed the National Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleThe NAACP had 6,000 members by 1914The goal of the organization was full equality among the racesThe means to achieve this was the court system1964 Application
75Socialism in America27. Socialists believed that American workers not their bosses should own the nation’s industries. 28. Law enforcement authorities tried to silence the Socialists by jailing them. 29. Socialist Presidential candidate Eugene V. Debs was jailed and sentenced to prison for opposing the draft during World War I.
76What is socialism?A socialist economic system consists of a system of production and distribution organized to directly satisfy economic demands and human needs, so that goods and services would be produced directly for use instead of for private profit driven by the accumulation of capitalSocialism calls for public ownership of all major industries such as manufacturing, banking, energy companies, media services, transportation services, and medical servicesIt tries to take power from those who hold the wealth of a country
77Women suffragists30. Suffragists were women who worked for women’s right to vote.The 19th Amendment to the Constitution outlawed denyingthe right to vote based on gender. Passed in 1920, womenfinally achieved a precious right that had been denied fora long time.