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The Progressive Era.

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1 The Progressive Era

2 ORIGINS OF PROGRESSIVISM
As America entered into the 20th century, middle class reformers addressed many social problems: work conditions, rights for women and children, economic reform, environmental issues, and social welfare were a few of these issues

3 FOUR GOALS OF REFORMERS
1) Protect Social Welfare 2) Promote Moral Improvement 3) Create Economic Reform 4) Foster Efficiency

4 PROTECT SOCIAL WELFARE
Industrialization in the late 19th century was largely unregulated Employers felt little responsibility toward their workers As a result Settlement homes and churches served the community Also the YMCA and Salvation Army took on service roles

5 PROMOTE MORAL DEVELOPMENT
Some reformers felt that the answer to societies problems was personal behavior They proposed such reforms as prohibition Groups wishing to ban alcohol included the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)

6 CREATE ECONOMIC REFORM
The Panic of prompted some Americans to question the capitalist economic system As a result some workers embraced socialism Eugene Debs organized the American Socialist Party in 1901 Debs encouraged workers to reject American Capitalism

7 FOSTERING EFFICIENCY Many Progressive leaders put their faith in scientific principles to make society better In Industry, Frederick Taylor began using time & motion studies to improve factory efficiency Taylorism became an Industry fad as factories sought to complete each task quickly

8 CLEANING UP LOCAL GOVERNMENT
Efforts at reforming local government stemmed from the desire to make government more efficient and responsive to citizens Some believe it also was meant to limit immigrants influence in local governments

9 REGULATING BIG BUSINESS
Under the progressive Republican leadership of Robert La Follette, Wisconsin led the way in regulating big business Robert La Follette

10 PROTECTING WORKING CHILDREN
As the number of child workers rose, reformers worked to end child labor Children were more prone to accidents caused by fatigue Nearly every state limited or banned child labor by 1918

11 EFFORTS TO LIMIT HOURS The Supreme Court and the states enacted or strengthened laws reducing women’s hours of work Progressives also succeeded in winning worker’s compensation to aid families of injured workers

12 ELECTION REFORM Citizens fought for, and won, such measures as secret ballots, referendum votes, and the recall Citizens could petition and get initiatives on the ballot In 1899, Minnesota passed the first statewide primary system

13 DIRECT ELECTION OF SENATORS
Before 1913, each state’s legislature had chosen its own U.S. senators To force senators to be more responsive to the public, progressives pushed for the popular election of senators As a result, Congress passed the th Amendment (1913)

14 The Election of 1896

15 The Election of 1900 McKinley defeats William Jennings Bryan in the Election of Theodore Roosevelt ran as McKinley’s Vice-President.

16 President William McKinley
President McKinley was shot by anarchist Leon Czolgosz as he shook hands and met people at the Pan American Exposition held in Buffalo, NY, during the summer of His wounds were not considered life-threatening, and although it appeared McKinley was recovering, gangrene developed which eventually caused McKinley to die. McKinley died on September 14, Vice President Theodore Roosevelt became the new President.

17 Immigration 1. Between 1870 and million immigrants came to live in the United States. 2. After 1900, most came from southern and eastern Europe. Italian Immigrants Eastern Europe

18 Immigration Reasons so many immigrants came to America include political, economic, and religious reasons Factory jobs were plentiful during America’s Industrial Revolution Many Irish immigrated because of a potato famine Political turmoil in Germany caused thousands of Germans to immigrate 300,000 Chinese came to work on the railroads or to seek gold in California 90,000 Japanese also immigrated to the West coast Canada, Sweden, and France sent thousands of immigrants In big cities, many immigrants ended up in ramshackle conditions or tenements The U.S. has a history of racism and discrimination against numerous groups of people.

19 Chinese exclusion act Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That from and after the expiration of ninety days next after the passage of this act, and until the expiration of ten years next after the passage of this act, the coming of Chinese laborers to the United States be, and the same is hereby, suspended; and during such suspension it shall not be lawful for any Chinese laborer to come, or, having so come after the expiration of said ninety days, to remain within the United States. Preamble. Whereas, in the opinion of the Government of the United States the coming of Chinese laborers to this country endangers the good order of certain localities within the territory thereof:

20 Standard Oil 3. Standard Oil owned by John D. Rockefeller controlled 95% of oil refining in the United States. 4. It appeared that industrialization was threatening the future of the nation. Companies like Standard Oil squeezed out all its competition and became monopolies.

21 Sherman anti-trust act of 1890
This law was the first measure passed by the U.S. Congress to prohibit abusive monopolies A monopoly is a situation in which there is a single supplier or seller of a good or service for which there are no close substitutes Monopolies control prices of goods and services Prices stay higher with no competition-Corporations get bigger No President enforced this law until Theodore Roosevelt became President The Government is cutting down trusts and corporations that form monopolies

22 Women Take the Lead 5. The most well-known woman reformer was Jane Addams who tried to bring the poor and the rich, the immigrant and the native born all under one roof. She established Hull House which provided new comers with English lessons, employment advice, and child care. 6. Progressivism simply meant the quest for progress in problems that were plaguing American society in politics and the economy.

23 A Clash of cultures 7. Often, the nation’s poor, especially immigrants, wanted no part in the nation’s progressive reform. 8. Progressives wanted parks and playgrounds to be built while immigrants and workers preferred ball fields and sandlots. 9. Many immigrants also worried that progressive reformers wanted to destroy their ethnic cultures.

24 WOMEN IN PUBLIC LIFE Before the Civil War, American women were expected to devote their time to home and family. By the late 19th and early 20th century, women were visible in the workforce.

25 DOMESTIC WORKERS Before the turn-of-the- century, women without formal education contributed to the economic welfare of their families by doing domestic work. Altogether, 70% of women employed in 1870 were servants.

26 WOMEN IN THE WORK FORCE Opportunities for women increased especially in the cities By 1900, one out of five women worked The garment trade was popular as was office work, department stores, and classrooms

27 Colleges like Vassar and Smith allowed women to excel
WOMEN LEAD REFORM Many of the leading progressive reformers were women Middle and upper class women also entered the public sphere as reformers Many of these women had graduated from new women’s colleges Colleges like Vassar and Smith allowed women to excel

28 WOMEN AND REFORM Women reformers strove to improve conditions at work and home In 1896, black women formed the National Association of Colored Women (NACW) Suffrage was another important issue for women

29 THREE-PART STRATEGY FOR WINNING SUFFRAGE
Suffragists tried three approaches to winning the vote: 1) Convince state legislatures to adopt vote (Succeeded in Wyoming, Utah, Idaho, Colorado) 2) Pursue court cases to test 14th Amendment 3) Push for national constitutional Amendment

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32 Jane addams Jane Addams is remembered primarily as a founder of the Settlement House Movement. She and her friend Ellen Starr founded Hull House in the slums of Chicago in She is also remembered as the first American Woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize.

33 Hull House A nursery at Hull House Hull House, located on Chicago’s
west side helped thousands of immigrants and poor live decent lives.

34 TEDDY ROOSEVELT’S SQUARE DEAL
When President William McKinley was assassinated 6 months into his second term, Theodore Roosevelt became the nation’s 26th president. He promised a “square deal” for all Americans. McKinley was assassinated by an anarchist in Buffalo in September of 1901

35 THE MODERN PRESIDENT When Roosevelt was thrust into the presidency in 1901, he became the youngest president ever at age 42. He quickly established himself as a modern president who could influence the media and shape legislation.

36 ROOSEVELT AND THE ROUGH RIDERS
Roosevelt grabbed national attention by advocating war with Spain in 1898 His volunteer cavalry brigade, the Rough Riders, won public acclaim for its role in the battle at San Juan Hill in Cuba Roosevelt returned a hero and was soon elected governor of NY and later McKinley’s vice-president

37 Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders

38 1902 COAL STRIKE In ,000 coal miners in Pennsylvania went on strike for increased wages, a 9-hour work day, and the right to unionize Mine owners refused to bargain Roosevelt called in both sides and settled the dispute Thereafter, when a strike threatened public welfare, the federal government was expected to step in and help

39 Muckrakers & Bosses 10. Muckrakers were journalists who exposed the waste and greed of the modern United States. 11. Their investigations began in the slums and led upward to urban political bosses who took bribes for city construction contracts or awarded them to their friends.

40 Famous muckrakers Upton Sinclair wrote the book The Jungle, exposing the underbelly of the Meatpacking industry of early 1900’s America. This book led to the Passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. Ida Tarbell published The Rise of the Standard Oil Company in 1902, providing insight into the manipulation of trusts.

41 Election of 1904 In the election of 1904, Theodore Roosevelt promised the American people that he never run for re-election again. That was a promise he would regret in 1912.

42 Political Bosses 12. Bosses also provided valuable services to immigrants. In turn, the immigrant was expected to vote for the boss and his party. 13. Progressives attempted to limit the power of bosses but failed to oust them; however, it did lead to laws about how elections should be handled. The secret ballot was introduced to keep bosses from knowing who voted for them. 14. Voter registration laws prevented bosses from stuffing ballot boxes with invented names or paying people to vote multiple times. New laws required cities to award police, fire, and teaching jobs according to merit.

43 Political Bosses A person who wields the power over a particular political region or constituency May dictate voting patterns May dictate appointments Wield influence over the region May not hold political office

44 TRUSTBUSTING By 1900, Trusts – legal bodies created to hold stock in many companies – controlled 80% of U.S. industries Roosevelt filed 44 antitrust suits under the Sherman Antitrust Act

45 Fighting the Trusts 15. A trust is a large business working in one sector of the economy. People wanted to bust trusts because they were causing prices to go up. Examples of Trusts Standard Oil Company (95% of oil industry) American Sugar Refining Company (98% of sugar industry Northern Securities Company (Railroad company) A trust is a legal body that has stock in many companies, often in 1 industry

46 Workman’s compensation
17. Another progressive reform for workers was Workers’ Compensation to help workers who were injured on the job. Workman’s Comp helps people who have been hurt while on the job.

47 The Jungle 16. Upton Sinclair’s novel, The Jungle, exposed the gruesome filth in the meat-packing industry in the United States.

48 THE JUNGLE LEADS TO FOOD REGULATION
After reading The Jungle by Upton Sinclair, Roosevelt pushed for passage of the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 The Act mandated cleaner conditions for meatpacking plants

49 Meat Inspection Act 18. President Roosevelt backed two important reform bills in The Meat Inspection Act which required refrigeration and other health precautions in the meat industry and the Pure Food and Drug Act which banned false labeling on packages. After President Theodore Roosevelt read Upton Sinclair’s Book The Jungle, he immediately began legislation to regulate and purify America’s food supply.

50 PURE FOOD AND DRUG ACT In response to unregulated claims and unhealthy products, Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906 The Act halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines and called for truth in labeling The Pure Food and Drug Act took medicines with cocaine and other harmful ingredients off the market

51 Roosevelt, the conservationist
19. Roosevelt also added more than 100 million acres to the national forest system.

52 ROOSEVELT AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Before Roosevelt’s presidency, the federal government paid very little attention to the nation’s natural resources Roosevelt made conservation a primary concern of his administration Roosevelt, left, was an avid outdoorsman – here he is with author John Muir at Yosemite Park

53 ROOSEVELT’S ENVIROMENTAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Roosevelt set aside 148 million acres of forest reserves He also set aside 1.5 million acres of water- power sites and he established 50 wildlife sanctuaries and several national parks Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

54 The Grand Canyon The Petrified Forest in Arizona

55 Yellowstone National Park
Sequoia National Park

56 Roosevelt National Park, ND

57 Pelican Island, FL

58 First Wildlife Refuge in U.S.
Pelican Island, FL

59 Roosevelt and Wilson 20. Roosevelt’s handpicked successor to the White House, William Howard Taft broke up more trusts than Roosevelt.

60 William Howard Taft (1909-13)
Taft busted up more trusts than Roosevelt, but he failed to carry out all of Roosevelt’s progressive policies which created a rift between the two once good friends. As a result, Roosevelt went back on his promise to never run for President again. He made that pledge to the American people when he ran for his own term of office in 1904. Taft is the only President who later became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

61 PROGRESSIVISM UNDER PRESIDENT TAFT
Republican William Howard Taft easily defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan to win the 1908 presidential election Among his accomplishments, Taft “busted” 90 trusts during his 4 years in office Taft, right, was Roosevelt’s War Secretary

62 Taft and His tub Taft once got stuck in the White House bathtub and had to have a specially made tub. It was large enough for 4 men to sit in it.

63 Taft’s Bathtub A Replica of the Taft Bathtub

64 Taft called the Presidency, “The lonesomest job in the world”
TAFT LOSES POWER 21. Roosevelt felt betrayed by Taft when he failed to support certain progressive programs, resulting in Roosevelt’s decision to recapture the White House in Roosevelt ran under the Progressive Party. Taft was not popular with the American public nor reform minded Republicans. By 1910, Democrats had regained control of the House of Representatives. Taft called the Presidency, “The lonesomest job in the world”

65 1912 ELECTION Republicans split in between Taft and Teddy Roosevelt (who returned after a long trip to Africa) Convention delegates nominated Taft Some Republicans formed a third party – The Bull Moose Party and nominated Roosevelt The Democrats put forward a reform - minded New Jersey Governor, Woodrow Wilson Republicans split in 1912

66 Election of 1912 22. Although it was a three person race for the 1912 election, the real race was between Theodore Roosevelt and the Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson. 23. Wilson promised to free the nation of trusts and bring back the nation of small businesses. Woodrow Theodore Wm. Howard Wilson Roosevelt Taft

67 Woodrow Wilson ( ) Set up a federal banking system through the Federal Reserve Act Passed the Clayton Anti- Trust Act to reign in big business Set up Federal Trade Commission to stop unfair trade practices Was President when the 16 Amendment place an income tax on Americans Led the United States through World War I

68 WILSON’S NEW FREEDOM As America’s newly elected president, Wilson moved to enact his program, the “New Freedom” He planned his attack on what he called the triple wall of privilege: trusts, tariffs, and high finance W. Wilson U.S. President

69 Freedom? Whose Freedom? 24. Wilson ordered the segregation of black Americans in federal buildings. Many historians consider Wilson a racist He put segregationist white southerners in charge of many executive departments He reduced the number of African-American appointees to political positions He segregated Federal buildings He imposed full segregation in the nation’s capital

70 Violence continues 25. Between , more Americans were lynched in the US than were legally executed, most of whom were black. The Tuskegee Institute has recorded 3,446 blacks and 1,297 whites were lynched between 1882 and 1968.

71 Washington and dubois 26. Two black Americans, Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois, viewed America’s race problem in different ways: Washington, President of Tuskegee Institute, believed that blacks should develop vocational skills. Du Bois demanded immediate and equal rights for African Americans in schools, housing, and employment.

72 Booker T. Washington He was the dominant leader in the African-American community in the United States from 1890 to 1915 He was born into slavery and not highly educated In 1881 he became the first leader of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama which was a school for African-Americans to learn different trades Washington believed if black people could learn a trade or a skill that they could live peacefully in mostly segregated America

73 W.E.B. Dubois Graduated from Harvard where he was the first African-American to earn a doctorate He became a professor of history, sociology, and economics at Atlanta University He founded the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) Fought for full equal rights for blacks

74 NAACP FORMED TO PROMOTE RIGHTS
In 1909 a number of African Americans and prominent white reformers formed the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People The NAACP had 6,000 members by 1914 The goal of the organization was full equality among the races The means to achieve this was the court system 1964 Application

75 Socialism in America 27. Socialists believed that American workers not their bosses should own the nation’s industries. 28. Law enforcement authorities tried to silence the Socialists by jailing them. 29. Socialist Presidential candidate Eugene V. Debs was jailed and sentenced to prison for opposing the draft during World War I.

76 What is socialism? A socialist economic system consists of a system of production and distribution organized to directly satisfy economic demands and human needs, so that goods and services would be produced directly for use instead of for private profit driven by the accumulation of capital Socialism calls for public ownership of all major industries such as manufacturing, banking, energy companies, media services, transportation services, and medical services It tries to take power from those who hold the wealth of a country

77 Women suffragists 30. Suffragists were women who worked for women’s right to vote. The 19th Amendment to the Constitution outlawed denying the right to vote based on gender. Passed in 1920, women finally achieved a precious right that had been denied for a long time.


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