The American Pageant Chapter 29 Wilsonian Progressivism at Home and Abroad
The “Bull Moose” Campaign of 1912 Democrats choose Dr. Woodrow Wilson militant progressive had been the president of Princeton University governor of New Jersey (where he didn’t permit himself to be controlled by the bosses) attacked trusts passed liberal measures.
The Republican Party & President William H. Taft
Keep the Whistle Blowin g Taft was determined to defeat TR and preserve the conservative heart of the Republican Party.
Come, Mr. President. You Can’t Have the Stage ALL of the Time!
Republican Party Platform High import tariffs. Put limitations on female and child labor. Workman’s Compensation Laws. Against initiative, referendum, and recall. Against “bad” trusts. Creation of a Federal Trade Commission. Stay on the gold standard. Conservation of natural resources because they are finite.
The Progressive Party & Former President Theodore Roosevelt People should rise above their sectarian interests to promote the general good.
Theodore Roosevelt at Osawatomie, KS: New Nationalism Big business requires big government.
The “Bull Moose” Party: The Latest Arrival at the Political Zoo We stand at Armageddon, and we battle for the Lord! ONWARD, CHRISTIAN SOLDIERS!
Progressive Party Platform Women’s suffrage. Graduated income tax. Inheritance tax for the rich. Lower tariffs. Limits on campaign spending. Currency reform. Minimum wage laws. Social insurance. Abolition of child labor. Workmen’s compensation. NewNationalismNewNationalismNewNationalismNewNationalism
The Socialist Party & Eugene V. Debs The issue is Socialism versus Capitalism. I am for Socialism because I am for humanity.
“The Working Class Candidates” Eugene V. Debs Emil Seigel for President for Vice-President
Socialist Party Platform Government ownership of railroads and utilities. Guaranteed income tax. No tariffs. 8-hour work day. Better housing. Government inspection of factories. Women’s suffrage.
The Democratic Party & Governor Woodrow Wilson (NJ) Could he rescue the Democratic Party from “Bryanism”??
The Democratic ticket would run under a platform called New Freedom reduction of the tariff on imported goods reform of the inept national banking system strengthening of the Sherman Act to combat trusts favored small enterprise desired to break up all trusts—not just the bad ones—and basically shunned social-welfare proposals. The “Bull Moose” Campaign of 1912
Progressive convention, Jane Addams put Theodore Roosevelt’s name on the nomination got the Progressive nomination entering the campaign, TR said that he felt “as strong as a bull moose,” = the unofficial Progressive symbol Republican William Taft & TR tore into each other former friends now ripped every aspect of each other’s platforms & personalities. The “Bull Moose” Campaign of 1912
New Nationalism Theodore Roosevelt's progressive platform in the election of 1912; building on his presidential "square deal" stated that the government should control the bad trusts, leaving the good trusts alone & free to operate TR also campaigned for female suffrage a broad program of social welfare, such as minimum-wage laws & “socialistic” social insurance.
Campaigning stopped when Roosevelt was shot in the chest in Milwaukee but he delivered his speech anyway was rushed to the hospital recovered in two weeks. The “Bull Moose” Campaign of 1912
Woodrow Wilson: A Minority President Republicans split Woodrow Wilson easily won with 435 Electoral votes TR had 88 Taft only had 8 Democrats did not receive the majority of the popular vote (only 41%)! Socialist Eugene V. Debs earned 900,000+ popular votes combined popular totals of TR & Taft exceeded Wilson. TR’s participation had cost the Republicans the election William Taft would later become the only U.S. president to be appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, when he was nominated in 1921.
Election Results By 1912, 100,000 fewer people had voted for Wilson than had voted for Bryan in 1908. The 1912 election marked the apogee of the Socialist movement in America.
Wilson: The Idealist in Politics Woodrow Wilson = a sympathizer w/ the South fine orator a sincere and morally appealing politician a very intelligent man. cold personality-wise, austere, intolerant of stupidity very idealistic.
Wilson Tackles the Tariff Wilson stepped into the presidency ready to tackle the “triple wall of privilege”: the tariff, the banks, & the trusts. Tackling the tariff: the Underwood Tariff of 1913 Wilson successfully helped in the passing of the Underwood Tariff of 1913 substantially reduced import fees 16th AmendmentWilson worked to enact a graduated income tax (under the approval of the recent 16th Amendment).
Background: nation’s financial structure, as created under the Civil War National Banking Act had proven to be glaringly ineffective, as shown by the Panic of 1907 Wilson had Congress authorize an investigation to fix this Wilson Battles the Bankers
June 1913: Wilson appeared before a special joint session of pleaded for a sweeping reform of the banking system 1913 Federal Reserve Act Result=the 1913 Federal Reserve Act Created the new Federal Reserve Board –oversaw a nationwide system of 12 regional reserve districts, each with its own central bank »had the power to issue paper money (“Federal Reserve Notes”) Wilson Battles the Bankers
The President Tames the Trusts Federal Trade Commission Act1914, Congress passed the Federal Trade Commission Act empowered a president-appointed position to investigate the activities of trusts Could stop unfair trade practices such as: –unlawful competition –false advertising –Mislabeling –Adulteration –bribery
Clayton Anti-Trust Act1914 Clayton Anti-Trust Act lengthened the Sherman Anti-Trust Act’s list of practices that were objectionable exempted labor unions from being called trusts (as they had been called by the Supreme Court under the Sherman Act) legalized strikes & peaceful picketing by labor union members. The President Tames the Trusts
Wilsonian Progressivism at High Tide Adamson ActThe 1916 Adamson Act established an eight-hour workday with overtime pay
New Directions in Foreign Policy didn’t pursue an aggressive foreign policy: stopped “dollar diplomacy,” persuaded Congress to repeal the Panama Canal Tolls Act of 1912 (which let American shippers not pay tolls for using the canal) even led to American bankers’ pulling out of a 6-nation, Taft-engineered loan to China.
New Directions in Foreign Policy Jones ActWilson signed the Jones Act in 1916, granted full territorial status to the Philippines promised independence as soon as a stable government could be established Filipinos finally got their independence on July 4, 1946.
New Directions in Foreign Policy California banned Japanese ownership of land Wilson sent Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan to plead with legislators, & tensions cooled. Disorder broke out in Haiti in 1915, Wilson sent American Marines in 1916, he sent Marines to quell violence in the Dominican Republic. In 1917, Wilson bought the Virgin Islands from Denmark.
Moralistic Diplomacy in Mexico Background: Mexico had been exploited for decades by U.S. investors in oil railroads Mines Mexican people = tremendously poor and in 1913, they revolted installed full-blooded Indian General Victoriano Huerta to the presidency. led to a massive immigration of Mexicans to America –mostly to the Southwest.
Moralistic Diplomacy in Mexico rebels = very violent & threatened Americans living in Mexico Woodrow Wilson would not intervene to protect American lives would not recognize Huerta’s regime other countries did let American munitions flow to Huerta’s rivals, Venustiano Carranza and Francisco “Pancho” Villa.
Moralistic Diplomacy in Mexico small party of American sailors were arrested in Tampico, Mexico, in 1914, Wilson threatened to use force Ordered navy to take over Vera Cruz Huerta/Carranza protest Finally, the ABC powers Argentina, Brazil, and Chile—mediated the situation Huerta fell from power Carranza now in power –resented Wilson’s acts.
Moralistic Diplomacy in Mexico Meanwhile: “Pancho” Villa, (combination bandit/freedom fighter) murdered 16 Americans in January of 1916 in Mexico Then killed 19 more a month later in New Mexico. Wilson sent General John J. Pershing to capture Villa –He penetrated deep into Mexico, –clashed w/Carranza’s & Villa’s different forces –didn’t take Villa
Thunder Across the Sea In 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand Serbian nationalist killed the Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne (Archduke Franz Ferdinand) domino-effect began –Austria declared war on Serbia –Serbia had been supported by Russia –Russia had declared war on Austria-Hungary –Germany, which declared war on Russia and France »invaded neutral Belgium »pulled Britain into the war & igniting WWI Americans were thankful that the Atlantic Ocean separated the warring Europeans from the U.S.
A Precarious Neutrality Wilson wife recently died issued a neutrality proclamation was wooed by both the Allies & the German & Austro-Hungarian powers. Germans & Austro-Hungarians counted on their relatives in America for support U.S. = mostly anti-German from the outset Kaiser Wilhem II made for a perfect autocrat to hate.
A Precarious Neutrality German & Austro-Hungarian agents in America further tarnished the Central Powers’ image they resorted to violence in American factories & ports when one agent left his briefcase in a New York elevator the contents of which were found to contain plans for sabotage
America Earns Blood Money Background: Just as WWI began, America was in a business recession American trade was fiercely protested by the Central Powers technically Central Powers were free to trade with the U.S., but were prohibited from doing so by the British navy –controlled the sea lanes. The Allies & Wall Street’s financing of the war by J.P. Morgan et al, pulled the U.S. out of the recession
Conflict on the High Seas British imposed a naval blockade: So? prevented neutral nations, including the U.S., from trading with Germany & its Allies And? created a trade imbalance bringing the U.S. to closer economic ties with the Allies Trade imbalance Trade w/ GB and FR grew from $824 million in 1914 to $3.2 billion in 1916 By 1917, American banks had lent the Allies $2.5 billion Germany trade and loans totaled only $29 million and $27 million respectively Therefore our trade interests were bringing us to the Allied side
America Earns Blood Money UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE: Germany announced its use of submarine warfare around the British Isles warning the U.S. that it would try not to attack neutral ships Said that mistakes would probably occur Wilson thus warned that Germany would be held to “strict accountability” for any attacks on American ships.
America Earns Blood Money LusitaniaSinking of the Lusitania German subs, or U-boats, sank many ships Sank the Lusitania a British passenger liner that was carrying arms & munitions as well attack killed 1,198 lives, including 128 Americans. Germans had issued fliers prior to the Lusitania setting sail that warned Americans the ship might be torpedoed.
America Earns Blood Money Many Americans wanted to go to war after the Lusitania Wilson kept the U.S. out of it by use of a series of strong notes to the German warlords William Jennings Bryan (Sec. of State), resigned rather than go to war. Germans sank the Arabic in August 1915 killing 2 Americans and numerous other passengers Germany finally agreed not to sink unarmed ships without warning.
America Earns Blood Money “Sussex pledge,” Germany agreed not to sink passenger ships or merchant vessels without warning, so long as the U.S. could get the British to stop their blockade Wilson couldn’t do this, so his victory was a precarious one.
Wilson Wins Reelection in 1916 Election of 1916 Republicans chose Charles Evans Hughes made different pledges and said different things depending on where he was, leading to his being nicknamed “Charles Evasive Hughes.” Democratic = Wilson went under the slogan “He kept us out of war,” warned that electing Hughes would be leading America into World War I Ironically, Wilson would lead America into war in 1917.